Virtual Verduria

A Thematic Dictionary of Verdurian

Contents

ABSTRACTIONS
Abstract states Time Events Effort Space
Extent Weights & measures Contents Shape and form Color
Physical actions Movement Transfer
NATURE
Nature Weather Substances Water The life process
Animals Plants The body Sensory experience Health
Food Clothes
THE SOUL
Leria (Understanding) Razum (Mind) Itian (Spirit) Hum (Passions)
Ideas Valuation Temperament
SOCIETY
Society Social interaction Morality Sin Conflict
War Love and marriage Family Sex Government
Nationalities Law Money Trade Craft
City Furniture Utensils Weapons Rural life
Houses
CULTURE
Science Religion Magic Art and culture
Speech Writing Language Adverbs
Conjugations Interjections Quantifiers
Modern earthly terms

Introduction

This work is a thematic dictionary of the Verdurian language; that is, an arrangement of all the words in the language by subject. As such it has several uses:
  • as a vocabulary builder for the student
  • as a thesaurus or quick reference for writing Verdurian
  • for the linguist, as a depiction of the structure of the language
  • for conlangers, as a model for systematic lexicon building, without major gaps

    There is much insight to be gained here into the Verdurian mind; not only from the distinctions of meaning available in the language, but in the classifications to be found in various semantic fields, from animal names to genres of writing. Explanations are provided where they may prove helpful, especially when some background explanation can illuminate a whole sequence of related words (see for instance the notes on the soul, and on types of physical substances).

    The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, that linguistic categories determine thought, is out of favor; but only the strong form need be rejected. There should be no doubt that the categories and concepts of language influence thought, and that the words, metaphors, and semantic fields of a language are a treasure-trove of cultural information.

    Like any treasury, of course, it contains fakes and antiques. Often the information encoded is out of date and no longer believed. But even this is interesting; it not only tells us something about the history of the culture, but about what traditional formulations and ancestral conceptions the modern user of the language must struggle against.

    Every attempt has been made to achieve accuracy; but conciseness has been preferred to completeness. Glosses are sufficient to identify the sense and distinguish it from closely related words, and no more. In most cases fuller explanations of meanings can be found in the Verdurian-English Dictionary, which should also be consulted for grammatical, stylistic, and etymological information.

    Information more readily found or better explained elsewhere in the Research Series is not duplicated here. For instance, numbers, pronouns, prepositions, and affixes are already collected and explicated in the Grammar; geographical names are better read from the Gazeteer; historical names from the Historical Atlas; given names in the monograph on Verdurian Names; names of Cadhinorian gods from the material on Almean religion in Almean Belief Systems. The latter monograph is also the first place to look for further consideration of Verdurian thought and culture in general.

    To save space, only one (usually the shortest) of a set of morphologically related words (e.g. gromne 'threatening', gromnec 'threaten', gromnát 'threat') are listed, unless the derivations could not be readily found in the Dictionary (e.g. büt 'goal', agbüte 'useless'). Predictable derivations with rho-, sam-, im-, oti- are not included. For the same reason names of professions are not listed, if they are derived transparently from a listed term (e.g. fäbát 'painting' --> fäbom 'painter'). Learners are advised, however, not to try to invent words this way; the derivations aren't always regular.

    Words appear in multiple sections where they either have multiple senses, or direct relevance to multiple categories.

    Metaphorical usages (e.g attróuen 'reach' for 'convince'; cipan 'boil' for 'be angry') are generally not cross-referenced, unless they have become so well-established that the metaphoricity has been lost (e.g. imlelen 'make to appear' --> 'publish'; melürec 'go from flower to flower, pollinate' --> 'shop'). The danger that the semantic resources of the language are thus understated must be offset against the considerable savings of space, and the predictability of such expressions.

    Some colloquialisms have been included, when they seem not to be ephemeral; e.g. subu 'idiot' has been current for at least fifty years, pasetir in the sense of 'sleep with' for at least a century; and brurho 'belly' and gara 'breast' date back to Old Verdurian. The corollary, however, is that ephemeral slang, no matter how popular or amusing (cf. the early 34th century samelréë 'queenless' = 'out of control'), is not included.

    Generally, each paragraph's worth of Verdurian words forms one semantic field. Where a superordinate term (e.g. 'fruit' for 'lemon', 'banana', 'orange') exists, it is listed first within the paragraph, separated from its subordinates by a slash (/). The same convention is used to indicate the unmarked nominalization referring to a graded category (e.g. 'heat' for 'cold, cool, warm, hot'). In either case a second slash sets off more remotely connected terms.

    Fourth edition, January 2002
    © 1997-98, 2002 by Mark Rosenfelder


    1. ABSTRACT STATES

    [Contents]
    Existence. dembir - exist; esan - be; esea - presence, icë - present

    Nonexistence. rhodembul - nonexistent; rhoicë - absent

    Coming to be. dësan - come into being / imlelen - appear

    Seeming: 26. Leria (Understanding)

    Ceasing to be. ishshalean - vanish, cease to exist / islelen - disappear

    Creation. creir - create; indësan - call into being; fassec - do, make; leprosan - invent

    Manufacture: 47. Craft

    Destruction. imnishan - annihilate; mautruir - destroy

    Source. perzhano - source (place of origin); iseléaku - source material, raw material; rhizo - root, base; pol - basis, ground

    Change. dheltan - change / adesan - become, change one's nature; ocan - get, become, change one's state; ulechen - evolve, develop; chichaumec - vary; mesmere - substitute

    Lack of change. ilavren - stay, remain in stasis; leberhaner - maintain

    Need. butosheo - need / fayir - be necessary; imfayir - logically require; luchen - miss, regret the lack; mancan - lack; siloran - need; toshen - suffice, satisfy; trometul - superfluous; zamancan - run out

    Relation. meas - relation; celise - mutual; cellëc - connection; celmeas - intercourse

    State. shircaora - condition; ocát - state, status; ilavri - stasis

    Type. kest - kind, type, species; surkest - class, category (conceptually broader than a kest)

    Nature. hecu - nature, character; ftacon - essence, inner nature; cöne - basic; onoterul - attribute, property, incidental nature; silireca - tendency

    Systems. antau - system

    2. TIME

    [Contents]
    Overall. didha - time / fäce - past; lanac - present; zhanme - future

    1 hour or less. hora - hour; megua - period (6 min.); piya - moment (3 sec); piyula - instant

    Day. dën - day / solial - sunrise, dawn; utro - morning; eldën - noon; proseo - midday break; shueza, plendën - afternoon; crefu - dusk; crefuselta - twilight; zakát - sunset; vëcher - evening; nochy - night; elnochy - midnight / tutan - daily

    Today. vetra - yesterday; eludëno - today; zaftra - tomorrow

    Week. hepdën - week; chilepdëne - weekly / days of week: scúreden, shirden, fidren, calten, zëden, néronden (market day), cedhnare (sabbath)

    Month. iliazhyosh - month; chiliazhëe - monthly / spring: olashu, reli, cuéndimar; summer: vlerëi, calo, recoltë; fall: yag, zhelea, ishire; winter: shoru, frodhac, beshana

    Season. zontor - season; zontorise - seasonal / demecha - spring; esta - summer; peleti - autumn; iveri - winter

    Year. zon - year / zondre - yearly; zon kastenei - leap-year; kasten - leap-day; cäma - holiday

    Century. scadhora - century

    Epoch. ciy - epoch, age; ül - ancient, classical; shoruan - medieval; tëdene - modern

    Eternity. chiam - forever, eternity; prochiame - everlasting; rhezy - eternal; sankeshe - endless

    Use of time. cairo - opportunity, chance; fuáy - repetition, instance; horora - timetable; tibec - rush; horteleo - clock

    Earliness. tardeca - lateness / frue - early; cairete - timely; tarde - late; mora - delay; sitre - immediate, sudden

    Length. lengát - length / lenge - long; breve - short; didha - time interval; fuáyul - a while, a short time; lengul - phase

    Novelty. lebesa - newness / lebe - new; bome - old; sfëz - fresh; pronunete - temporary; rhopronunete - permanent

    Age: 18. The life process

    Adverbs of time: 61. Adverbs

    Days of week, months of year: see the Grammar

    For the civil and religious calendar, see The Kingdom of Verduria

    3. EVENTS

    [Contents]
    Event. zhano - event, occurence; mev - action

    Occurence. zhanen - occur, happen / sylelen - allow to happen; bozhan - fare; zasatel - project; cozhano - coincidence

    Cause. shesan - cause (+ verb, noun)/ faitan - render, make (+ adj); celftenen - arrange

    Effect. subrel - effect / imsuvan - affect; imprenan - concern, affect, embroil; imfayir - entail, lead inexorably to

    Possibility. otinimashát - probability / rhoeshshane - impossible; rhovizhiäm - unlikely; eshshane - possible; otinimashe - probable; vizhul - to be expected; sënul - certain / ulasen - may, might

    Chance. bosa - fortune, chance, luck; malbosa - bad luck; abzhanka - accident; malbundrul - habitually unlucky person; adhtävel - disaster; sangaënát - relief; reprieve

    Begin. debút - beginning, debutan - begin (+ noun); imocan - start (+ verb)

    Continue. dénuir - continue, persist

    End. keshen - stop (+ noun); deshen - stop, quit (+ verb); teplenát - completion; urokeshen - finish (emphasis on process of finishing; often no complement); desüen - prevent

    Repetition. onfassec - repeat; ombezhir - resume; fuáy - repetition; cedel - habit

    Frequency. chustát - frequency / macrete - rare; rhochuste - infrequent; chuste - frequent; pacpace - regular; sanceloshe - constant; celoshshe - intermittent

    4. EFFORT

    [Contents]
    Capacity. epan - be able to; cumepesa - capacity, power; fähe - capable / rhosmeric - incompetent

    Purpose. büt - goal, target; zhuca - function, role; ftena - plan; otibruhe - useful; rhozadete - pointless; agbüte - useless

    Energy. dunea - energy; benda - work, power; pegeo - force

    Effort. razheni - effort / eseyer - try, attempt; surdosen - take on, shoulder

    Efficiency. probenda - efficiency / probendre - efficient; malbendre - inefficient

    Difficulty. fasil - easy; rhofasil - difficult; lonyolë - challenge; sadëzhea - stress

    Danger. väreca - danger / muyo - peril; cisci - risk; shustanë - deadly, fatal, dangerous

    Ordeal. rocura - adventure; adferien - bear, stand; lanca - trials, tribulation; lür - woe; tralirec - endure, outlast

    Safety. zhore - safe, secure

    Compulsion. copuyan - force; shesan - make to do, make to be

    Trial. sënan - test, try, verify

    Success. abbosan - succeed; imprilen - accomplish; trastoshen - excel, outdo

    Failure. eshuir - fail

    5. SPACE

    [Contents]
    Space. redhunát - space, extent; celosh - gap, interval

    Location. pouzhe - location; chel - place; el - center; dör - outside

    Verbs. zet tróuen be situated / barucir - lie, rest on; istrichec - protrude; mluzhir - loom, lurk; raspuyan - incline; redhunen - extend

    Sides. cot - side / cos - left; dezh - right; fasad - front; dos - back; finta - top; fond - bottom; goly - face; surcot - top surface; syuer - outside surface; uer - outsides; kraita - insides

    Directions. num - direction / er - south; tel - west; nan - north; sar - east

    Relative height. altát - height / alte - high; base - low

    Distance. retdimo - distance / pak - near; ret - far

    Alignment. rhodedhëse - vertical; dhëse - horizontal; dedhëse - oblique; colënise - parallel; rhekise - perpendicular

    Measurement: 7. Weights and measures

    6. EXTENT

    [Contents]
    As in English, the unmarked term is the larger on the scale: you ask, "How wide is it?", not "How narrow is it?"

    Size. dhol - size / bolyáshe - big; pidhë, pav - little; bombril - immense; mäzun - giant

    Length. glinát - length / gliny - long; breve - short

    Thickness. epesát - thickness / epese - thick; macre - thin

    Width. larzhát - width / larzhe - wide; tesny - narrow

    Depth. potát - depth / pote - deep; müguy - profound; erme - shallow

    Height. hautát - height / haute - tall; breve - short

    Area. redhunát - area / noróum - vast; cuda-dos - cramped / pote - square

    Volume. dholdimo - volume; dholdimei - cubic

    Extent. redhunát - extent; imretan, redhunen - extend

    Amount. dimo - sum, amount; hicet - number / bolë - much; pav - little

    Measurement of. merir - measure; podimo - rate; mecredimo - ratio; sybütë - accurate

    Change in. mudhen - increase; muanen - reduce

    Value terms. dimshuten - exceed; gimen - abound; toshte - sufficient, satisfactory; mancan - lack; siblir - fall short; bumushë - scarcity

    Weight. pezy - weight / seshue - heavy; zhole - light / pezer - weigh

    Solidity. chuzhát - rigidity / chuezhe - rigid; fëre - solid; terheme - firm, solid; dede - shaky; mense - loose; zetauve - flexible

    Strength. zol - strength / zol - strong; cishitë - weak

    See also 64. Quantifiers

    7. WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

    [Contents]
    The following measures comprise the Dalui Verdúrii (Royal Verdurian) standard, for key units of which physical prototypes are maintained by the Ministry of Commerce. Foreign, provincial, rare, and guild measures are not listed.

    Many of these measures are still, especially in the country, used quite informally: a carpenter used his own hand as a mano; an innkeeper calls the size of flagon he happens to own a dhuro. In the cities, governments have long attempted to enforce local standards; not only is contention reduced, but a lucrative source of fees and fines is generated.
    Linear
    eda width of a scroll pen .351 cm .14 in
    mano width of a hand 24 edî 8.42 cm 3.3 in
    chima length of a man's stride 9 manoi .758 m 2.5 ft
    proma a unit used in racing, navigation, etc. 2 chimî 1.516 m 5.0 ft
    cemisa a thousand paces 1000 chimî 758 m .47 mi
    dhënshadu one day's ride by horse 60 cemisî 45.48 km 28 mi
    Area
    barhura used to measure cloth, rooms, etc. 1 chima potë .575 m2 6.2 ft2
    mechi used to measure land 1.136 ha 2.8 acres
    Volume
    mika 1/4 teaspoon 1/2 miy 3.358 ml 0.7 tsp
    miy spoonful 6.716 ml 1.4 tsp
    verae liqueur glass 12 miî 80.6 ml 2.7 oz
    dhuro flagon 5 veraî .403 l 14 oz
    lazhna wine-bottle 10 veraî .806 l .21 gal
    gemár pitcher 10 dhuroi 4.03 l 1.1 gal
    luco bushel 9 gemárî 36.27 l 9.9 gal
    bechka barrel 4 lucoi 145.1 l 38 gal
    Weight
    ris the weight of a grain 60.71 mg .94 grain
    hecur two sheets of paper 100 risî 6.071 g .21 oz
    süro a standard cut of cheese 100 hecurî .6071 kg 1.3 lb
    cucuri for weighing men and animals 10 süroi 6.071 kg 13 lb
    pavona cartload 288 cucurî 1750 kg 1.9 ton

    8. CONTENTS

    [Contents]
    Object. lazhel - object, item; shoz - thing

    Contents. curulora - contents; curec - contain

    Fullness. plen - fullness / plene - full; shazhy - empty; boczhene - crowded; sanzhene - vacant

    Components. tor - part / cäsel - piece, scrap; caucel - bit, small piece; inteno - ingredient, element; mutai - division; torom - member, component (emphasis on subsidiary status); tranel - segment, division; tusel - splinter; zhusë - member (emphasis on unique role) / intoran - divide

    Containers. bechka - barrel; beza - bucket; cleura - cage; dosmishu - backpack, knapsack; dhash - pocket; fako - box; grimosh - drawer; mishek - sack, bag, pack; mishu - large sack or bag; sista - chest, trunk; uzhal - jar; vlagishe - sheath; yonora - basket / isfarhimen - let loose

    Food containers: 51. Utensils

    Vehicles: 12. Movement

    Pile. oshora - pile; tabo - lump; tesha - mess, pile

    Sets. ora - collection, group; ptoc - member

    Open and close. uvir - open; cüzir - close; beran - lock; deberan - unlock

    Fill. immishen - pack; faitan plene - fill; farsir - stuff; poshosh - padding

    9. SHAPE AND FORM

    [Contents]
    Form. eidolo - form, outline, shape; gaiec - form

    Edges. bordë - rim; cas - corner; cot - side; rhay - edge, limit, brim; bukrare - infinite

    Shape. bulse - round; cardhise - curved; doly - hollow; istrichec - protuberant; dhëse - flat; tabose - lumpy; imlëne - straight; lukul - bent

    Plane figures. tiel - point; lën - line; rhek - cross; car - square; caro - diamond; dhincota - triangle; laun - circle; anelo - ring; cardha - curve

    Solid figures. boc - cube; brub - block; dhezgorat - pyramid; pula - sphere; muatëpula - dome

    Point-like. pilke - ball; chuca - spot, mark; nozu - knot; tabo - lump

    Line-like. alb - beam; bastón - stick, pole; belaca - rod; fil - thread, wire; string; glindrel - cord, small rope, belt; prosh - staff; proshásh - pole; punyo - stick; rozhek - peg; rhoca - hook; terhua - post, stake

    Band-like. bres - band, strip; bresul - ribbon; cëmura - column; hizhena - row

    Plane-like. fëon - platform; nivo - level; stage

    Covering. shecu - hulk; chesha - shell, skin; surosh - cover; bushosh - stopper

    Defects. punsa - flaw / bos - wrinkle; chira - crack; bruge - twisty; kud - hole; luka - bend; chunanul - stain; roful - groove

    Links. lëc - link; gechë - net, web; tsep - chain

    10. COLOR

    [Contents]
    The Cadhinorian basic color terms were MELANKES 'black', FALILES 'white', RUGITES 'red', FLAVES 'yellow', VEREDES 'green', and ADURES 'blue'-- a nice six-term Berlin and Kay system. Verdurian has added five more basic color terms (pink, orange, brown, purple, and grey), and has some derived terms as well.

    Although Verdurian scientists have discovered the spectrum (onoale), they have not yet realized that all colors can be described as combinatons of hue, saturation, and luminosity. They still speak of colors on and off the spectrum, and of the darkness (fuzhulát) of colors (which may refer to either saturation or luminosity).

    Hue. orale - color, hue / mushorale - polychromatic

    Saturation. fuzhulát - darkness, density of color / fuzhul - dark; faliöl - light / defucan - fade

    Spectrum colors. onoalei - on-spectrum / ruzhe - red; narnë - orange; flave - yellow; verde - green; azure - blue; tire - purple

    Other colors. is onoalen - off-spectrum / fale - white; grise - gray; mlake - black; rhase - rose, pink; brune - brown; brunsus - umber; verdúran - deep green

    Skin colors: The following table gives terms typically used for skin color and the Almean and (as closely as possible) terrestrial peoples who typically have that color. Note that religion, not skin color, is the typical basis of prejudice on Almea.

    brune 'brown' Verdurians Arabs, mestizo Hispanics
    gríshshue 'greyish' Dhekhnami, Monkhayu no close equivalent
    rúzhzhue 'reddish' Westerners, Téllinorese Amerindians
    chaise 'tea-colored' southerners, Eluyet Greeks, Italians
    fale 'white' Xurnese, Skourenes Germans, Scandinavians
    fuzhul 'dark' Nanese, Moreo Ashcaian Africans
    azhurshue 'bluish' Uytainese no close equivalent; a dark olive color

    Hair colors. Among Verdurians, hair colors range from a dark brown (yonte 'toast-colored') to black (mlake); or of course fale 'white' in old age. Westerners and southerners are often chasne 'chestnut' or rose 'red-haired', there are also in-between shades like rosbrune 'auburn', roscashne 'maroon'; while many Xurnese and other far-southerners are lenocse 'blond'. Uytainese and Nanese have hair of a glossy black texture, called mlakon 'coal.

    11. PHYSICAL ACTIONS

    [Contents]
    Touch. trogan - touch / cup - blow, punch; trichec - poke; zhalan - rub

    Push. puyan - push / nozhen - squeeze; nozhulen - pinch; geshan - crush

    Hold. curec - hold / dëzhen - tug; griman - pull

    Put. metan - put / imbarucir - lay down, set down, put; immetan - stick; imborden - frame; symetan - juxtapose

    Arrange. imchelan - arrange; imlëdan - straighten, arrange; immezinen - set in order, clean up; acodhir - separate, sequester

    Disarrange. dechelan - displace; delenden - disorder, disarrange, scramble; teshe - disordered, messy; berhe - sloppy; celchelan - switch, replace; ulgash - chaos

    Order. mezinen - set in order; izhlädan - precede; suvan - follow / sazhise - subsequent

    Search. ishan - search; tellen - seek; tróuen - find; ishshelec - lose; pertróuen - discover

    Deform. lukan - bend; dshiren - rip; piser - fold; depiser - unfold; shciir - tear, rip

    Break. brisir - break; cäcian - break off; brisete - fragile

    Cut. tranen - cut / cäcian - chop; detranen - cut off, sever; findan - split

    Pierce. prozen - pierce; shninan - prick

    Dig. imsusan, indolir - dig; impochen - bury / tobban - tunnel

    Wrap. incruyan - wind, coil, wrap; imbresen - wrap, bandage

    Unwrap. ischeshen - peel, shell, strip; issirec - unroll

    Throw. gechir - throw / fezhir - hurl, hurtle; lechir - fling; arhelir - pelt

    Use. bruhan - use / izhmetan - prepare; maubruhan - abuse

    Renew. imleben - renew, renovate

    Copy. plican - copy

    Destroy. mautruir - destroy / gasfir - waste; gashir - ruin

    Mutual relation. bretir - suspend, hang; cumprenan - include; forhan - hang; ferien - bear; raspuyan - lean, incline; situran - surround; traforhan - overhang

    Unite. imanen - unite; abnozir - attach; cometan - join, sew; dechir - bind, restrain; meclir - mix; oligec - tie, fasten, link; surmetan - add; nozu - knot

    Disunite. azhprenan - remove; deuligec - untie, unfasten

    Stick together. glichir - stick together, glue; cruy - tight; mense - loose; glishy - sticky

    12. MOVEMENT

    [Contents]
    General. bezhir - move / baner - venture; prosizan - journey; tësishan - explore; vagir - wander; veturan - travel / otibezhe - movable

    Departure. lädan - go / azhfäsir - forego, leave; defasadir - set out from; delädan - depart; enalir - go away; fäsir - leave, abandon; isuven - go out, leave; fasadir - advance; dosadan - retreat

    Path. evede - course, route; ban - way, passage; berda - path, trail

    Roads: 48. City

    Guidance. proven - guide; numonten - direct, give directions; zet ishshelec - lose one's way

    Arrival. zhanen - come / appakan - approach; adzhanen - arrive; attróuen - reach, attain; voitec - enter, enter into

    Stop. keshen - stop, halt / keshashden - pause; keshnáe - camp

    Lack of movement. nozhuven - stay, remain; hotonen - stay at or with

    Return. onzhanen - return; dosadan - turn back

    Source. perzhano - source, place of origin; usoter - spread

    Destination. bankesha - destination; numontu - address

    Relative motion. prezuir - pass; rhekan - cross; siblir - miss; suvan - follow; azhbezhir - withdraw p>Restraint. urhanel - limitation, restraint

    Pursuit. prosuvan - pursue, chase; atäpan - catch

    Escape. ishisir - escape / isvarëcan - rescue; spasian - save, rescue; derhaner - unleash

    Rotations. orivan - turn / dosadan - turn around; foraven - swing; iripan - turn upside-down; royir - spin; siireo - roll; launiven - rotate; brugiven - twist

    Vibration. fifir - flutter, flap; friser - shake, shudder, tremble; mener - wiggle; dede - shaky

    Speed. ruk - speed / chachë - slow; sfute - quick; rurhy - fast / tibec - rush, hurry; härer - dawdle, slow

    Ascent. irlädan - climb / lialan - rise; sevan, lialuan - raise

    Descent. hiplädan - descend, climb down / tombir - fall, drop; valitan - tumble, be knocked down

    Jumping. soter - jump / tocan - bounce; surpochen - land

    Walking. prosan - walk / cumprosan - parade, march; prosiec - stroll, promenade; prosulan - pace; tomprosan - march; vezhaen - run

    Other types of motion. bedorcan - stumble; clas - swing; crusan - stretch; glisir - slide; nuotan - swim; rappan- crawl; isecaiven - flee; sisir - slip; siturian - circle; trazhen - drag; urulan - slink; yenevan - squirm

    Vehicles. pavona - wagon, car; pavonora - train, caravan; glispava - sled; shadosh - carriage; tracca - cart, wheelbarrow

    Boats. 17. Water

    13. TRANSFER

    [Contents]
    Give. dan - give / childan - distribute; dëker - reciprocate; isuvuan - release, let go; leman - get rid of; metan - put; onmetan - put back / donul - gift; prodoni - grant, gift; prosnucosh - receipt

    Carry. nasitan - carry / accesten - deliver; adezhen - fetch; ametan - bring; deliver; färan - ferry / naschura - burden, freight; nasitel - cargo

    Take. prenan - take / azhprenan - take away; carpuan - snatch; colir - gather, receive; curizec - grasp; deprenan - remove, steal; ingriman - draw, receive; irzovec - win, gain; lazhec - get, acquire, obtain / otitene - available

    Discard. leman - get rid of / azhmetulî - garbage; lemäm - scrap

    Possession. tenec - have

    Ownership: 44. Law

    Give back. ondan - return, replace; onlazhec - regain, get back

    Send for. desider - order; voyir - send; izhdesider - reserve

    14. NATURE

    [Contents]
    For the Cuzeians, the world, the cosmos, was ataigga:r, the place of taiggâ 'life'-- that which Ei:ledan had made, as opposed to the substance of the Deity. The word was sometimes used in this sense in Cadhinor; but the Cadhinorians lacked a strong concept of the world as created. Rather, it was just there, it was what was real, PRIRES: thus PRIRONDA. The modern derivative, priroda, concentrates on what was there before man got hold of it; thus 'nature' as opposed to lelitsala 'art' or ctuzo 'craft'. The term prilora is closer to the Cadhinor sense: what is real, as opposed to fantasy or nonexistence.

    Mezinë describes the world as ordered by the gods, similar to the Greek cosmos, what is arranged. And so Dimo and so Fsë simply conjure up the enormous, miscellaneous collection of things that are.

    Everything. prilora - reality; mezinë - Divine Order; priroda - nature; prirode - natural; so Dimo, so Fsë the Cosmos; naurondise - global, universal

    Verdurians carve up the astronomical phenomena according to strictly visual criteria. Thus points of light are curulî; unless they move, in which case they are dunalálî; objects with a visible disk are called syelaunî. It seems perfectly reasonable to a Verdurian to call a comet a dunalál and to call Ënomai, the sun, a syelaun like the moons.

    For more on Almea's solar system, see The system

    The sky. syel - sky / syele - celestial; altásh - zenith; akaltásh - nadir; kascia - eclipse

    Stars. curulë - star (fixed point of light) / lialan - rise; zaker - set; curulëra - constellation; obela - nebula

    Planets. dunalál - planet (moving point of light) / Hírumor (Kírumor), Ishire, Vlerëi, Caiem - planets; dunalál tshurec - comet; syelchaska - meteor

    Moons. syelaun - moon (moving disk of light) / Ënomai - Almea's sun; Iliazhë, Iliacásh, Naunai - Almea's moons

    Almea. Almea - Almea, the world; hipsyele - earthly

    Ground. pocha - ground, surface of earth; hippocha - underground; sfelunca - cavern; parnahireo - earthquake

    Plains. etald - plain / irenzha - savannah, veldt; sablia - desert; lutuli - meadow

    Forests. silva - forest / güsce - jungle; leusia - marsh; dharimac - wilderness

    Hills and mountains. cima - hill, parna - mountain / kent - plateau; mëriparna - volcano; parnora, rilë - mountain range / cruy - steep

    Valley. dolina - valley / corzhe - canyon; falez - cliff; mügu - abyss; rof - ditch

    Rivers. selë - river / boruna - torrent; fana, yore - stream, brook; fanka - brooklet; gué - ford; meban - channel; suetlen - meander; surselne - riverine; boemo - riverbank; sezuë - spring, source; imchor - confluence; nagana - delta; zolmey - rapids

    Seas. zëi - sea / etani - lake; etama - pond; gerak - strait; shutea - puddle; tas - bay / zëte - marine

    Sea-girdled land. bordë - coast; surbordne - coastal; hundochi - peninsula; müsa - cape; nezi - island; neziora - archipelago; strana - beach

    See also 16. Substances

    15. WEATHER

    [Contents]
    nomelî - weather

    Temperature. calo - heat / froe - cold; anizhe - cool, chilly; toshe - warm; cal - hot / immorzen - freeze

    Conditions. belfassec - be fair; brum - fog; gläca - puddle; grel - hail; füzer - mist; neyzhe - snow; nush - frost; obleme - cloudy; pluy - rain; pluyshel - shower; pluyeshui - drought

    Storms. orazh - storm / ádhorazh - hurricane, tornado; nezhura - snowstorm, blizzard / mólnia - lightning; grom - thunder; onoale - rainbow

    Objects. obika - cloud; dhac - wind; tuli - breeze

    Seasons. zontor - season / demecha - spring; esta - summer; peleti - fall; iveri - winter

    16. SUBSTANCES

    [Contents]
    The Cadhinorians divided the world into seven elements (ftaconî), each of which was associated with a type of intelligent being made from it, and also with a type of human nature (see 32, Temperament). The Verdurians no longer hold to the theory, but still find the elements useful as conceptual categories.
    ur clay men practicality
    për rock elcarî determination
    mey water iliî benevolence
    endi wood pizî or icëlanî delicacy
    gent metal gdeonî (giants) calm
    tshur fire ktuvokî (demons) energy
    shalea air vyozhî (spirits) intellectuality

    Substance. ftacon - element (type of substance), essence; eléaku - substance (subcategory), material, composition; beh - spirit, distillation; deyon - matter (as opposed to energy or spirit); deyodimo - mass; shoz - stuff; bidracon - atom (smallest unit you can have of a substance)

    CLAY. ur - clay

    Clays proper. binges alumina

    For building. ladriyo - brick; sevúr - mortar / chana - pot; ledli - porcelain; përmáco - cement; sesüza - glaze; dhëska - tile; dhësura - paving; sisna - gravel; sisna përmácula - concrete

    Ashes. kef - ashes / fulyo - soot; kef lezüny - sodium carbonate (soda ash); kef steklei - potassium carbonate (potash)

    Crusts. rhecuam - crust / teb - rust; civru verdul verdigris; përnápa - saltpetre

    Powders. prak - powder / sably - sand; steklo - glass; hasifa - sulphur; puil - dust; krhumprak - black powder, gunpowder; ricorek - talc; yeshore - kohl; rhoga - gypsum

    Calxes. chuél - calx / creza, tshurprak - lime; chuél camside - arsenic trioxide (white arsenic); chuél choshave - mercuric oxide; chuél mlakonei - coke; chuél plomei - white lead; erüzula ogudula - lead oxide

    Salts. sel - salt (esp. sodium chloride) / sel imelirec - smelling salts; sel Mirashcarei - Epsom salts; sel sheveië - sal ammoniac; sel vinnape - cream of tartar; selembre - natron; selkare - borax; (sel) elcarin - iron sulphate (blue vitriol); verde (sel) elcarin - copper sulphate; brunarë - alum

    Earths. sus - soil, earth / chusë - mud; leut - slime; përshruma - bitumen, coal tar; sëm - tar; shruma - pitch; gitlesheli - phosphorus; fale brisgent - bismuth oxide

    ROCK. për - rock / dhumë - stone; përs - rocky

    Minerals. camsida - arsenic trisulphide (orpiment); crezapër - limestone, chalk; crifpër, mole plom - graphite; crifpër Benécë - molybdenum disulphide; erüza - cinnabar); evranka - arsenic disulphide (realgar); fladhomë - slate; grisruda - pyrite; mira plomei - galena (lead sulphide); mlakon - coal; mlakon brisgentei - bismuth sulphide; mlakon yeshorei - antimony trisulphide (grey antimony); murca - magnet; pattea - zinc carbonate (calamine); plom pushul, erüzula - lead oxide (litharge); porute - marble; ricora - soapstone; rhena - flint; samplom - zinc sulphide (blende, sphalerite); shushchat mlakon - charcoal; stampër - tinstone

    Gems. zhoya - jewel / azurda - sapphire; seslina - turquoise; berole - malachite (copper ore); camsidole - arsenic; crato - ruby; dadhusha - jade; iluti - quartz; lazar - lapis lazuli; lökol - manganese dioxide; moshtol - feldspar; retparna - amethyst; rinde - emerald; tánulac - zircon; tsísia - diamond; yatar - amber

    Mining. eucarana - mine

    METAL. gent - metal

    ruda - ore / arzhent - silver; brisgent - bismuth; civru - copper; choshava - mercury; elnamë - platinum; emur - silver/tin alloy ; gent meiladei - cobalt; gent meuciborei - nickel; gent samplomei - zinc; gent yeshorei - antimony; kol - iron; kolë - steel; laitón - brass; meilad - cobaltite; meucibor - niccolite; orh - gold; plom - lead; plomul - pewter; selon - bronze; stan - tin; zhuranami - wolfram

    Verbs. uter - refine; orhfäben - gild

    FIRE. tshur - fire / chaska - spark; nizh - smoke; ogón - flame; push - puff

    Verbs. tshuran - burn; fozhir - blaze; tshurulen - scorch

    Electricity. syametát - electricity

    AIR. shalea - air

    Special terms. scaleia - gas; nüt - scum, foam; puza - bubble; cipulan - effervesce

    Airs. shalea cipulátei - carbon dioxide; shalea michii - ammonia; zhivë shalea - oxygen; fäsula shalea '- nitrogen

    WOOD. endi - wood

    Organic materials. cauchuco - rubber; chuzhec - starch; dónia - wax; glitosh - glue; azipa - fat; maflosh - mafla opium; mey vezhë - sap; napa - dregs; sabun - soap; sima - resin; simula - varnish; stäv - straw; suf - cork; tshurprak - lime; genrhe - lacquer; zhezhoil - gelatine

    17. WATER

    [Contents]
    WATER. mey - water

    Liquids. méyshue - liquid / beh michii - acqueous ammonia; beh elcarinei - sulphuric acid ; beh selei - hydrochloric acid; crezheca choshava - mercuric chloride; cüe Kare - petroleum; kefmey - lye; mashre mey - nitric acid; shobóst - brine; tos - dew; vimbeh - alcohol

    Wetness. sesue - wet; sesul - moist; seshe - dry

    Change of state. cipan - boil; duhe - steam; impitir - absorb; plavec - melt; ryot - ice; meplavec - dissolve; meplavë - solvent; meplavul - solute

    Movement of water. choran - flow; klushan - splash; kopan - drip; lüvrec - run; sezir - pour, gush; ishshor - outlet; meban - channel; mena - wave; mebrugë - whirlpool; trochoran - overflow

    Movement in water. nuotan - swim; sahiran - float; tramëzhen - dive; mëzhen - immerse, sink; noyer - drown; hiprhaner - soak

    Cleanness. dhaule - clean / lavan - wash, clean; dessuan - wipe

    Dirtiness. salë - dirty; veche - filthy, foul; veteme - nasty, smelly / veter - pollute

    Pouring. leurec - draw off, pour; livan - pour; shuten - spill

    Directing water. mepuyosh - pump; agban - dam; mebanul - gutter

    Boats. lotka - boat / calnnavira - warship; dhëslota - barge; farlota - ferryboat; murna - dinghy; navira - ship; radhi - punt; remlotka - rowboat; cora - river trader; corona - military riverboat; tveremora - galleon; ftoremora - galley; peremora - small galley / culisa - fleet

    Verbs. iripan - capsize; remir - row; duisir - steer; scafir - dock; traborden - (dis)embark

    Parts. penda - stern; teba - bow; alb - mast; chinzheda - anchor; chirnu - deck; dus - rudder; nasinnáe - hold; orivosh - tiller; fel - sail; rem - oar; rheba - keel

    Rivers and seas: 14. Nature

    18. THE LIFE PROCESS

    [Contents]
    elir - life

    In Cadhinorian thought there are four ages (didhî) or stages of life: pidhát infancy; imfatë childhood; nacuy adulthood; and bosmeca senility. The transition to childhood is learning to speak; that to adulthood is the nacuy and redel ceremonies at puberty; bosmeca is marked by the loss of physical, mental, or temporal power.

    Age. zonhicet - age / sulete - young; bome - old / zonir - age

    Birth. nes - birth; midei - station in life; nesan - be born; neschena - birth ceremony; pidha infant

    See also 40. Marriage; 41. Sex

    Growth. creshir - grow (intr.); increshir - grow (tr.), make larger; nurir - develop; ikabe - stunted / imfát child

    Maturity. nacuy - adulthood, maturity; nacuyád - manhood ceremony; redel - womanhood ceremony; plenuestu - adult; zonul - mature, grown up

    Death. shushchan - die / bosme senile; noyer - drown; kekan - kill; impochen - bury; urokesha - grave; ferica - funeral; fant - ghost, phantom; rhozhive - dead (formal term); shustana - death (poetic), fate-appointed time of death; zetkekát - suicide

    Killing: 37. Conflict

    Corruption. cishuran - decay; frirec - crumble; mochir - rot; ocdurnen - deteriorate

    19. ANIMALS

    [Contents]
    The English glosses, here and in the sections on Plants and Food, should be understood to be near rather than exact equivalents. Although genetically Almean biology has little in common with our own, convergent evolution has produced animals and plants similar to those filling similar ecological niches on Earth. Fuller descriptions of the Almean animals, including habitat for creatures not living in the Cadhinorian Plain, can be found in the Dictionary. Where two animals are given in a gloss (e.g. coec - crow, raven), the Verdurian word refers to a single Almean animal intermediate in characteristics between the terrestrial animals named.

    Dasco is the general term for animal; sfer 'beast' excludes lesüasî, the intelligent beings. Note that the earthly opposition between 'man' and 'animal' is more complicated on Almea, where there are multiple intelligent races, not even belonging (by scientific standards) to the same genus. Most Almeans also believe in spiritual, non-divine beings which are rational, but cannot be considered animals; see 55, Religion.

    Mammals. shomulo - mammal (excludes man)

    Cats. ailuro - cat, fitrau - tomcat, koshka - female cat

    Dogs. cuon - dog, rhes - male dog, betra - bitch

    Horses. shual - horse, giuro - stallion, zhumeta - mare; rozhual - unicorn

    Cows. boua - cow, bouan - bull, sbayu - calf; uol - ox, bison

    Other Farm. dasco imutorul - domesticated animal / shucha - pig, verat - boar, truzha - sow; kapro - goat, koza - kid; mot - sheep, arni - lamb; osol - donkey

    Predators. yagcrezhec - hunting animal / bardinó - coyote; barsúc - badger; chucul - leopard, panther; daush - tiger; dhise - bat; gurë - lion; lef - wolf; lupek - fox; obly - wild boar

    Prey. sferul - small herbivore / egusfer - hedgehog, porcupine; gut - rat; köti - squirrel; lapis - rabbit; marsho - beaver; mesocrico - hamster, guinea pig; rislitno - rodent; suri - mouse; top - mole

    Large. arkosha - tree cat, monkey; chiron - elephant; dhanvena - llama; gudun - antelope, gnu; kenek - camel; losu - moose, elk; nucha - seal; selëzëchu - hippopotamus; shipom - merman (sea monkey); urs - bear; ven - deer, gazelle; zëboua - walrus, manatee

    Birds. uazo - bird / cececén - type of songbird; cirut - type of songbird; coec - crow, raven; cunya - swan; däri - seagull; falëpëzha - dove; fose - crane; hupibu - great tufted owl; ibu - owl; möca - sparrow; örn - eagle; fëzha, salyuazo - pigeon; rhurc - vulture; silui - type of songbird; sokol - falcon, hawk; tutua - parrot, toucan; yacura - partridge; zhirén - ibis / uazora - flock

    Poultry. huyon - chicken, petúk - rooster, curka - hen; gäs - goose; ensheyne - duck; mémia - turkey / clachir - hatch

    Fish. pazh - fish / akula - shark; anguia - eel; irzina - leech; morea - tuna;nodhony - salmon; seloda - herring; suesbrak - octopus; tizhapazh - catfish; vuchemu - flounder; colep, pache, lomo, cradh - types of fish

    Insects. sezhlór - insect (including arachnid) / arasni - spider; arbek - locust; cicil - cricket; cusil - tick; chedesnaga - centipede; formica - ant; letusca - butterfly; mëlë - bee; molya - moth; musca - fly; pkekpe - mosquito; pusa - flea; rakan - cockroach; sotok - grasshopper

    Reptiles etc. rappec - reptile (including other animals listed) / cäh - lizard; treka - turtle; domlim - snail; drac - dragon; estecäh - alligator; gambra - sea turtle; increzhosh - parasite; lim - slug; omár - lobster, crayfish; rak - crab; rana - frog; sidhdhi - serpent, snake; sravec - shellfish; yenev - worm / bumecho - pearl

    Intelligent races. lesüas - rational being; dhuncrur - biped / elcar - dwarf, elcar; fleád - flaid; gdeon - giant; hupa - halfling; icëlan - icëlan; iliu - iliu; ktuvóc - ktuvoc, demon; múrtany - murtany; uestu - human

    Man. uestu - man / sefo - boy; bubo - lad, lout

    Woman. redelcë - woman / zhina - girl; medhina - tomboy; frälina - young woman

    See also 41. Sex

    Child. imfát - child / pidha - baby; see also 40. Family

    On Almea's intelligent species, see also The descent of lesüasi

    Monsters, mythical beasts. dhëfku - monster / shualom - centaur; ebdu - troll; fsizhemna, ftorlädec - doppelganger; ftacu - elemental; kushak - ogre; levuestu - werewolf; nise - gnome; piza, niza - pixie; ubir - vampire; uestuosh - homunculus, golem, android; uya - sprite; zëoshu - sea monster

    Coverings. chesha - shell, skin; shomë - fur; chésula - scale; iëzhu - feather; srava - seashell

    Parts. chironduri - tusk; goly - muzzle; köh - tail; ozhra - wing; rog - horn; püna - fin; sena - beak, bill; shaute - hide; undásh - claw; unyaga - hoof; zhuba - mane, crest

    see also 21. The body

    Activities. letan - fly; melürec - pollinate; nid - nest, lair, hive; trunir - swarm; trädan - graze

    Noises. bruhu - trumpet (elephant); cici - chirp; coe - caw; cuéh - quack; cucurú - crow; ehehe - neigh; miu - miaow; - moo; muzho - roar; nidip - croak; rhaf - bark; rhun - grunt; rhur - growl; sui - squeak; süs - hiss; uhu - hoot; zuz - buzz

    Products. chironduri ivory; dónia - wax; dhan - wool; süro - cheese; huvon - egg; korhu - leather; leme - milk; melosh - honey; posha - goosedown; risdosh - manure; seta - silk

    Horsy terms. shadan - ride; sëdil - saddle, sresho - stirrup; rhanosh - reins; surshual - harness; drote - gee! shadosh - carriage; shualnáe - stable; zashadan - mount; dechiplan - dismount; ruizer - trot; vezhaen - gallop

    Exploitation. deëzhan - pluck; dresir - train; ihtüan - fish; imutoran - tame; ispolnir - skin; motana - sheepfold; uco - herd; yagen - hunt; surmetan - load; demetan - unload; suvizan - stalk; dugel - lure, bait

    20. PLANTS

    [Contents]
    Almea's plants are even more unlike terrestrial ones than its animals. Again, glosses represent plants occupying a similar ecological niche, or fulfilling the same role in human society. There are particular difficulties with names of flowers and trees. For instance; the chun is simply a very sturdy tree, which does not otherwise resemble an oak; the rhas is bright red and many-petalled, but is smaller than a rose, and has no thorns.

    vezhi - plant / balam - edible plant; shari - weed

    Verbs. impochen - plant; iortan - flower; zhortir - sprout; risdan - fertilize

    Parts. brasc - pollen; cäli - stalk; cälul - stem; chesura - bark; chunido - acorn; endi - wood; föy - leaf; hupo - tuft; lëpa - petal; ris - seed; rhizo - root; scorso - branch; scorsok - stick, twig; socima - thorn; susurk - stump; teho - trunk; urk - log; yeka - bud / donta - cell

    Trees. arb - tree / asën - maple; bice - fir; blanarb - palm; chizha - cactus; chun - oak; churarb - pear tree; fikarb - fig tree; luomarb - apple tree; sasna - pine; scila, arbul - shrub; sicharb - lemon tree; suf - cork oak; uran - birch

    Flowers. zhorta - flower / faliorta - daisy; mafla - blue flower yielding an opiate; puyota - carnation; rhas - rose; tashiorta - tulip; tirura - lilac; chorizhina, nölne, pizufëa, utrosheli, vidhra - types of flower

    Small plants. brura - heather; cuplia, panföy - hemp, marijuana; edra - ivy; fiy - fern; forno - hay; kena - reed; lácati - cotton; lan - flax; mokan - hallucinogen; palanu - gorse; susrevolu - moss; trava - grass; tref - clover; tuyoshari - tobacco; usiro - Cuzeian maid's-herb

    Mold. mico - mold; mochi - rot, mold

    Organic substances: 16. Substances

    Edible plants are listed under 24. Food

    21. THE BODY

    [Contents]
    sira - body

    Head. bem - head / orel - ear

    Hair. shevei - hair / irevolu - mustache; revolu - beard; tizhai - whisker; sadhil - unkempt; tasul - braid

    Face. ufëa - face / suryi - forehead; siüli - eyebrow; - eye; pili - eyelash; olf - nose; olfkud - nostril; vánë - cheek; lukona - chin

    Mouth. bush - mouth / leve - lip; labi - tongue; duri - tooth; mahia - jaw; disna - gum

    Arms. brak - arm / hipbrak - armpit; imsemizi - inner arm; dörsemizi - outer arm; cuda - elbow; semizi - forearm; ilura - wrist

    Hand. mano - hand / cálima - knuckle; chedho - palm; dochi - finger; dotoni - thumb; unë - fingernail; clek - fist

    Trunk. teho - trunk / sheya - neck; gorzhi - throat; mira vué - larynx; rhuzi - chest, bosom; sullimura - chest above breasts; limura, slang gara - breast; cellimura - cleavage; tet - nipple; tetásh - aureole; taleo - waist; ombrili - navel; magen - stomach, midriff; ventra, brurho - belly

    Back. dos - back / epöl - shoulder; crurhizo - buttock; kadul - ass; baskud, (obscene) forë - anus

    Loins. anca - hip; dhasc - bladder; golë, dhincota - groin; bashshevey - pubic hair; frond, gob - penis; gamerka - testicle; shagati, vlagishe - vagina; baslevi - vulva; odhi - clitoris

    see also 41. SEX

    Organs. zhusë - organ / auva - womb; brurho - gut; hepato - liver; magen - stomach; merok - brain; plasy - nerve; poln - skin; pulmon - lung; rhim - kidney; rhusi - muscle; uem - heart; torensa - blood vessel

    Skeleton. hostora - skeleton; host - bone / bembula - skull; cheya - rib; rheba - spine; luka - joint

    Legs. crur - leg / riasni - thigh; imriasni - inner thigh; döriasni - outer thigh; yolo - knee; deryolo - back of knee; colo - calf; sheva - ankle

    Feet. naga - foot / cauco - heel; hipnaga - sole; orto - toe / chimora - footprints

    Things the body does

    Facial expressions. dhuven - frown; gurfec - scowl; rizir - smile; rhasachir - blush

    Mouth. baba - open-mouthed; bäbec - yawn; chamzan - bite; kusizan - chew; chihan - sneeze; dhudhir - drool; gagan - choke; bakatir - vomit; glutir - swallow; hüan - sigh; husten - cough; imbrurhen - devour; ktüec - suck; leurec - sip; ridir - laugh; rharkan - spit; rhorhuir - gargle; siblir - whistle; tezhec - lick; tuyec - smoke; zaridir - burst out laughing

    Hand. kazec - point; manachir - gesture; skichir - clench; bashan - slap, spank

    Other parts. imora - digestion; choran - cry; fsetec - fart; lacrir - tear up, cry; mittir - urinate; pilachir - blink; suzir - sweat; shalean - breathe; zachoran - burst into tears

    Whole body. ásuir - sit; barucir - lie down; lätan - compete; nuotan - swim; prosan - walk; teker - stand; vezhaen - run

    see also 12. Movement

    Relaxation. dormir - sleep; dodoir - nap; echitan - wake; nuven - go to bed; son - dream; proshalean - rest; shenan - relax; ; srhonker - snore

    Body care. cesuan - scratch; fifachir - groom; fäbrau - cosmetics, makeup; innülen - curl (tr.), nülen - curl; galen - bathe; razir - shave

    Caresses. imbrakir - embrace; labir - (colloq.) kiss; levatir - kiss; manoren - caress; paluen - fondle; saldhir - feel; zhiren - hug

    see also 41. Sex

    Hunger. fsurë - hungry; fsurshushchan - starve; imbruse - famished, ravenous; fsurona - famine vulcrezhno - appetite

    Thirst. sizy - thirsty

    Fatigue. lase - tired; vuldorme - sleepy

    Intoxication. oshte, söl - drunk; dhare - sober; molir - get high; molul, zhuzhu - high

    Descriptions. azifse - fat; dautë - one-eyed; ikabe - stunted; lisy - bald; nültene - curly

    Height, size, etc.: see 6. Extent

    Substances. azipa - fat; chuza - shit; gleuma - mucus; glöma - snot; krof - blood; host - bone; lacri - tear; michy, zhizhyo - urine; myaso - flesh; risora - semen; rhark - spit, saliva; sud - sweat; zhonkrof - menstrual blood

    22. SENSORY EXPERIENCE

    [Contents]
    uleleë - sense, perception

    To the Verdurians there are six senses: what we consider one sense, touch, they divide in two. As one savant explains it: "Trogulo gives us intimate and accurate perception of those objects in direct contact with our skin; saldhia, a vaguer sense of our surroundings as a whole." We could call saldhia what can be learned from the air; a Verdurian would agree with this formulation, but would maintain that the body receives impressions from all the air in its vicinity, not merely that in immediate contact with the skin-- how else (he would argue) can one tell exactly where in the room is a fire burning? In addition to temperature and humidity, Verdurians are likely to say they can saldhir the unhealthiness of a swamp, the freshness of a fountain, the tension before a storm, and even others' emotional states.

    Indirect touch. saldhir - sense remotely or through the air

    Temperature. calo - heat / froe - cold; anizhe - cool, chilly; toshe - warm; cal - hot

    Air quality. calseshue - humid; calzhole - dry; sfëz - fresh

    Touch. trogan - touch (sense directly through skin contact)

    Hardness. duresa - hardness / dur - hard; mole - soft / induran - harden

    Sharpness. chisiát - sharpness / chisy - sharp; möl - blunt / imchisir - sharpen

    Roughness. femát - roughness / feme - rough; lisy - barren, smooth; sisy - slippery; dhul - smooth / indhulan - smooth; imsisir - polish

    Hearing. acinec - listen to, hear (people, stories); slushir - hear (sounds); oir - listen (to sounds); yari - sound

    Loudness. fortesa - loudness / forte - loud; dhonde - quiet; rhoforte - soft; misuril - silent

    Sounds. glonyec - ring; kabakaba - noise; keyen - knock; klushan - splash; kumpen - stamp; kumpulen - tap; peshan - crash; pishan - smash; scescan - rattle; tom - thump

    Animal noises: see 19. Animals

    Speech: see 58. Speech

    Smell. flaner - smell; chümse - malodorous; dushe - aromatic; dushic - perfume

    Sight. leilát - sight; lelen - see

    Light. selta - light / iluvan - shine; suriluvan - illuminate

    Darkness. shoru - darkness / imshoruan - darken; shoruan - dark; umbra - shadow

    Observation. cumlelen - witness; kashlelel - peek; leleë - view; pakrihan - regard; pilava - glance; pser - watch; rihan - look (at); serizan - stare; sfutlelen - spot; yachir - ogle

    See also 26. Leria (Understanding)

    Brightness. claesa - brightness / claë - bright; ëclaë - glaring; iluve - shiny

    Visibility. lele - visible; cellele - transparent; rholele - invisible; salele - clear

    Appearance. shaynesa - appearance / imlelen - appear; ishshalean - vanish; islelen - disappear

    Quality. sfesher - flash; tsisir - glitter

    Taste. gustan - taste; imbushan - savor

    Quality. bogaty - delicious; egre - sour; embre - bitter; imbushäm - savory; mishkichy - tasty, yummy; sambushe - tasteless, bland; selse - salty; sfechy - spicy; tsesse - sugary, sweet

    Deficiencies. deyeen - to blind; samlele - blind; dautë - one-eyed; samslushe - deaf; rhom - lame

    23. HEALTH

    [Contents]
    Health. darove - healthy; sane - well

    Illness. malád - illness; malse - ill, sick; mön - sick, diseased; morge - morbid, unhealthy; morgarda - agony

    Disease. mönát - disease, disorder / agasarda - cholera; cuteio - stroke; chüma - plague; dicenarda - scurvy; falilant - anemia; gutia - epilepsy; gascia, ishshelsira - leprosy; kiscarda - impotence; lüvrug - diarrhea; magnotibri - nausea; malbema - headache; malionile - venereal disease; malgiveca - sleeping sickness; malmagen - stomach-ache; pulmonarda - tuberculosis; rhum - cold; tucet - pox; tugeca - arthritis; zëimalát - seasickness

    Condition. zendonec - condition, indication / azurek - bruise; bufauhe - paralysis; caesia - rash; calura - fever; chivi - pain; durok - wart; gararda - swelling; garka - blister; puyok - pimple; pavdormi - insomnia; roheica - sprain, cramp; vazhi - wound

    Doctor. lekaro - physician, doctor; maladnáe - hospital; chümána - leprosarium, plague hospital; lainec - patient

    Treatment. lëka - drug; huvima - pill; onzhiven - cure; erénica - purge; porocesen - massage; trancát - surgery / bres - bandage / málemel - symptom

    24. FOOD

    [Contents]
    Drink. pitir - drink / otipitë - drinkable

    Drinks. caua - coffee; chai - tea; leme - milk; mey - water; suco - juice

    Beer. sherë - beer / depiran - brew; firan - ferment; peza - hops / dhula sherë ale; flavë sherë - lager; fuzhula sherë -bitter

    Wine. vin - wine / uzina - sweet white wine; orhpitë - strong white wine; rhasia - rosé; cleir - medium red wine; luyshor - heavy red wine; ruzbidesh - cider; zhöh - mead / vincole - wine-lover; vinom - winegrower; vinzihe - grape; bindo - vine

    Distillation. kopuren - distill; kopurul - distilled drink; izhprando - cocktail

    Food. nurzha - food / crezhen - eat; crocan - gorge, pig out; mur - ripe; oticrezhe - edible; samnurzha - fast; veneno - poison

    Animal products. süro - cheese; huvon - egg; leme - milk; melosh - honey

    Berries. zihe - berry / erél - cranberry; embrezihe - raspberry; fraga - strawberry; chinzik - gooseberry; mirtë - blueberry; sezhzihe - raisin; vinzihe - grape; visha - cherry

    Fruit. koup - fruit / blan - date; ciröla - plum; chura - pear; dinya - melon; fik - fig; luom - apple; narnë - orange; nedizi - banana; precásh - peach; precok - apricot; sicho - lemon; sicho shurë grapefruit; sicho verde lime / cöd - pit, kernel

    Grains. ris - grain / avena - oats; griu - wheat; horzhe - barley; maíz - corn; segly - rye; ton - rice

    Grain products. avenura - porridge; brasho - flour; culanul - pastry, torte; keks - cracker; maco - dough, pasta; shulya - noodle; onrälul - biscuit; yon - bread; yonka - roll; yonog - toast; zer - flatcake

    Meat. myaso - meat / shank - ham; shuchmyaso - pork; boumyaso - beef; domyaso - bacon; huyomyaso - chicken meat; milka - sausage; motmyaso - mutton; myassose - gravy; myasulo - meatball; sbayumyaso - veal; sezu - dried meat; venmyaso - venison; cumetu - seafood salad / myasom - butcher

    Nuts. nüs - nut / cashna - chestnut

    Spices. sfeto - spice / alyo - garlic; botsa - vanilla; cebo - onion; dizhón - mustard; draba - horseradish; ind - pepper; kyodo - clove; merha - oregano; poro - green onion, scallion; sel - salt; vinembre - vinegar; zerhash - herb

    Substances. cüe - oil; chuzhec - starch; azipa - fat; maslo - butter; slifi - cream; zhezho - jelly; zhezhoil - gelatine

    Sweets. dheletá - dessert / chechu - candy; leme bulondula - custard; marmo - pudding; melosh - honey; yon munizul - cake; rüdile - flavored shaved ice; tsesi - sugar, sugarcane; shekshek - cacao, chocolate

    Vegetables. arico - long bean; cälî asparagus; eliá - olive; fazholo - round bean; fësil - parsley; fron - a type of long, thick mushroom; grak - chickpea; grakok - pea; grib - mushroom; grurha - turnip; lëtiy - lentil; masloföy - lettuce; morut - carrot; ogorék - cucumber; susluoma - potato; shou - cabbage; shouzhorta - cauliflower

    Preparation. rälan - cook / azipdan - grease, dip in fat; bulondir - bake; cäcian - chop; cipan - boil; isfölen - peel; ogudir - roast, broil; porocan - knead; surogonec - fry; shobosec - pickle; tranen - cut; zerhashan - season; zhuydoni - recipe

    Preparations. celzer - sandwich; föî - salad; huvon pisul - omelette; legua - soup; shaune - broth; rhitchena - pie; suco - juice; sucón - sauce; zëdenei - stew

    See also 51. Utensils

    Meal. chena - meal / cédhue - feast; elchena - lunch; izhprandora - cocktail party; perchena - breakfast; prando - dinner; zury - supper

    Restaurants. lesteo - restaurant / rälom - cook; redh - waiter; desider - order

    25. CLOTHES

    [Contents]
    Dress. abilen - clothe; imuveren - put on

    Undress. dabilen - undress; deuveren - take off; isfolen - strip

    Nudity. polne - nude (emphasis on showing skin); samuvere - unclothed

    Whole body. uverë - clothes / kyole - dress; lapiskusku - bunny suit; pauto - coat; pelerin - cape; plupauto - raincoat; sutana - robe / uverát - tailoring, fashion

    Accessories. bretel - suspender; detosh - buckle; dhash - pocket; gintro - sash; puyok - button; kunnasitosh - purse; odaivun - tie, cravat; sinmano - glove; siteza - loop, fastener; siturosh - belt; surorel - earring; shircilura - bracelet

    Head. kazhgouka - veil; süpa - cap; shapa - hat; tiplüba - wig

    Neck. sheyosh - collar; shircsheya - necklace; toshsheya - scarf

    Chest. brakosh - sleeve; dhampauto - sweater; hend - shirt; hendana - blouse; limurbres, bres - cloth to bind or support breasts; sambrake - vest-coat; nuvenda - nightgown

    Dresses exposing: sullimura - area above breasts; cellimura - area between breasts; hiplimura - all of breasts; magena - midriff

    Legs. bröca - trousers, pants; lanika - underwear; nilne - skirt; shircanca - loincloth

    Foot. calseo - shoe / kumpa - boot; shevesca - long stockings; sheveza - sock, low stockings; tacil - sandal/ samcalseë - barefoot

    Material. dhalashteca - elegance

    Material. eléaku - cloth / cuplana - canvas; dhan - wool; dhaneme - velvet; korhu - leather; lácati - cotton; lanë - linen; seta - silk; shomë - fur; zhusni - lace

    Fabrication. testasan - weave; pleschen - spin; huven - dye

    Laundry. falen - launder; falis - laundry

    26 - 32. THE SOUL

    [Contents]
    Verdurians divide the human soul into four parts, each of which is situated in a particular part of the body. The leria or understanding is located in the eyes; its purpose is perception and understanding of the world. The razum or intellect is located in the brain, and serves for reflection, judgment, and rational thought. The itian or spirit is located in the heart, and contains the will, wisdom, compassion, love, and moral sense. The hum contains the animal emotions, passions, and drives and is localized in the guts; it is also the source of dreams.

    The righteous man is to be controlled by his itian; but base and corrupted men are slaves to their humî. Itian is also the name for the complete soul.

    Many Verdurian terms and idioms are rooted in this quadripartite division of the soul, which explains many things, from why Verdurian has two words for 'feel', olotan and iscrenir, to expressions like curec yä dobrä 'understand well' (literally 'have a good eye').

    For more on Verdurian teaching on the soul, see Almean Belief Systems.

    Rational being. lesüas - rational being; zetlele - conscious; urise - mortal

    Personhood. lesüas - person, personality; aelutrát - character, virtue; iscreniora - temperament, disposition; ctel - individual, person; mem - the self; zhuca - character in a book or play

    Disorder. chupre - unconscious, unaware; lüssë - insane; rozhy - mad

    Experience. saldhir - experience; hipsaldhir - undergo (negative connotation)

    26. LERIA (UNDERSTANDING)

    [Contents]
    Observation. bedhir - observe, inspect / bedhelan - test; sënan - test, try; hicetan - count; ronan - check; ulelen - perceive, sense; prezuir - overlook, fail to perceive; azhgolec - ignore

    Misperception. prezuir - overlook, fail to perceive; azhgolec - ignore; desurchelan - distract

    Consideration. ashir - think, consider / agolec - face, deal with; alir - come to terms with, make do with; pakrihát - attention; surchelan - concentrate

    Understanding. cumoteran - understand, sympathize; cumprenan - understand, grasp, realize; onoteran - recognize; lelima - impression; zdesir - look, dig; cumprenäm - context

    Imagination. implican - imagine; implisel - image

    Misunderstanding. akoteran - confuse; ishshrifec - guess; yerömen - estimate; mauprenan - misunderstand

    Knowledge. shrifec - know about, know how, know that, savoir; oteran - know well, know a person, connaître; plenshrifta - mastery; sfafkora - information; tëshrife - familiar

    See also 30. Ideas

    Appearance. paretir - seem; shaynir - appear, seem

    Clarity. yasny - clear, evident; obleme - unclear; mölshue - vague; rude - raw, primitive

    Complexity. mushcote - complex; iscun - simple; sroly - intricate; munizul - fancy; urokúshue - labored

    Obviousness. abcurayne - reasonable, rational; mezine - necessary, obvious; miyire - natural, to be expected; rhomiyire - unobvious, obscure; iscunlerë - commonplace; peylerë - esoteric

    Mystery. kashir - hide; berise - mysterious; taina - secret; tromeyá - illusion; shritihse - discreet

    27. RAZUM (MIND)

    [Contents]
    Intelligence. razumbre - intelligent / estitian - genius; hicheme - astute; hichy - cunning; lerte - clever, smart; mony - brilliant; razumse - architected, mathematical; chume - smart, brainy; cumbeme - alert

    Stupidity. glupy - stupid / burhichy - naïve; buyel - lout, loutish; chachayëse - slow, dim-witted; niruise - foolish; nrüsk - fool; subu, chupom - idiot; shkuashy - silly

    Meaning. zadi - meaning / oterise - grounded; vulmizec - mean, intend; zadete - meaningful; zen - sign, signal; zendan - signal, indicate; zadadoni - definition

    Nonsense. sancuraya - nonsense; skusku - silliness; malmese - frivolous; zicuäm - ridiculous

    Rationality. curaya - reason / imfayir - logically require, entail; appuyan - imply, suggest; degriman - deduce; onvizhien - conclude by induction; metulerec - analyze

    Abstraction. curaise - abstract; etaperë, mudhnirtey - general; etasule - particular, concrete

    Judgment. celëtir - judge, discern; celdheltan - interpret; vano - alignment, bias; arholotë - prejudice; ovnelse - severe, strict

    Problem solving. aguma - problem; bruven - solve; röma - reckoning, calculation; dekashir - reveal; zendonec - clue, indication; zendonecul - hint

    Strategy. kensa - stratagem, scheme / kensora - strategy; ftena - plan; zhou - trick; zhuy - way, method; zhuyora - practice, modus operandi

    Expectation. vizhien - expect, wait (for) / ishfahec - predict; izhlelen - foresee; izhmetan - prepare; malvizhir - surprise; vizhiát - expectation; voleme - ready; gazimir - suspect, infer

    Memory. suzán - memory / suzanen - remember; ublian - forget

    Wit. tisire - witty, clever; chismishe - mocking, witty, cuttingly satirical; lerezícue - mocking, amusing, witty

    Categorization: 1. Abstract states

    Valuation: 31. Valuation

    28. ITIAN (SPIRIT)

    [Contents]
    Feeling. iscrenir - feel (with the heart or itian), act

    Ability. fäheca - ability, talent / fähe - able; rhofähe - incapable

    Will. vulei - will / nimec - dare; nameran - intend; voleme - willing, ready; vulir - want; vulula - whim, wish; zedenomát - renunciation; zetbeze - self-willed, independent; zuran - wish; cishcöre - apathetic, lacking will; malvoleme - unwilling; with ill will; avulën - voluntary

    Decision. ciberden, zet sudir - decide; diveir - choose, select; cierceyen - waver; ukeshen - hesitate

    Belief. rhedec - believe / agreni - belief, conviction; agrenuli - opinion, notion; chunashea - orthodoxy; imagrenir - persuade; lelesa - faith; zël - extreme, radical; zhenashea - opinion, received wisdom; zhenrhedao - superstition; zhumbruhan - practice, follow

    Doubt. dubir - doubt / borzhe - heretical; findise - schismatic, unorthodox; hipcuraye - skeptical, distrustful of received wisdom; samrhedao - unbelief

    Obligation. devir - must, have to; lacheo - duty; see also 35. Morality

    Wisdom. mudray - wise / cherene - prudent; gareme - sensible, reasonable; garemora - good sense; imgaran - wise up, talk sense into; zhuyse - practical

    Foolishness. niruise - foolish; nrüsk - fool; sancherene - imprudent

    Compassion. feyen - pity; chisuemse - sensitive; chivinyát - sympathy; iosu - mercy; inye - kind; zetlacri - self-pity; samvoloe - unfeeling, apathetic; unse - sentimental, cloying

    Awe. miura - wonder; nüman - dread; olior - terrifying, awe-inspiring; rhuy - awe, astonishment

    Inspiration. appuyan - push, motivate, inspire; caucachir - vt goad; imëlen - inspire, arouse

    Hope. chascurec - hope

    Liking. ditavan - like, prefer, appreciate / ambrir - love, have a taste for; shatir - like; corhrhaner - cherish

    Dislike. akolotan - dislike / disan - hate; anushan - loathe; nizenäm - grudge

    29. HUM (PASSIONS)

    [Contents]
    General. olotan - feel (in the hum or guts); olotë - feeling, emotion; olotëte - passionate, emotional

    Anger. fashe - angry / gula - bitterness, spite; gulere - slang angry; gurísh - wrath, ire; ktudh - wrath

    Curiosity. etitrát - interest, curiosity; samolotë - lack of interest

    Desire. iduran - desire; óndelan - yearn for, long for; prosoter - jump for, clamor for; akolotan - spurn, scorn

    Dream. son - dream; nizontu - nightmare

    Excitement. huntene - excited / cumfriser - thrill; kezha - zeal, enthusiasm; möcre - jittery, upset; skukair - be bored

    Fear. nkash - fear / arafát - terror; gövec - panic; nüman - dread / zhombren - frighten; zhombrulen - alarm

    Happiness. lerezhe - happy / äser - merry; bekame - comfortable; bonürë - ecstatic; crete - glad; cuelzulë - proud, clean, happy; estair - exult; malmese - frivolous, light-hearted; mísia - fun; pler - pleasure; ravi - delight; templeran - enjoy; tichure - merry, happy; zul - joyous; zhazharce - joyful, boisterous

    Pain. chivi - pain / suspilaven - suffer; sram - shame; see also 36. Sin

    Sadness. pëse - sad / chasishshelec - despair; dëlaun - sad amid triumph; frodhe - grim, dismal; ilacrir - lament; milüür - sad, poignant; nizhnise - miserable; orusse - melancholy; pyerir - regret; siblec - disappointing; shushcholotan - mourn; tibri - sorrow, grief

    Worry. itësir - worry / orivura - worry, concern; skichiy - tense; torde - tense, uptight

    30. IDEAS

    [Contents]
    An idea is held or entertained in the leria (understanding); but evaluated and analyzed in the razum (mind). To teach, one must put facts before the leria: one must have a clear conception of what is, before one can form any judgments. Strictly speaking the razum cannot be educated at all; one can only encourage students to brood on what they have seen (curaya 'reason' derives from 'brooding'); the rules of judgment and analysis can only be exercized and encouraged, not created.

    Idea. yela - idea / eta - topic; mizeta - topic, subject; paveta - mention, reference

    Truth. oresta - truth / dhaye - correct, right; orestashe - veritable; prile - real; sadesa - truth, genuineness; sënul - certain / indhayec - certain; perë oresta - principle

    Error. budhaye - wrong / dham - error, mistake; fsiy - false, untrustworthy; fsiduisir - deceive; lezhel - lie; zet tromir - be wrong, be mistaken

    Facts. shrifta - knowledge; surdena - fact

    Notation. dum - note, memorandum / binea - list / induman - record; imbineyan - list, register

    Theory. mizhao - theory; nimashir - assume; permizec - suppose

    Proof. curayora - argument, proof, discourse; onteca - demonstration, experiment; onten - show, demonstrate; perzhano - source of an idea or opinion; pol - grounds, basis; sascuraya - inquiry; uklo - proof

    Disproof. akontu - disproof; fsiüklo - fallacy

    Explanation. etadel - description; imyasen - explain; condhayec - justify; prokio - reason; ptaleo - hypothesis; coverage (of the facts)

    Teach. imbeman - teach / adshriften - instruct; smeruir - educate / indhulan - tutor

    Learn. divrec - learn / visanir - study

    Teacher. imbemec - teacher; osän - master, tutor; shriftom - doctor, professor

    Student. echomu - schoolboy; smeric - student, disciple, candidate; tellec - seeker after knowledge, postulant; zentene - literate

    School. echom - school / avisar - secondary school, academy; smernáe - professional college; shriftanáe - university; suméria - 1st level degree; scrifteca - 2nd leve degree

    urek - lesson, class; culë - course; zontor - term / caumen - blow off; fálshuec - cram

    The standard curriculum. hiceteviso - mathematics; aladhea - music; cadhino - Cadhinor; aluatas - grammar; eyurcrivát - rhetoric, poetry; pleschura - history; kestora - natural philosophy; lätát - athletics

    See also 54. Science

    31. VALUATION

    [Contents]
    The process of evaluating good and bad, beautiful and ugly, right and wrong, occurs in the razum (mind), informed by the virtues of the itian (heart). Verdurians usually consider that there is an objective scale of goodness, of which the razum is the organ of perception. The modern terrestrial idea that such judgments are arbitrary, cultural, or simply derive from fogbound traidition, is completely alien to Cadhinorian/Verdurian thought.

    Goodness. dobre - good / andor - mighty; beldobre - good, lovely, satisfying; buona - cool, good; creche - pleasant; dobrásh - wonderful; este - great; rodo - nice; telnë - fine; trastoshte - excellent

    Badness. durnë - bad / bakt - terrible; ecaë - horrible; kodäm - abomination; kazchal - nasty; mal - poor, bad, wrong; nënë - naughty

    Dirtiness: 17. Water

    Change. immelioran - improve; cumpugan - perfect; indurnen - worsen

    Praise. eglérec - praise / lonëglér - acclamation

    Dispraise. malmizec - speak ill of / dhamlelen - criticize; klevan - slander, demean; ocorbir - insult; acceoren - admonish; basashshe - inferior

    Assessment. covaler - assess the value of

    Comparison. coashir - compare, match / valer - compare (values)

    Worth valát - value, worth, merit; valer - be worth, merit

    Genuineness. husil - genuine, real; podline - authentic, real; sade - true, genuine, authoritative

    Importance. agoläm - important / bolëde - major; shofe - chief, main; tibäm - urgent

    Unimportance. rhoagoläm - unimportant / muane - minor; santele - mere; samvale - worthless

    Utility. otibruhe - useful / agbüte - useless; doblädan - fit, be fitting; mallädan - clash

    Similarity. comshayne - similar / cotuepen - balance, equal; comshaynir - resemble; huepe - equal; nenë - same; samidikon - alike

    Dissimilarity. dheler - differ / samlëce - separate; des - various

    Usualness. chilise - usual, ordinary / vizhul - ordinary, expected, familiar; tutan - daily, quotidian; cunire - tedious; shinenë - monotonous; zhenshate - popular

    Unusualness. urze - strange / idikós - special; idiko - peculiarity; isoncre - irregular; rhovizhul - unexpected, unfamiliar; zhendise - unpopular

    Sample. ledha - example, sample; ledhise - representative, typical; gonicore - consistent

    32. TEMPERAMENT

    [Contents]
    One's iscreniora or temperament derives, in Cadhinorian thought, from the predominance of one ftacon (element) or another (see 16, Subtances). For instance, those dominated by fire are bold and energetic.

    iscreniora - temperament, disposition; zetteneo - attitude, air

    ur clay --> urise - mortal, fallible; urete - down to earth, practical

    Good sense: 28. Itian (Spirit)

    mey water --> mese - benevolent, wise, tender; happy, playful

    Benevolence. shatametec - friendly / caltose - optimistic; comdruke - amiable; dombrichan - large-hearted, generous of spirit; eleute - frank, free, open, generous; voleme - benevolent; volemát - good will

    Tenderness. azhele - tender / eshinyát - lovingkindness; timely - gentle

    Light-heartedness. malmese - frivolous, light-hearted, silly

    Wisdom, compassion: 28. Itian (Spirit)

    dhumë stone --> dhumise - strong, determined, patient

    Determination. déneca - persistence; nusse - determined, dedicated, tenacious

    Patience. fadhne - patient; araste - careful, painstaking, patient

    Calm. peil - peaceful; rhozhive - inactive; zhelse - calm / imzhelen - calm

    Gravity. ishet - solemn, grave; medrëse - pompous

    Impatience. rhodhumise - impatient

    endi wood --> enil - quiet, shy, timid

    Quietness. tihy - quiet / paléty - pathetic, sad, sorrowful

    Shyness. gigitse - cautious, shy / plóe - bashful; sotse - nervous; surre - solitary

    Delicacy. sheli - grace, delicacy / dichy - sweet, nice; didhitise - delicate, pretty, otherworldly; mëf - wondrous, childlike, loving; nezhne - delicate

    Timidity. fufur - timid; körhy - cowardly

    gent metal --> geteme - strong, powerful, with the qualities of a leader

    Strength. zol - strong / brushe - tough; cleir - majestic, powerful, assured; dálues - jovial, strong, powerful; guesse - powerful; mädörn - powerful, triumphant, jovial; medro - nobility, greatness of heart; rhis - free

    Bravery. taye - brave; rhavy - valorous

    Weakness. cishitë - weak / malgeteme - ineffectual, weak

    tshur fire --> mëril - fiery, bold, energetic

    Boldness. pondre - bold, audacious; sankuse - desperate, rash

    Fierceness. oge - ferocious; onumnë - fierce; büne - violent

    Energy. zhive - lively, active / dunetene - energetic; elil - vigorous; elirát - vitality, liveliness

    shalea air --> shaleme - intellectual, unwordly, ivory-tower

    Intelligent. 27. Razum (Mind)

    Cultured. 57. Art and culture

    33. SOCIETY

    [Contents]
    Cadhinorian and Cuzeian philosophy both emphasized the community (soa sora), and elevated harmonious relations with others into a virtue (indeed, one word for 'virtue', elut, virtually means 'community'). There is somewhat more room for individuality in modern Verdurian thought, especially as the conflict between paganism and Eledhát has partially separated society from religion. However, terrestrial ideas of individualism, from hippies to Heinlein, would be considered frighteningly immoral by almost all Verdurians.

    General. celzhene - social; munese - civic, public; sënzise - social; zhuca - role, part

    Behavior. mör - custom, way; zet duisir - behave; zetduisi - behavior

    Agenda. blidhräm - affairs, agenda; blidhren - be busy, occupy oneself with; fasco - business, affairs, occupation; fascotene - busy; bistren - bustle

    Routine. tutfascea - routine; melürec - go on one's rounds; sënza - occupation, things to do; zhese - casual; corëe - formal

    Group. oligu - group / bort - band, gang; céshuash - tribe; clechura - cabal; naroda - crowd, the masses; sora - community; zhen - people; imlädan - join; azhlädan - disperse

    Association. cunculë - organization; cumoterát - fellowship; cumbutát - company; cumonora - league

    Togetherness. anát - union, unity

    Separateness. samlëce - separate; surreca - solitude; acotia - sequestration

    Worldliness. sënza - human affairs, society; rhonurul - boorish, uncultured

    Worldly. munénë - worldly, adroit / saláncë - experienced, capable, jaded, cynical; cumorge - bitter, cynical, angry at the world; hipcuraye - jaded, cynical, world-weary; sënzec - worldly; busy with career or society; dhuncöre - misanthropic, uncharitable, disgusted with the world, mocking

    Egalitarianism is a new and still radical idea in Verdurian society; the overwhelming reality, generally sanctioned by religion and law, is of hierarchy-- great distinctions in wealth and power. Under traditional Cadhinorian thought, differences in rank correlate to differences in value. The gap between theory and practice was always evident, of course, but was taken as grounds to exhort nobles to live up to their class, rather than to abandon moral justifications for aristocracy. Cuzeian and Eledhe thought has always emphasized the equality of all ranks before God, and so does some modern Cadhinorian philosophy.

    Hierarchy. rän - rank; ränát - hierarchy / chunima - emblem, arms

    Class. ränora - social class / medro, melashtora - nobility; adhomát - clergy; lechen - bourgeoisie (professionals, fine craftsmen, merchants); shalemora - intelligentsia (artists, scholars, clerics); rhezhenát - lower class (laborers, soldiers, shopkeepers, servants); hutorát - peasantry; vechora - rabble; milyö - criminals; tenuora - class of serfs

    Superiority. irränë - superior / irtëse - supreme; chinecan - run, manage, boss; hozën - steward, host, head of a household; iresan - control; irlelen - oversee; mashir - master; ireste - supreme

    Inferiority. deprosec - subordinate, inferior / colaprec - assistant; konsec - advisor / deprosan - depend on, be subordinate to; kadulolf - brown-noser; mësan - serve, follow; nizhny - prone, subjected, unresisting; promevec - agent; snucan - serve; utekec - hanger-on

    Honorifics. grazhenka - Mrs., Miss; grazhenom - Mister; osän - master, tutor; samnome - anonymous; sannei - lady; sanno - lord; shriftom - doctor, professor

    Servants. snugá - servant / devhezec - indentured servant; fifachic - personal attendant; hipom - underling; ishnugá - handmaid; pretäro - valet, manservant; rhezhzhina - maid; voyul - messenger / tenu - serf; basom - slave

    See also 42. Government

    For Verdurian noble titles and families, see The Kingdom of Verduria

    34. SOCIAL INTERACTION

    [Contents]
    Friend. druk - friend / belor - intimate friend; cumon - ally; cumyonom - companion; dobu - guy, chap; dvase - alter ego; ezhesom - person from same town/neighborhood, homeboy; rëcul - acquaintance; zevu, shida - slang dude

    Friendship. shatabi - friendship / colädan - complement, get along; cumlädan - accompany; girulen - hang out with; rëco - acquantaince; shatashir - love as a friend

    Stranger. rhoshriful - stranger / eprazho - newcomer; isezhesom - outsider; kanheu - foreigner; lacuec - settler, immigrant; óuand - neighbor

    Meeting. rëcen - meet / cuesrëco - introduction; isuvát - date, rendez-vous; lezhiren - wait for; onlel - meeting again; onrëcen - meet, get together; pasetir - visit; kodan - avoid

    Hospitality. donculë - hospitality / cuero - host; hotu - guest; rëcora - company, audience

    Activities. audec - receive, host, put up; dörmetan - dismiss; cuesrëcen - introduce; emayec - greet; midhen - celebrate; rurotá - social error, faux pas; zhesglashan - invite

    Social grace. belacát - courtesy, chivalry; bal - tact; baltene - tactful; prolesse - charming

    Party. culë - gathering, reception / chena - dinner party; fësho - ball, dance; izhprandora - cocktail party; midhë - celebration

    Polite formulas. dëkuir - thank; dobrezhanul! welcome!

    See also Conventional expressions in the Grammar

    INTERRELATIONSHIPS

    Annoyance. agasan - annoy; bobren - embarass; genir - bother; rhoadfere - insupportable; blidhrom - a busybody; litno - pest, parasite; zhoziser - irritate

    Benefit. dobrefassec - benefit / alihar - advantage; benir - bless; colapren - help; iosul - favor; pleran - please; proven - guide; ravir - delight / mélnite - thankful

    Care. cumásuir - nurse; care, care for; flegan - nurse; hipcurec - uphold, support; orivuran - care about; ucörte - precious

    Esteem. lon - honor, esteem / ayurec - idolize, worship, be devoted to; brac - glory; capir - revere; ditavan - like, appreciate; dobrelóg - reputation; hiponto - homage; incurec - impress; yanir - admire

    Fame. inclaë - famous / sfahul - latest rage, celebrity; rhoshriful - unknown

    AMUSEMENT

    Amusement. rizuir - amuse / cotrhez - hobby; mísia - fun; ralenan - entertain; ridir - laugh; ridonec - funny; tëspitir - carouse, revel; zovec - play

    Game. shendu - game / bodhpila - kickball, soccer; bütî - game resembling pétanque or bocce; selî - wagering game; chem - card; ecuni - knights-and-kings; eftäpu - tag; firusta - maze; geteta - dice; káshuek - hide-and-seek; kiel-e - puzzle; parë - gamble, bet / desisec - opponent; falek - game piece; hicet - score

    Toy. zhuë - toy / brub - block; duta - doll; glispava - sled; letusok - kite; pavonka - toy wagon; pilke - ball; sëvo - puppet; tiplok - hobbyhorse

    Sport. lätát - athletics; sirhcura - tournament, bout / celäu - sword-fighting; cirabectia - gymnastics; cupi - boxing; dhiec - racing; luria - wrestling; nuotu - swimming; shishát - archery / irzoväm - prize

    Clown. rhulo - clown; usuku - jester

    Celebration. midhë - celebration; vlesta - fair, festival, market

    Joke. 58. Speech

    35. MORALITY

    [Contents]
    Cuzeian thought distinguished between harmonious community life and inner godliness; Cadhinorian though similarly distinguishes between elut and seorát. This opens up the possibility of having one set of virtues but not the other; in medieval times, the Empire fallen, chaos reigning, hermits, mendicant prophets, and other unsocial apostles of seorát were highly respected. In modern as in ancient times, one is expected to follow both codes. Unlike in ancient times, however, there is a recognition of the conventional nature of at least some part of elut or social virtue; the modern teaching is that one should live (and believe) in the way one's society expects, which may not be how other societies work. This does not mean that morality is relative; Verdurians would still consider almost all moral rules as objectively right, god-given, and recognized inherently by the itian.

    Virtue. aelutrát - virtue, righteousness / adhán - both elut and seor; chiste - pure; elut - lawfulness, fair play; seor - clean, moral; tau - the moral code

    Justice. raf - just / olute - fair; räfes - just, right, sane, satisyingly true; agazhë - involved, active, outraged / olotrazhec - deserve, rate

    Innocence. sanchuce - innocent

    Forgiveness. dhiloran - forgive, pardon

    Duty. sfay - duty / curesát - responsibility; lachan - ought, must, should; hozënát - trust, stewardship, duty; sfaise - dutiful

    Humility. smire - humble, simple; zettihy - modest

    Abstinence. zetcuro - abstinence / meremát - moderation; scustebrát - mortification / imseoran - purify

    Trustworthiness. orest - true, loyal / cepele - loyal, faithful, chaste; cunësan - trust; gucöreca - integrity; lelesë - faithful, believable; lonse - honorable; oticunëse - trustworthy; virny - loyal

    Truthfulness. prade - honest

    See also 55. Religion; and see Almean Belief Systems

    36. SIN

    [Contents]
    Wickedness. chelt - evil / cainesh - inhuman, triumphantly evil; krofse - cruel; mochát - corruption; prige - vicious, immoral, nasty; rhoseor - dirty, impure; samveadhe - uncharitable, loveless; socole - rogue; sramdonec - shameful; zuchuyse - perverse, unnatural; zut - wicked

    Temptation. iskusha - temptation / immochir - corrupt, lead into vice; detombe - decadent

    Sin. deväm - sin / prigy - vice; travët - crime

    Confession. zet kazec confess, admit / rodher - excuse

    Shame. sram - shame / bobrul - embarassed; lukul - guilty

    Ill repute. mallog - disrepute / akolotë - dislike, disdain; dis - hate; anusheo - loathing; mallon - dishonor

    Maliciousness. akzhény - malicious, mean; atüchy - rascal; comlefe - wolfish, malicious; chivicole - sadistic; chuch - bastard, asshole; durnil - malign, pernicious, virulent; eshro - bully; köby - mean; pavichan - petty; samiose - merciless; samsrame - shameless, scoundrel; sferil - brutal

    Pride. orgöl - pride / sannanke - arrogant; zetbracse - vain, conceited, full of oneself; zetmeyec - selfish / zet raconter - brag, boast

    Envy. izziëcse - jealous / vuläde - ambitious

    Sloth. pigre - lazy / cämec - be idle; cishcöre - apathetic, lacking will, slothful; fazis - deadbeat; härom - slowpoke; samvoloe - apathetic, uncaring; zetzol - stubborn

    Greed. kunvule - greedy / hundusil - materialistic, worldly; bizhno - upstart; puye - upstart, bold, elbowing; zueme - gluttonous

    Falseness. fsiy - false, disloyal / maldobre - hypocritical; mauprade - dishonest; rhocepele - unfaithful; sangucöre - corrupt, unprincipled; dhuvësäm - not to be trusted

    Betrayal. trair - betray; sosir - rat, squeal

    Deception. fsiduisir - deceive / sytenec - hold back, retain, hold out; tromir - fool; zamben - feign, pretend, ape

    Trick. áiochak - trap; zhou - trick

    Fraud. izziëcen - deprive, defraud / imchuzen - screw, rip off

    Injustice. gazhë - unjust, oppressive / akrafne - unfair

    Theft. velen - steal / akprenan - rob (take with violence); deprenan - steal, remove; dochuven - pilfer; imumbrir - steal (at night or surreptitiously) / kaltén - thief; maticom - pickpocket; urulec - footpad, sneak

    Organized crime. milyö - underground / bort - gang; bortom - bandit, gangster; rhusiom - thug; zëbortom - buccanneer; zëcuchom - pirate / finta - boss, capo

    See also 45. Money, 41. Sex

    37. CONFLICT

    [Contents]
    General. sirhan - fight / celshir - competition; cuchec - attack; vrarhe - hostile; dhuvëse - suspicious, mistrustful

    Bodily fight. cupan - box, fight; luren - wrestle

    Guard. hezhan - guard / akezhan - protect; cumbrigan - defend; zhoren - secure, make safe

    Resistance. aklädan - resist / adisan - reject; agechir - refuse, waive; desisir - oppose, contradict; azhbrugiven - dodge

    Blow. badhir - hit / atikan - sting; bodhan - kick; cup - blow; cyager - flog; gunchec - bump; imvalitan - knock down; kdhuzec - stab; pafan - swat; neletan - pounce; sytäven - strike against; täven - strike

    Win. irzovec - win / bufan - beat; ceshtan - overthrow; imnizhnyen - overpower, force to submit; akpuyan - repel

    Lose. eshuir - lose / izbanen - mismanage, screw up; spurir - give up

    Harm. dhevan - harm / shutkrof - bloodshed; vazhir - hurt, wound; opfë - victim; soclezir - torture

    Kill. kekan- kill / igozhen - slaughter; shezhuven - strangle / kekom - assassin

    Revenge. nizener - avenge; disnurir - resent

    Pursuit, escape: 12. Movement

    Discord. malcoli - discord; findise - divisive; neletse - aggressive; zhicocole - quarrelsome

    Verbal conflict. etasosir - gossip; etertotan - argue; gromnec - threaten; kazec - accuse; ocorbir - insult; zicuan - mock; zizigesa - intrigue; zhicoir - dispute, quarrel

    Outside involvement. vanan - align, side with; rhovanesa - neutrality; celzhanen - intervene; propreser - intercede; onshatashir - reconcile

    38. WAR

    [Contents]
    War. belgo - war / - peace / takna - battle; brigan - fight a war, engage; incuchec - invade; irteker - rebel; savakan - spy (on); vencir - conquer; krichen iosun - surrender; melis - tactics; propuyo - campaign; hizhena - front

    Army. falata - army / mily - legion; taknosh - battalion; navirora - navy; vrakora - host, opposing army; shualcot - cavalry; nagacot - infantry / cletana - military academy; cumshadom - escort; gechom - vanguard

    Places. rhuk- castle; caln - fortress; keshnáe - camp; shofkeshnáe - headquarters

    Soldier. voyak - soldier/ haleza - xaleza; sabelgom - veteran; redhreul - desk officer, aide; sanci - new recruit / vrak - enemy; belaca platula - mercenary / raumen - insignia

    Spoils. goler - loot; graven - pillage, plunder; mat - capture, seizure; stupen - rape, despoil

    Verdurian military ranks.

    The Redhreo i Belgo (Minister of War) in the King's Council is the commander of all Verdurian armed forces, responsible only to the King. By contrast with the American system, this position is filled by an army officer.

    There are usually several belgsannoi (generals) commissioned at one time; during wartime the generals in one theater of war may be subordinate to one shofe belgsanno.

    The Verdurian navy is a division of the army, so that a culso normally is subordinate to a belgsanno.
    Army Navy
    belgsanno general
    cefsanno castle commander culso commodore (fleet commander)
    chedeshro colonel nabro captain (ship commander)
    alchiro major
    shiro lieutenant shirolieutenant
    kobom sergeant kobom ensign
    voyak common soldier azurom common sailor

    39. LOVE AND MARRIAGE

    [Contents]
    Love. lübor - love / luzhura - affection, family feeling; lübor - romantic love; rasfolzhe - affection; shatabi - friendship; veadha - charity, agape: ; zetshatabi - self-love; eshinyát - lovingkindness

    Desire: 41. Sex

    Gender. muatëra - sex (half of race) / ser - male; zhonë - female

    Beauty. beluán - beautiful / shön - handsome, pretty; minyón - cute; rezhne - fair, pretty; zhaye - foxy, a knockout; zhnea - attractiveness / eyuren - adorn

    Ugliness. ezhcud - ugly / dhëse - homely, plain; dhunmishekse - extremely ugly; fäbshue - tacky; okronte - hideous; rhoshön - unattractive

    Romance. fsora - romance / fsorora - relationship, affair; piflec - flirt, coquette; pifler - flirt; piflora - crush, flirtation; luzhure - affectionate; manoricole - affectionate / esyule - dear

    Lover. besyun - lover, boyfriend; besya - lover, girlfriend

    Engagement. celftena - engagement; nosäm - engaged / cumeliräm - fiancé; marileshel - bride-price

    Wedding. nos - wedding; nosnochy - honeymoon / lebmaris - groom; lebmare - bride; zur - benediction / velashir - elope

    Marriage. marian - marry; marisa - marriage / maris - husband; cira, mare - wife

    Divorce. adis - divorce; trancören - divorce (v.)

    40. FAMILY

    [Contents]
    Family. zhenát - family / kuzulora - extended family; tagia - clan, dynasty; zhenatom - relative

    Ancestry. anëdec - descendant; anëdul - ancestor

    Children. imfát - child; sefo - boy; zhina - girl; ane - eldest; dvanes, zhemna - twin; pidha - baby

    Status. ammedh - eldest child, heir; pernese - firstborn; ismarise - legitimate; cogul - illegitimate, bastard; sampire - orphan (without parents); sanzhenate - without a family; onaudec - adopt

    Verbs. kedhen - bear children; lememan - beget; meyan - spoil; nurir - rear

    Name. nom - given name; pirei - patronymic; zhenata - family name; nomako - nickname

    Parents. ani - parent / piro - father; mira - mother, mima - mommy, mama

    Grandparents. avo - grandfather; ava - grandmother / predavo/a - great-grandfather (mother) / avulo/a - great-uncle (aunt) / onavulo/a - great-uncle's son (daughter)

    Children. medh - son; meca - daughter

    Grandchildren. nepo - grandson; nepa - granddaughter / onnepo/a - great-grandson (daughter)

    Siblings. baradhu - brother; sädra - sister

    Nephews. nemo - nephew; nema - niece / onnemo/a - nephew's son (daughter)

    Uncles and aunts. vlay - uncle; vlaya - aunt

    Cousins. kuzo/a - cousin; kuzulo/a - second (or more distant) cousin / onkuzo/a - cousin's son (daughter) / onkuzulo/a - second cousin's son (daughter)

    In-laws. bola - an in-law / nora - daughter-in-law; süra - mother-in-law; ulëc - brother-in-law

    See the Grammar of Verdurian, Kinship terms

    41. SEX

    [Contents]
    Note: Terms marked with an asterisk (*) imply a demeaning view of women or of the sexual act, and should be used with caution.

    Have sex. rashir, cumnuven, genteelisms cumlübec, pasetir, lübec im nuven, mifan/prenan paktrogulam, colloquial tocan, risdan, sevan nilna*, slang shuten sur*, sishen*, trichec*, obscene futruir

    Intercourse. rasha, genteelism lübor sirise, slang toc, sish*, tricho* - sexual intercourse; ispuyan, slang gobachir - ejaculate; tosceio - orgasm

    Have oral sex. tezhrashir, slang shuyan, tezhktüec, obscene polfutruir*

    Foreplay. izhovi - foreplay; / acotura - seduction; dochatir - excite with the fingers; levatir, slang labir - kiss; manoren - caress; paluen - fondle; porocesen - massage; yezhluran - stimulate, arouse; zetrogulo - masturbation; dhumpalel - lesbian lovemaking (not considered sinful in a heterosexual)

    Desire. idureo - desire / dyuzh - lust; dhorina - passion; lübotene - passionate

    Woman. redelcë, slang rhédë, obscene riasni*, kaduloma*, baco*, cruy*, kuda*, sishkuda* - woman; frälina, slang zhina, tilka, koshka, nilne* - young woman, girl; cirula - the little woman, my old lady; fodro* - bitch; ryotka* - frigid, unwilling to put out; rhovoitula - virgin; rhuzë - chesty, bosomy; sevnilna - easy girl, tramp; zhaye, luana - fox, looker

    Breasts. limura, slang gara, narnë

    Vagina. shagati, vlagishe, slang alcalë, ánselcud, kuda*, obscene baco*, cruy*, sishkuda*

    Penis. frond; slang urk, tecai, prozec, leta*, pro*, obscene gob

    Reproduction. lememát - reproduction / ilëgárda, zhonkrof, slang dvazhoc - menstruation; ris - sperm; risora - semen; huvon - egg; leblirát - conception; risdan, slang cundrozhir - impregnate; nasitát - pregnancy; slang rälec, tabosáshe, cundrozhul* - pregnant; nes - birth; malnesan - miscarry, abort

    Prostitution. salui, slang lescoma, guya, proletka - prostitute; ketuom, slang leful - pimp; ketuoma - madam; ketu, slang saluyora - brothel

    Forbidden fruits. mallübor - sexual immorality / acoturom - seducer; berana - harem; beranë - concubine; cogia - adultery; deníe, obscene foirachul - homosexual male; dyuzh - lust; kadutocan, obscene foirachir - have anal sex; kazhina - mistress; kechezhil - pornography; malamórë - lustful, perverse; nilnura - womanizing; pizarda - desire for children or icëlanî; pleronáe - pleasure dome; pona - homosexual, mannish woman; lufe, suin - loose; rhocepele - unfaithful; stupen - rape; tëspler - orgy; zuchuy - perversion

    Other terms. lue - voluptuous; lübise - erotic, sexual, romantic; paktrogulo - sexual intimacy or favor; plero - sensual pleasure; rashe - sexual

    42. GOVERNMENT

    [Contents]
    Royalty. atabo, elordalu - emperor; dalu - king; elrei - queen; sazë - prince; saza - princess; dalu maris - king consort; elrei mare - queen consort

    Noble titles and estates.

    As used in Verduria and most other countries in the Plain.
    dalu king dálua kingdom
    shoh duke shohy duchy
    surcont marquis surcontana marquisate
    cont count, earl contana county
    hipcont viscount hipcontana viscountcy
    beom baron beomana barony
    beomul baronet (honorary)
    shaden knight

    Civil titles and jurisdictions

    In Verduria noble estates are subject to the civil authorities, with the partial exception of shohî and surcontanî, which belong to a given fetöra but not to a shana. Mazhtanî (cities) are also not considered part of a shana.
    dalu king dálua kingdom
    sazhuro governor fetöra province
    esar prefect shana district
    rhivo mayor mazhtana city
    kesharo steward keshana borough
    aldhoro village chief aldea village

    Verdurian military hierarchy: 38. War

    Ancient Cadhinorian hierarchy

    The Cadhinor titles are also given, as well as a numerical rank to tie the various hierarchies together. The Verdurian equivalents are used not only for the writing of history, but in certain legal contexts; some of them are even current in some parts of the Plain.
    1 ATRABEI elordalu emperor ATRABANTOS eloria empire
    2 DALU sazë prince NAIUNOS nazh realm
    3 SCOKHOS sazhuro governor PETHUERA sazhuna division
    4 ESARKH esar prefect SCANNA shana district
    5 COMITOS comit count COMITANDA comitana county
    6 DUSORION altom headman PAGOS pag rural district
    Urban
    2 SANNO sanno lord SATRANDA mazhtana satrë free city
    5 AMARUOS rhivo mayor MACTANA mazhtana city
    6 KESCARION kesharo steward KESCANDA keshana city borough
    6 BANLORION loryo overseer KESUIE kesuë lands (about a city)
    6 DUSORION altom headman CUMUNDA cumuna town
    6 ALATHORION aldhoro elder ALADEIA aldea village
    Military
    3 SAIURION sazhuro governor SAIUNDA sazhuna division
    4 ESARKH esar prefect SCANNA shana district
    5 CALENORION cefsanno warlord CALENOS caln fortress

    Other leaders. altom - leader / anor - elder; burom - officer; chinek - boss; loryo - overseer; shofom - chief; altu - tyrant; gintrovelec - usurper

    Regions. cunnazh - confederacy; eshcontana - grand county; imletuen - precinct, grounds; nazh - state, realm (focus on legal jurisdiction); pázhian - land (focus on area); pironáe - fatherland; scuri - country (focus on community); stal - seat (land within an estate pertaining to the chief lord, not a vassal); kesuë - land attached to a noble or religious post, generally administered by a loryo; grannáe - borderland

    Govern. rhusec - govern / duisir - lead; nachal - rule; rhucor - government; lunuran - appoint; denomen - dismiss; ranát - bureaucracy, the establishment; lunureo - department

    Rule. nazhan - rule, reign / dallengát - reign; imalten - accede; imameto - investiture; indaluát - coronation; satre - sovereign; tengintro - dynasty; velgintro - usurpation

    Institutions. Biyetora - Assembly empowered to elect a king; Eschambra - the Verdurian Parliament; Konselora - King's Council; Kunasha - the Treasury; Mazhtane Kal - City Forum; nazhdenë - state messenger service; mazhtansäte - town hall; redhreo - ministry; sheíra - palace; shofmazhtana - capital

    Politics. guézzovi - politics / crivogués - bureaucracy; cummev - collective action; chambra - council; gués - power; ledhul - representative / dëguran - negotiate; guézzovir - enter into politics; ziziger - intrigue

    Parties. fako - political party / bomrhanec - conservative; imräfë - progressive; oligom, sëoligom - partisan, supporter; Desisec Fako - the Opposition; oligu - faction, clique; cumonora - league

    Votes. elusir - vote / biyeta- royal vote; debiyetan - remove from the electorship; tësvuáë - unanimous

    Foreign affairs. ruscurë - foreign / bocteica - diplomacy; boctura - tribute; gran - border; dalom - ambassador; hipdalom - consul; kanheu - outlander; mevel - treaty; prezuden - passport

    Symbols. cistila - crown; corë - court; gintro - sash of office; yesta - throne; znura - flag, banner

    Types. burogués - bureaucracy; dálugues - monarchy; elusigués, sandálua - republic; meláshtegues - aristocracy; oligugués - oligarchy; zhéngues - democracy

    43. NATIONALITIES

    [Contents]
    rhusulát - civilization

    The Plain. barahine - Barakhuni; benécy - Benecian; caizure - Caizuran; coriy - Curiyan; cunnazhise - Svetlan; ismaë - Ismaîn; kachan - Kachanzan; kebrén - Kebreni; mutkünise - Mútküni; obenzaye - Obenzayan; verdúry - Verdurian

    Ancient times. cadhin - Cadhinorian; cuzeë - Cuzeian; ül muhnar - Monkhayic; munkeashise - Munkhâshi; sarilo - Easterner

    Barbarians. malsfaom - barbarian; iovu - nomad / rudom - hunter/gatherer; eluyemakshy - Eluye-Makshi; rafsany - Rafsani; zanuy - Zanui

    Outside the plain. ahuene - Xurnese; belshaine - of Belshai; dhekname - Dhekhnami; karaum - Qarau; lenanë - Lenani; muhnar - Monkhayu; nanilo - Nanese (n.); odaivun - from O-Dayevu; rhanore - Rhânori; sarnar - Sarnaean; shurë - Skourene

    Races. falom - white man; taëse - relating to the Taëse (eastern Ereláean) race

    Eledhe. ebrene - Jewish; elenike - Greek

    Other intelligent races: 19. Animals

    See also: Cultures of Almea

    44. LAW

    [Contents]
    Law. amrab - law / cadeo - commandment; cazo - law, legal act; clidhel - statute, rule; coamrab - privilege; mör - protocol; dalumize - official, standard; retec - standard; zhoren - guarantee / rhoamrabe - illegal; desaten - abolish

    Authority. droë - right, power, authority; nachalát - authority, rule

    Status. amrabise - de jure; guésise - de facto; nomise - nominal; pázhiom - citizen; munese - public; ziëcse - private

    Person. ctel - person, party; uom - party, individual

    Trial. lichy - lawsuit, trial / asha - session; sud - court / voitec lichín - sue; orivan lichim - appeal; prosfahen - represent; málemel - complaint; malemiles - plaintiff

    Enforcement. cilu - police, guardsmen; keshuen - arrest

    Accusation. kazec - accuse; culpir - blame; bäzec - claim

    Confession. zet kazec confess, admit; rodher - excuse

    Judgement. celëtir - judge, discern / curien - deliberate, consider; nomen - deem; ovnel - judgment; sudir - judge, condemn; sudiel - decision, sentence

    Guilt. sanchucesa - innocence / lukul - guilty; sanchuce - innocent

    Punishment. skazia - punishment / kozuir - cast out, exile; sudir - condemn; skazir - punish / gécul - dungeon; tyurma - prison

    Obedience. imuran - obey; urokeshen - fulfill (a duty); agmuran - disobey; trolädan - violate

    Permission. mifan - allow; prodan - grant /azhmifan - revoke; rhomifan - prohibit; isletuen - forbid

    Legal forms. chaset - stamp, seal; den - form; fizir - seal; glashul - announcement, notice; hribret - license; iduret - court order, writ; matuäm - warrant; mevel - contract; precet - petition; prokibi - proclamation; vocet - summons, subpoena / crivan - write, fill out; dan - issue; imbineyen - list, record, enter; imivren - register

    Ownership. ziecurec - own / attenec - belong; rhaner - keep; imesan - occupy; cuncurec - hold jointly / fsitenec - hold under false pretenses

    Property. ziëca - property / imletuen - grounds, lot; kesel - with associated lands; kesuë - land; zhescaln - domain, dominion

    Inheritance. delazhec - receive, inherit; pirodonul - inheritance

    Feudalism. oray - estate, fief; orayec - vassal, fiefholder; orayul - overlord, lord

    Freedom. rhisát - freedom / incoren - royal hostage; tyurmul - prisoner; devhezec - indentured servant; basom - slave; tenu - slave / imrhisan - free

    Theft: 36. Sin

    45. MONEY

    [Contents]
    Money. kuna - money / leta - coin; orhula - gold piece; zhoya - jewel; pelant - main coin of ancient times / metals commonly used for coins: arzhent - silver; emur - silver/tin alloy; orh - gold / zetdeche - bank draft

    Gems: 16. Substances

    Coins of Eretald: Kingdom of Verduria document

    Buy/Sell. emec - buy; zhusir - sell / primetan - offer; dëguran - haggle, negotiate; prinimec - accept; cumaudët - conditions; agechir - reject; ashetir - redeem; proskadec - compensate

    Spend. dorshetir - spend / dan - give, spend; platir - pay; trodan - waste money

    Price. adezhel - cost, purchase price (buyer's perspective); leshel - price, selling price (seller's perspective) / sholiser - cost; naschura - fee

    Costliness. kundimo - expense / bilic - cheap; kunondise - expensive; rës - costly; rhanäm - valuable

    Poverty. licre - poor / pricurec - beggar; pugeise - bankrupt; sankune - penniless; feyel - alms; nagobo - hobo

    Riches. bogaty - rich / munifa - splendor; obad - prosperous; opon - wealth

    Luxury. telnëra - luxury / comdalue - princely, luxurious; fintát - quality; berhotá - bad taste

    Savings. fanir - save / alcalë - treasure; matica - purse

    Accounting. römát - accounting / andedau - profit; crif - ledger; demedau - loss; dumora - account, file; dürí - credit; dürio - asset; gocrea - balance sheet; isuväm - payable; kedimo - bill, check; pória - liability; porui - debit; prosnucosh - receipt; voitäm - receivable

    Opposites. dürí - credit; porui - debit / dürio - asset; pória - liability / hiptosheo - deficit / lagu - income; zhüngu - expenses

    Investment. keladan - invest / bemát - capital; kela - stake, interest

    Loan. mutec - loan; muchir - borrow; deväm - debt, obligation; gëmésha - mortgage

    Taxes. decë - tithe, tax; deskuna - toll; imröma - customs; Kunasha - the Treasury

    Rent. dörlöen - rent (what lessee does); imloën - rent out (what lessor does); loën - rent (either); loy - rent (payment)

    Betting. parir - bet, gamble; zakladan - bet, wager, contest

    Tendency to spend. clesny - frugal; shupo - miser; zhure - generous; trodonec - spendthrift

    Abuses. corp - bribe; durnkun - extortion; nogachia - usury

    46. TRADE

    [Contents]
    Trade. celdoni - trade / mers - market; mershshäte - agora; susaré - shop, store; vlesta - fair, festival, market; zhusäm - merchandise; inceldan - import; isceldan - export / melürec - shop

    Business. cumbutát - partnership, company / cumbutom - partner; innesan - found; prorivan - advertise; rheznáe - workshop; snucäm - customer

    Types of business. akeshui - insurance; celkunom - moneychanger; fascom - manufacturer; kedhnáe - factory; kunnáe - bank, brokerage; lescom - merchant; lescomásh - merchant prince; lescomul - shopowner; ruzhkunom - moneylender; zhusec - vendor

    Employment. munëi - job, career, task / mondan - hire, employ; isuvuan - fire; samrheze - unemployed; prolazhec - earn; lodimo - wages / chinek - boss; mondec - employer; redh - clerk; rhezec - worker

    47. CRAFT

    [Contents]
    Work. rhez - work, job / basrhez - toil; cumrhez - cooperation; medhi - job, profession; ctuzete - artificial; neron - guild; prolete - worker; rhezek - task; urok - work, craft, manufacture

    Rest. proshalea - rest; cäma - holiday; azhuvea - vacation

    Experience level. etec - dabbler, novice; ebrák - apprentice; lebom - novice; neronom - full guild member; osän - master

    Crafts. medhiát - craft / curulelát - navigation; dhitelát - engineering; dhumát - masonry; egulát - sewing; endya - carpentry; felát - sailing; fevát - carving; genturoki - metalworking; gunát - armormaking; impuyát - printing; orhurokec - goldsmithing, orhiznakir - emblazon; pazhakát - mapmaking, impazhaken - map; säteviso - architecture; sizhnáe - smithy, täven - forge; teloro - instrument maker; testasát - weave, testasosh - loom / urokec - maker, forger, creator

    For Verdurian guilds, see The Kingdom of Verduria

    48. CITY

    [Contents]
    Types of city. mazhtana - city / aldea, dan - village; cumuna, mazhula - town; cer - port; lebnáe - colony; oshai - haven / lacuen - settle

    Parts of city. keshana - borough; ezhes - neighborhood, quarter / Scafiora - waterfront (Thieves') Quarter in Verduria

    Roads. dhitel - road / ban - passage, way; berda - path, trail; desi - bridge; esdhitel - highway; prosia - (main) street; prosúlia - minor street; ruiso - alley; scafi - dock

    see also 12. Movement

    Open land. shushnáe - cemetary; niëma - park; lagana - square; toranda - fountain

    Buildings. cebrel - building; donta - block

    Government. densäte - archives; gécul - dungeon; imrömora - customs-house; kal - forum; redhreo - ministry; sheíra - palace

    Food and lodging. anieprusi - singles bar; chaináe - tearoom; hornáe - hotel; caunáe - coffeehouse; lesteo - restaurant; nuvora - dormitory; prusi - inn; vifmitáe - tavern; zerlesteo - 'pizzeria' / pitu - tip

    see also 24. Food

    Shops. susaré - shop / ivrora - bookseller's; lëkadnáe - apothecary; mershshäte - agora; myasnáe - butchershop; bulonnáe - bakery

    Recreation. dhiecnáe - racetrack; lättom - arena; ketu - brothel; onela - bath

    Culture. ardënda - monument; crifsäte - scriptorium; furnáe - theater; ivrosäte - library; suzanosh - memorial; shriftanáe - university; taläte - museum

    Other. etol - warehouse; kedhnáe - factory; maladnáe - hospital; neronsäte - guild hall; shualnáe - stable

    See also 46. Trade, 55. Religion

    49. HOUSES

    [Contents]
    House. dom - house / zhes - home; rhache - private

    Parts of a room. aknó - window; caro - pane; dher - door; ftalók - ceiling; letuë - wall; pol - floor; churata - hearth; akchaska - firescreen; kasheza - screen, half-wall

    Types of house. chayma - tent; skala - hut, hovel; zhatatún - shed, pavilion; atna - cabin; atuny - apartment; sheíra - palace; ubreza - shelter; üvéza - mansion

    Rooms in a house. atún - room / audnáe - living room; cave - basement; cayun, dhaonáe - washroom; dosic - hallway; dheratún - vestibule; fannáe - closet, store-room; iretazh - attic; nuvnáe - bedroom; prannáe - dining room; rälnáe - kitchen; säte - hall

    Architectural elements. baruk - Cadhinorian patio; cëmura - column, pillar; dazhy - framework; etazh - storey; foruneo - balcony; gorat - tower; ilosha - arch; iloshora - arcade; nizheza - chimney; polfond - foundation; uleta - step; uletora - staircase; zöm - gate; zhof - roof

    Outside the house. car - courtyard; puto - well; seft - fence; sitana - yard; zhat - garden

    Persons. atunec - roommate; domzhina - chambermaid

    Verbs. saten - build; zhesan - live (at)

    50. FURNITURE

    [Contents]
    dafro - piece of furniture

    Seats. ferior - chair / asuena - seat, chair; shama - bench; shamek - stool; zhicse - cushion; nazheza - couch; diván - sofa

    Beds. nuva- bed / aran - cradle; pidhnuva - crib; minka - mat / poshásh - mattress; lambra - sheet; surbarúc - blanket; orelosh - pillow

    Tables. metta - table / flayka - desk; ray - shelf

    Carpetry. escaë - carpet; escatelë - tapestry; forhel - curtain, drapes

    Other. fanul - cabinet, chest; galumo - bathtub; pëch - stove; rayora - set of shelves; umo - tub, sink

    51. UTENSILS

    [Contents]
    brurhy - tool

    Cleaning. palanir - sweep; palán - broom; cepil - brush; kirka - rag; buas - sponge

    Desk. nozhranosh - scissors; yezhil - pen; fucosh - pencil

    Door. ans - handle; ansel - key; ánselcud - keyhole; ber - lock; shëno - hinge

    Drink. ciposh - kettle; dhuro - flagon; glacu - mug, stein; lazhna - bottle; stekana - glass; tash - cup; verae - wineglass; bushosh - cork; prenbushosh - corkscrew

    Food. chana - pot; chine - dish, plate; pelvo - bowl; rhit - pan; dhazhika - sieve; dasek - tray

    Garden/Farm. fac - yoke; gravil - rake; mochüka - hoe; pela - shovel, spade; troz - ax; vili - pitchfork

    Grooming. durosh - toothbrush; havlu - towel; peny - comb; razosh - razor; rihë - mirror

    Instruments. teleo - instrument; horteleo - clock; chüta - balance; lëtiy - lens; lëtyora - spectacles; mepuyosh - pump; merteleo - gauge; ontedidha - watch; resteklo - telescope; leleza - microscope; shalechüta - barometer; calteleo - thermometer

    Light. glaza - lamp; tshurglaza - torch

    Metallurgy. sizho - forge, furnace for forging metals; auva - mold

    Sewing. testasosh - loom; shnin - pin; egula - needle

    Tableware. cuyo - spoon; tranosh - knife; vilka - fork; chilanë - napkin; metteza - tablecloth

    Unmentionables. katy - spittoon; matela - chamberpot

    Workshop. curosh - pliers; dauto - chisel; moleza - hammer; sfica - nail; tëcosh - saw; vinte - screw; vintosh - screwdriver / das - board

    Other. akpluya - umbrella; closh - bell; donyosh - candle; fazholo - ticket; lialec - lever; siiru - wheel; siirukesha - brake; snur - rope; snurek - thread; shaleza - fan; tuyo - pipe; zhovosh - ladder

    Containers: 8. Contents

    Machines. niru - machine / niruom - robot; sfuteniru - clockwork, machinery; zetbezhe - automatic; nirul - apparatus; satotá - contraption

    Verbs. bezhir - work; boshnan - stop working; imbezhir - fix; indobren - adjust; onegulen - mend; sterer - operate a machine; addobre - adjustment

    52. WEAPONS

    [Contents]
    brigosh - weapon

    Edged weapons. cardhë - sword, scimitar / belaca - straight sword; epüa - spear; glavo - broadsword; hauttroz - halberd; tecai - dagger; tranosh - knife / vlagishe - sheath

    Other weapons. arc - bow; streli - arrow; strelima - dart; krhumbil - bomb; pushec - cannon, gun; pushpula - cannonball; fikshi - whip; snocu - club

    Defense. casi - helmet; chunima - shield; gunë - armor

    Verbs. acclasmir - parry; büten - aim; clasmir - wield, swing; kdhuzec - stab; krhumban - explode; siblir - miss; shishan - shoot

    See also 38. War

    53. RURAL LIFE

    [Contents]
    Persons. rurom - peasant / hutorom - farmer; hutorsnugá, snugá - farmhand; griuzhina - farm-maiden; grogec - miller; ihtüec - fisherman; motucöm - shepherd; ucöm - herdsman

    Farm. hutor - farm / bouhutor - dairy; luteon - orchard; mesti - field; meu - furrow; susuleta - terrace; zhat - garden; risnáe - barn; nurzhosh - manger

    Verbs. meuden - to plow; relir - sow; meyan - water; recolir - harvest; grogec - mill, grind; sterer - tend; yagen - hunt; kedhen - produce, yield

    Other terms. detöshen - geld; enttrane - woodcutting; irdha - crop; irdhimo - yield; ofóry - fertile; rura - the countryside

    See also 20. Plants, 24. Food

    54. SCIENCE

    [Contents]
    Where we speak of 'science' Verdurians are more apt to speak of ripriroda 'philosophy', of which the study of nature is still considered a part. Visanora is in origin 'curriculum, studies', and has come to mean 'established knowledge.'

    The division of the sciences below is that of the Verdurians, and in many places reflects the history of Verdurian science, as well as the organizational divisions of Verdurian universities. Each division as a whole can be referred to using the first term in each set.

    General. etahicete - mathematical; onteca - experiment; prilicole - realist; shriftanáe - university; visano - field of study; visanora - science; zhuyse onteca scientific method

    Scientist. shriftom - doctor, professor; visanom - scientist; shrifsäshue - know-it-all

    Instruments: 51. Utensils

    ripriroda - philosophy / curayora - logic; hiceteviso - mathematics; elut - ethics /

    pleschura - history / so amrab - law; hinát - geography; kunát - economics; rhucoriviso - political science

    kestora - natural philosophy / bezhiviso - dynamics; dascoviso - zoology; duneviso - physics; eliriviso - biology; mecliviso - chemistry; susoviso - geology; syeleviso - astronomy; vezhiviso - botany

    daroveviso - medicine / zerhasheviso - herblore; cerhecát - alchemy

    Mathematics. surmeto - addition; demeto - subtraction; childoni - division; tësculë - multiplication; huepát - formula; dazhy - grid; scerno - axis; aletasces - maximum; basasces - minimum / eidoloviso - geometry

    See also 30. Ideas, 59. Writing, 9. Shape and Form

    55. RELIGION

    [Contents]
    rhemuris - religion, traditional belief

    Gods. adh - god / adha - goddess; adhicole - divine, godly; creec - the Creator

    Holiness. rhem - sacred / imrheman - consecrate; irhodom - hallowed; vacre - altar; zheiza - shrine

    Revelation. adhontu - vision, revelation; dorot - prophecy, omen; dhat - sign; kesir - possess; terato - miracle; zhantan - prophesy

    Clergy. adhomát - clergy; adhom - cleric; calnadhom - chaplain; osän - guru; zhantom - prophet

    Monasticism. surreca - monasticism, solitude / amrab - monastic rule or order; azhcita - monastery; ceno - abbot; suloro - monk, hermit; sulorei - nun

    Observance. hunnachal - spiritual discipline or observance / cuenda - festival; krovuresa - sacrifice; lelesa - faith; orer - pray; risuresa - offering; rhemnáe - temple; samnurzha - fast; scustebrát - mortification; uesa - ceremony; uris - worship; vaglädec - pilgrim; vosel - invocation; zetcuro - abstinence

    Philosophy. sör - fate; bunori - fortune; dësul - creature; fant - soul (after death); itian - spirit, soul; mezinë - Divine Order; rhezy - eternal

    Specific beliefs. Irreanát - Irreanism; Andazhuei - Endajué; Behusa - Bezuxao; rham - cult

    Irreligion. samadhise - atheist; adhivazhir - blaspheme

    Eledhe. Eledhát - Eledhe religion; eledhe - Eledhe; Arashei worshipper of Iainos; Elenico - one of the Eleniki, follower of Mihel

    God. dhinát - trinity / Eledh - Eledh (Ei:ledan), Iesu Cüedul - the Messiah; Iain - Iáinos; so Itian, Ulone - Ulo:ne

    Spirits. anëly - angel; einalandaua - angel, eternal spirit; vyozha - primal force

    Devils. amnigo - corrupted angel; Ekaia - chief of the rebellious spirits in heaven; Amnäi - chief of the demons on Almea

    Places. shdhesna - hell; Izhoräne - Purgatory; Oräna - heaven; Oikumene - the Earth

    Church. adheton - church; adhetonáe - church building; mestináe - cathedral; lüsi - Glade

    Hierarchy.
    lebom deacon
    clidhu priest doligu parish
    cüre curate cürana curacy
    ilneo bishop, overseer mesti diocese
    altilneo archbishop altmesti archdiocese
    anorul cardinal
    perarh patriarch perarhát patriarchate

    Special terms. cüeden - anoint; dashká - amen; etëlevi - gospel; imelirec - indwell; immeyan - baptize; karyu - grace; nëron - saint, holy; onnes - rebirth; profäsec - disciple; sabato - sabbath; shorucole - infidel; veadhen - love (agape:); voyul - apostle; zurem - mass

    Paganism. tësadhát, ül uris - Cadhinorian paganism

    Divine beings. Enäron, Ishira, etc.; hezhadh - Guardian (2nd Age); gaiei - one of the Fates; fant - dead soul or other powerful being; ovneladh - Judge in afterlife; vyozha - elemental spirit

    Demons. kezonul - demon; chéltevar - archdemon; ftacu - elemental monster; kezonát, Gelalát - Gelalát; Kezul, Gelalh - chief demon

    Places. ishária - paradise; Ilávrinor - Limbo; chel shorui - hell; Adhunac - 1st age residence of gods

    Hierarchy.
    lebom acolyte
    clidhu priest senge presbyterate
    altclidhu vicar decsenge vicarate
    cüre curate cürana curacy
    altcüre high curate altcurana high curacy
    eshcüre, vacuran primate eshcurana primacy
    perarh patriarch perarhát patriarchate

    Special terms. adhnáe - temple; huca - oracle; cletana - priestly seminary

    See also Almean Belief Systems

    56. MAGIC

    [Contents]
    Magic. alcedla - magic / shray - archaic grammarye; vyozha - magical force; zobát - lore, nature magic

    Spells. ëdich - spell, enchantment; prokel - curse / nechan - enchant; isnechan - disenchant, dispel

    Magician. alcedlom - magician / ëdichi - witch; fodro - enchantress; lozhiur - lojur, Xurnese court magician; zobom - loremaster; bosmizë - fortuneteller

    Hierarchy. ebrák - apprentice; zhouom - conjuror; imscrifel - initiate; garlo - warlock; zobom - sorceror; alcedsanno - necromancer; shrayom - wizard

    57. ART AND CULTURE

    [Contents]
    General. lelitsala - art; mencora - culture, the academy / mazhtanul - civilized; cletandre - pedantic; mecrel - mixed-media; menca - school

    Skill level. etec - dabbler; fsurë - starving artist; imlelul - exhibitor; sfahul - latest rage; yanul - successful artist; mashre lelitsalom - master artist

    Exhibition. imlelen - exhibit; ontnáe - gallery

    Music. aladhea - music / macua - popular music; pëtan - play; rhorha - minstrel

    Elements. caturo - rhythm; chima - note; lir - measure; lirnora - lyrics; shant - melody / tompec - beat the rhythm

    Song. shant - song/ cevai - chant, psalm; rezhuchia - ballad; sorea - a love song / zashantan - burst into song; see also Dance

    Vocal ranges. plisel - range, part / nizze - baritone; ponyore - bass, low tenor; sëte - countertenor, contralto; molë - alto; lihse - soprano

    Musical character. bardaum - stormy, ritualistic, exultant; cainesh - harsh, mechanical; cleir - majestic, powerful, assured; creshmädörn - rhythmic, compelling, sad, rising then falling; creshvoce - compelling, powerful through quiet; cuélzulë - joyful, melodic, brassy; dálues - jovial, good, strong; didhitise - delicate, pretty; launes - smoothly repetitive, minimalist; mädörn - majestic, powerful, masterful; milüür - sad, poignant; razumse - ordered, mathematical, contrapuntal; tichure - melodic, complex, lively; zhazharke - boisterous, foot-tapping

    Instruments. pëtul - instrument / endi - violin bow; fil - string; tecla - key

    Woodwinds. endi - woodwind / hautendi - oboe; kena - flute; kenula - piccolo, high-pitched flute; lüra - bassoon, low-toned flute; mishu caizure - bagpipe; siku - pan-flute

    Percussion. badhul - percussion instrument / bashti - the sticks; closh - bell; chana - kettledrum, metal drum; chinya - triangle or other metal badhul; klesh - cymbals; klok - blocks, produces knocks, rasps; teclora - clavier; taca - castanets, produces clicks; tompom - drum

    Brass. laitón - brass instrument / cleru - bass horn; crundina - long horn; crunya - trumpet; chiplin - bugle; tefalu - horn; tefalu bulse - round horn

    Strings. dronul - stringed instrument / chishte - Ismaîn mandolin; dichura - sitar, zither; drona - guitar; endivyón - violin; viond sëte - viola; viond nizze - cello; vyon - lyre

    Play. pëtan - play / badhir - hit (drums, keys); drocen - pluck; dronen - strum; klokan - knock; shalean - blow, play (trumpets, flutes, etc.)

    Dance. lavísia - dance / bechón - fast Ismaîn dance; fírita - a courtship dance; zhazharka - fast, rhythmic dance; derigime - a fast, noisy dance

    Drama. furát - drama / ralinë - play; furan - act, produce; tranel - act; furnáe - theater; adeleca - Barakhinei comedy

    Drawing. risunát - drawing / behdel - picture; bemásh - cartoon; pazhaka - map; yezilát - calligraphy; rofulát - engraving / defulüren - erase

    Painting. fäbát - painting (art) / fäb - paint; cisa - brush; fäbosh - painting (object) / irprile - surrealist

    Sculpture. chehát - sculpture (art) / chehosh - sculpture (object); dhumëbenda - statue; dhumëgórzhi - gargoyle

    See also 59. Writing

    58. SPEECH

    [Contents]
    Discourse. sfahe - speech / celsfahe - conversation; etertót - quarrel; etësfahe - discussion; praten - talk, chat; tësfahen - discuss; voy - message; vuá - voice

    Words. log - word; nom - name; lozhise - literal

    Speech acts. advechen - answer, reply; aklogen - contradict, deny; akmizec - disagree; apeluan - call; befelan - command; beshanen - promise; cavir - warn; cuesan - ask; cummizec - agree; etasfahen - refer to, speak of; etertotan - argue; zet feyen - complain; glashan - announce; gromnec - threaten; imseltan - admit, reveal; issirec - tell (a story); izgechir - remark; konsir - advise; legan - lie, mislead; lestuen - flatter; malmizec - speak ill of; mizec - say, tell; mametec - advocate; maumec - gripe; ocorbir - insult; otalmizec - bear witness, attest; preser - request; presizer - plead; proetec - swear; prokibir - proclaim; proklir - curse; pronimec - propose; propuyan - insist; kazec - accuse; raconter - tell; renemec - repeat; sfafken - inform; trasfahen - exaggerate; vocan - invoke; zhicoir - dispute, quarrel

    Genre. acinul - rumor; opinion; eshahe - sermon, address; issirula - fable, anecdote, story; kallogát - rhetoric, oratory; kallogi - speech; lertlog - maxim, aphorism; pidhë - anecdote, story; zhenmize - proverb; zhensulirul - idiom

    Joke. misotá - joke / chisimotá - pun, play on words; tisirotá - witticism; zicua - mockery

    Manner. coec - croak; dacdacir - babble; cüncünir - whine; tatatir - chatter; gelvo - moan; gronen - grumble; keshashdan - pause; kielsfahe - tone of voice; papapir - mutter; rhote - hoarse; rhunan - grunt; sosir - whisper

    Shout. badair - scream; kibir - shout; iskrichen - exclaim, cry out; krichen - cry; ushican - yell

    Translation. celmetan - translate; levivrec - lip-read

    Characteristics. pratecole - talkative; samsfahe - mute

    See also 37. Conflict

    59. WRITING

    [Contents]
    Books. ivro - book / cëmura - column, page; crif - scroll, manuscript; crifom - scribe Parts. cëmura - column, page; crivel - text; duna - chapter, scene; hora - act (of a play); perecrivel - preface Places. crifsäte - scriptorium; ivrora - bookseller's shop; ivrosäte - library

    Materials. fucosh - pencil; fulüra - ink; minë - paper; yezhil - pen; den - document; dumora - notebook, folder

    Verbs. crivan - write; dhayecrivan - spell; hipcrivan - sign; curonan - edit; imlelen - publish; induman - note, record; ivrec - read; plican - copy; subran - cite

    Style. iscuncrivát - simple style, 'prose'; eyurcrivát - elevated style, 'poetry'; iscun - simple, direct, unadorned; eyure - poetic, literary, elevated

    Genres. The eight traditional genres, and some subgenres:
    pomäe - chronicle, myth, legend, zonpomäe - chronicle, history, rocá - epic
    racont - tale, story, account, lebivro - novel, pleschura - history, pisá - report
    shant - song (see 57. Art)
    cevai - chant
    ralinë - play
    kallogi - speech
    onemu - treatise, essay, account, manual; imbolëo - commentary; kob - headword
    curayora - argument, proof, discourse, manifesto

    Subject. murebode - fantasy; romobode - tragedy; ridibode - comedy; coelibode - romance; cäpibode - devotional art

    Tone. coacino - irony

    Poetry. eyure - poetic, literary; lirát - poetics; sulinora - lyrics; syele - lyric

    Metrics. lirosh - poem; sulírn - line; sulirul - phrase, half-line; alte - accent, beat; base - unaccented syllable; altora - metrical pattern

    Embellishments. commizo - semi-refrain; dhunmizo - parallelism; onmizo - refrain; nenalte - syllabic repetition; nenavuá - alliteration; neneresau - rhyme; tombo - lapse into prose; forheo - suspense; umizo - metaphor

    Schools. menca - school; cadhin - Cadhinorian; üllebe - Old New; leblebe, uvrul - New New; shohe - Ducal

    Script. comcrifát - script, writing; comcrifata - lower case; mecrelise - mixed case; üla - upper case

    Correspondence. brevë - short letter, note; dum - note, memorandum; pisá - letter; shadecî - commercial messenger service; zhesglashul - invitation

    News. lebi - news; prorivel - advertisement; tutanél - newspaper, magazine; ushiclebi - town crier

    Puzzles. kiel-e - riddle; shrailozhi - cipher; shraizeni - code

    60. LANGUAGE

    [Contents]
    rhon - language

    Grammar. aluatas - grammar; cumbectia - syntax; logora - dictionary; mizo - expression; zhenshate - idiomatic; vuá - sound

    Sounds. fucec - consonant; pentec - vowel

    Parts of speech. kest lozhië - part of speech / ecelóg - regular adverb; etalóg - adjective; ktëlog - preposition; nom - noun; mevlog - verb; nom promevec - anaphor; kansile - correlative; raspuyec - form word-- particle, conjunction; scolisec - indefinite pronoun; perunec - superlative; valtec - comparative; zetopfëë - reflexive

    Form. ifkecot - form, morphological variant / laun - paradigm; loglaun - conjugation, declension; nengeca - agreement; arhemë - negative; curesec - interrogative

    Gender. dinë - gender / ionile - feminine; cer - masculine; suy - neuter

    Case. cot - case / etamizë - nominative; tenec - genitive; opfëe - accusative, direct object; prenec - dative, indirect object

    Number. dimo - number / anröma - singular; dhunröme - plural

    Person. cot - person / cot sfahecei - first person; cot oecei - second person; cot telië - third person

    Tense. didha - tense / izhcrifel - past anterior; scrifel - past; demeric, esec - present; ctanec - future; epesec - conditional tense / befel - imperative; mevdonec - participle

    The Cadhinor verb. prilise - definite; buprilise - subjunctive; olocec - dynamic; nuncre - static

    Symbols. znak - letter; znakora - alphabet / vuáë - voice mark; lenge - long mark; mole - soft mark; breve - short mark

    Punctuation. znakî provecî - punctuation / keshash - pause sign; bolyáshe keshash - period; iskricha - exclamation mark; cues - question mark; shircaî - appositive signs

    Types of speech. avelotá - Avelanism; basfahe - slang; cadhinotá - archaism; chorec - fluent; domsfahe - dialect, patois; milyörhun - lower-class speech; parnise - laconic; rurotá - ruralism; seshuesa - accent; (sfahe) shriftanéi - standard (Verdurian)

    Languages. ahuenásh - Xurnásh; barahinei - Barakhinei; cadhino - Cadhinor; cuezi - Cuêzi; ebrerhon - Hebrew; elcarrhon - Elkarûl; eteodäole - Eteodäole, ilian; fleadrhon - Flaidish; Ismaën - Ismaîn; kebrenei - Kebreni; Sarroc - Sarroc; soa Sfahe - Verdurian; so pere rhon - proto-Eastern; telise - Western

    61. ADVERBS

    [Contents]
    Location. hípece - down; írece - up; isscurin - abroad; ishshesán - out, from home; nezhesán - at home; surnavír - aboard; uborden - ashore

    Emphasis. adecan - just, exactly; izhefsë - especially, most of all; ërece - in fact, actually, really; mudhe - most; muán - least; purho - certainly, surely; tana - indeed, truly

    Logic. otál - as, also, too, furthermore, so; cechélece - thereby; duya - therefore; ozë - thus; urë - then, therefore, hence

    Pragmatics. acotál - besides, anyway; azhana - at least, at worst; erotál - moreover, furthermore; ledhad - for example; rhomuán - nonetheless; tësitál - anyhow, going back to the subject at hand; zdésece - herein

    Aktionsarten. dénuo - continually, habitually, repeatedly; elnora - still, yet, more; núnece - just, about to, right now; sicha - just now, right now, right then; ya - indeed, even; indication of completed action; yatá - already

    Direction. dosán - backward; fasadán - forward; hipán - downward; dhitelán - ahead, onward, forth; irán - upward

    Extent. arashó - very much, much, quite; ger - hardly; tidimo - somewhat; isu - enough; such that; very; lyö - very; níbece - at all; parha - approximately; prosice - almost; tro - too much; rhóece - not at all; áltece - at the most; básece - at the least

    Time. aproste - later, afterward; descairon - sometimes; ízhece - before; nirto - often; nunei - henceforth; pronun - meanwhile; proshe - next, then; sicha - just now; ticairon - some time; vremë - thenceforth; vremya - then

    Other. nochula - together; on - again; back to; shekeshan - finally, at last; torin - apart, into pieces

    62. CONJUNCTIONS

    [Contents]
    ac - but
    dezike - while
    dy - that, than
    eluá - behold; here is, here are
    er - and; both; plus
    esce - is it that; whether
    esli - if
    hoyan - although
    iy- or, either
    iyotra - otherwise
    ni - neither, nor
    prokena - because
    sedau - however
    ut - if only

    63. INTERJECTIONS

    [Contents]
    ar - yes; rho - no

    ave - hail! hello! emai! - hello!
    icë - present, here
    urave - please; dëkuy - thanks, a thank you
    nish - fine, OK, great

    ay - ouch! ec - hey! well! cha - well! nu - well! aa - uh, er; uy - oh! iosu - alas
    krodhi - damn! chuza! - shit! futash - fuck! rashe - frigging

    64. QUANTIFIERS

    [Contents]
    None. suy - none, not any, no; nish - zero

    One. an - one, single; anise - only, unique, sole; so - the; sul - only, sole, alone

    Some. nib - any; ti - some

    Few. des - several; pey - few; dhes - several; bumushe - not many; dhun - two

    Many. benge - most; boce - plenty; bolë - much; mushe - many; muatë - half

    All. chil - each; perë - whole, entire; shi - every; tëse - all

    Other. dernë - last; etasule - particular; fäsul - left; other; otre - another; tal - such, so; tar - either one; tele - other

    See also "Numbers" in the Grammar.

    Virtual Verduria