The Verdurian’s three names
Names and marriage
Terms of address
Noble and clerical titles
The three sources of nomî
Family names (ženatî)
In form the pirei is simply the genitive of the father’s name: Nícolo → Nícolei, Abend → Abendei. Among the upper classes girls are sometimes named with a matronymic (mirei) instead. In exceptional cases (for instance, when the mother is a sovereign queen), a boy may receive a mirei.
Thus Belgobán’s The Fall of the Abolinerons is in Verdurian So Tombo Abolineronië.
The ženata is masculine in form for males, feminine for females. Thus the sister of Ihano Atirey would be Terásia Atirea. Feminine ženatî are formed according to uniform rules:
masc. ending fem. ending -cons. Arin -a Arina -o Pavleto -e Pavlete -u Žiradu -i Žiradi -uy Zanuy -i Zanui -ey Belgey -ea Belgea
Where the ženata is an adjective, the regular feminine form is used, of course; and where it is a genitive (e.g. Eltuë, Caizure), there is no distinct feminine form.
Noble titles have genders of their own, and are declined according to that gender, not that of the titleholder:
nom. gen. Maria conta Ulian Marë conte Ulianei Ondorot Cont Scušana Ondorotei contei Scušane
Titles derived from genitives (e.g. Pelymei) again do not decline.
Families and descent have always been important in Caďinorian society, and the patronymic was used in imperial times. It was not considered part of a person’s name, but was a means of disambiguation (Antaevon Scurrinevii), along with places of origin (Dareios Seraeoroť ‘of Seraeor’), occupations (Turredoroť etromorion ‘the schoolteacher’), and adjectives (Ponereslos rukhris ‘the quick’).
The patronymic became more important in feudal times, when occupations were passed on father to son. The baronial clerks would register a baby’s birth under the name of the father; this was done, among other reasons, to prevent young men from representing themselves as members of another profession than their father’s. In some backward countries, notably Hežina, ženatî are unknown, and the name + patronymic combination is still known as the nom beomei, the “baron’s name.”
Even in late Caďinorian times there was an increasing tendency to repeat ancestral names rather than devise new names, and by the medieval era the stock of acceptable name elements had greatly diminished. Names and even names plus patronymic no longer served well to distinguish persons. Nicknames, names of occupations, places of origin, and other distinguishing marks were increasingly brought into play; and these are, of course, the origin of the modern ženatî.
Since the Family Law of 3047, all persons residing in the province of Verdúria have been required to have ženatî. (Those who had none were required to pay a fee to register one with the authorities. For a few centuries this regulation in effect amounted to a tax on foreigners, those most likely to be samženatî.)
The exception is when a noblewoman marries a commoner (or, increasingly, when the daughter of some commercial magnate marries beneath her); in this case the husband assumes the more illustrious name of his wife. (When the marriage is annulled the courts have ruled that the husband no longer has a right to the name as originally spelled; which accounts for a sprinkling of variations of prestigious names, as, Aržentey, Aržentei, Aržantey.)
Thus Antonio Petrei Eluceon would be known as graženom Eluceon; Sara Beretei Caleona would be graženka Caleona.
(Someone without ženata is unlikely to be addressed formally; but if there is occasion to do so the proper form is honorific + nom: graženom Calto. To so address a Verdurian would be taken as an insult— calling him a rustic and a foreigner to boot.)
Those in official positions are addressed by their title plus ženata in the course of their duties:
ovnelom Bardëy Judge Bardëy širo Pivor Lieutenant Pivor
The rules for when to use formal address are complex. Generally, shopkeepers and clerks use it with customers; servants with their employers; bureaucrats and professionals with those of middle class rank and above; bourgeois with strangers of the same class and above; students with teachers; the upper class with strangers of the middle class.
Formal address is most characteristic of the middle class— they like to use it, and they like to be called by it. The lower classes use it only when they have to deal with the classes above them; the upper classes treat it much more lightly.
The next degree of familiarity is the nom er pirei. This is how strangers call each other among the lower class; it is also how anyone from casual acquaintances to fairly good friends address each other among the bourgeois. It is how a merchant is allowed to address a favorite customer, and how a professor calls a student. It is a common form of address also in rural areas.
Employers generally call their servants by the ženata alone (except in Aránicer, where, quirkily, the pirei alone is used). This form of address is common wherever a sort of distanced familiarity is the norm— among soldiers, students in universities and exclusive schools, employees of the same large institution or office. Nicknames are also common in these environments.
With close friends (wherever they are found) and family one of course uses the nom sul (given name only). Schoolchildren, monastics, artists, and close-knit teams of workers use the same intimate form of address.
The use of formal tu generally correlates with use of formal address or name and patronymic; that of intimate le with the use of ženata or nom alone.
There is, naturally, regional variation in the application of these standards. By the standards of the rest of the Plain, Verdurians are uncommonly quick to use informal terms of address— although by American standards they remain quite formal. The southern and eastern countries are more formal than the Verdurians. Rural areas are more formal, but above all more uniform, than urban— many fewer nuances exist.
The usual form of direct address for nobles and prelates is the nom followed by the title:
Caloton šoh Duke Caloton Ihano ilneo Bishop John Alric Dalu King Alric
On second reference the title alone (šoh, ilneo, etc.) will do; also common are locutions such as estát lë ‘your greatness’, řemát lë ‘your holiness’.
The more powerful the personage addressed, or the more humble one wishes to appear, the more likely one will supplement either form of address with an honorific such as este ‘great’, telnë ‘worthy’, lonul ‘honored’. Thus este Caloton šoh, este šoh; lonul Ihano ilneo; telnë ilneo, and so on. Patriarchs are entitled to the honorific lyö řem ‘most holy’.
One can also, informatively, include the name of the fief or clerical dominion:
Caloton šoh Celenorei Caloton, Duke of Célenor Ihano ilneo Pelymei Ihano, Bishop of Pelym
Kings however place the dynastic name before the title:
Alric Vleteon dalu King Alric Vleteon Mëranac ftore Abolineron dalu King Mëranac II Abolineron Icëlana Abolinerona Elrei Queen Icëlana Abolineron
Close friends address a noble not by his nom or ženata but by his domain name: e.g. Celenorei, Scušana. This is also the way a noble is referred to in a history or a novel (except by those writers aristophilic enough to insist on the use of the title for every reference).
One almost never, then, uses the ženata of a noble. So Caloton Matrey, Duke of Célenor, may be called este šoh, Caloton šoh, Caloton šoh Celenorei, Celenorei; but never Matrey . In a full identification the ženata may be thrown in after the title: Caloton šoh Matrey Celenorei.
The wife of a noble is addressed with his title (and likewise the husband of a titled woman). In countries following “Verdurian law” (including Krasnaya, Lapiri, Benécia, Koto, and Erenat), other relatives, unless they have titles of their own, are strictly speaking commoners. They may be addressed with noble honorifics rather than graženom, but the ženata must be used. Thus the Duke’s wife is called Anfrea šoha Celenorei; but his brother is graženom (or telnë) Matrey.
In countries following “Caďinorian law” (including Ctésifon, Svetla, Cerey, and Hežina), the children of nobles are legally nobles themselves, though without titles, and like titled nobles are referred to using the title of nobility, not the ženata. The brother of the Duke of Belbau is thus este Belbau. This scheme might be expected to produce a very large nobility, and so it does. In countries with very entrenched nobilities, such as Svetla, one may encounter a “noble” operating a fish stand, whose nearest titled ancestor is fourteen generations back. The spread of nobility is however greatly limited by the tendency of nobles to marry within their own class.
Caďinorian names mostly follow the ancient pattern of a combination of two name-elements. In ancient times almost any two words could be combined into a name; in medieval times elements were in effect chosen from a restricted set of elements; and in modern times names are almost never devised from scratch, but are taken from a set of long-accepted compound names. Due to their origins, however, there is an unusual variety of accepted names.
The names which have survived this selection process vary by region. The list given below comprises those most commonly found in Verduria and along the Svetla. Hežina and Viminia are however known for their distinct names, and virtually any province has a few characteristic nomî not found elsewhere.
Also listed with the caďinî names are words derived from single Verdurian words. The proportion of such names has steadily grown over the centuries.
In general terms it is the pagans who have caďinî names; converts to Eleďát generally take Elenico or Cuzeian names (and of course give them to their children). There are a few exceptions— a few great saints had Caďinorian names, and these are naturally acceptable for Eleďi. The one-word names are more likely to be used by Eleďi as well.
Cuzeian names (or rather their adaptations into first Caďinor and then Verdurian) have been popular among Caďinorians since ancient times. They have been particularly associated with the Arašei and later with the Eleďi; but pagans have also often adopted them, especially in the Eärdur valley.
Finally, the Elenicoi brought Greek names with them, which have (adapted into Verdurian) become the typical names of the Eleďi. A few pagans will nonetheless be found with Elenico names, whether apostates, or persons named after Eleďi relatives; or after heroes or kings in the lands where Eleďi have achieved power or reknown. (Andrea, for instance, is a popular name among people of all religions in Verduria.)
Verdurians have accumulated a few names from neighboring languages, chiefly Flaidish, Kebreni, Ismaîn, and Barakhinei. A few sea captains or soldiers have brought back a name or two from Téllinor or Xurno. This trend is reinforced by a Verdurian custom: it is generally the wife who names children, and foreign wives often choose names that remind them of home.
The system remained fully productive in Old Verdurian, although the list of acceptable name elements had become standardized at something over a hundred.
In Caďinor combinations generally made sense; but in Old Verdurian they were often chosen by sound alone, resulting in such absurdities as Belgopeh ‘peace-war’ or Ružneiže ‘red-snow’.
Over the centuries the tendency to re-use the names of ancestors or celebrities increased, and (with the adoption of ženatî) as the need for unique nomî diminished, with the result that in modern times new names are almost never devised. There are still hundreds of names in common use; a selection is given below.
Some of these are not combinations at all, but simple Verdurian words (Lelesa ‘faith’, Belgom ‘warrior’); others are names of deities (Caloton, Išira).
The name elements show a normal derivation from Caďinor (e.g. tailes → taye); but the combined forms, curiously enough, show only a few centuries of wear. In effect the combinations were made afresh each time they were given as a name. Thus, for instance, Caďinor Londosuertos would be expected to produce Verdurian Londosört; but because the individual components have been individually worn down to lon and sör, it produces Lonsör instead.
Elements could occur as either the first or the second half of a pair. The gender of the second element determined that of the combination; but feminine forms could be formed by adding -a, and masculine forms by removing the final vowel.
Not all elements have survived as independent words in Verdurian.
|Name element||Masculine names||Feminine names|
|aď - god - AIĎOS||Aďamor, Aďdul, Aďiosu, Aďřem||Aďamora, Aďažela, Aďdula, Aďia, Aďlona|
|al - earthly - ALES||Albes, Aldan, Alefár, Alric, Alsar, Alunařo||Albenda, Alita, Alsara, Avaďra|
|an - first(born) - AN||Anárion, Ancor, Andorot, Andul, Anfréy, Ažerey||Alésia, Anelure, Anfrea, Ažerea|
|andor - mighty - ANDEOR||Andlon, Andörn, Andorom||Andozula|
|ban - road - BANOS||Banelut, Banes, Banžosu, Bansort, Banvuran|
|belgo - war - BELGO||Belgefár, Belges, Belglavo, Belgolón, Belmëra, Belörn, Belzon||Belzona|
|benda - blessing - BENEDA||Bendazón, Bendom, Bendrot||Bendasea|
|bes - hero - BAESOS||Beselut, Besfant, Bezglavo|
|bur - puzzle - BUROS||Budrot, Buloneon, Burzon||Burcuma|
|calo - heat - CALO||Caleon, Calesta, Calodën, Calones, Calozer||Caleona, Calomëra, Calonesa|
|clai - bright - CLAIES||Claiglavo, Clainožu, Claioř, Claizon||Claili, Claimëra, Claisea, Claizula|
|com - marvel - CUOMOS||Comelut, Comnes, Conglavo||Concai, Comeli, Comleti|
|cor - court - CURIES||Coreon, Cornes||Coršeli, Corvaďra, Corvana|
|cör - heart - CUERDOS||Cörpon||Cörinye, Cöržina|
|cuma - hearth - CUMA||Cumaneže|
|dan - village - DANNOS||Dambes||Danžina|
|dašo - animal - DASCO||Dašcör, Dašfant|
|dën - day - DENNOS||Dënes||Dënesa|
|diči - gentle - DITRIS||Dičivuran||Dičicöra, Dičinye, Dižina|
|dom - house - DOMOS||Domefár, Domfrey|
|dorot - sign - DOROÊ||Dorotáď||Dorobenda|
|draco - dragon - DRACOR||Draceon, Dracoum, Draczol|
|-dul - given - DUL|
|ďal - enrich - ĎAL-||Ďaldan, Ďaldom, Ďálefar, Ďalfrey, Ďalir||Ďalasea, Ďalfréa, Ďalira|
|ďom - stone - ĎOMILES||Ďomeon, Ďoncör||Domleti|
|efar - lord - AEFAR||Efaristo|
|es(t) - great - ESISTES||Ésecom, Esfalban, Esfalnan, Esfant, Estdorot, Ezdom, Ezgareon||Esécoma, Esfréa, Estuli, Ezneže|
|ele - free - ELEUS||Elenes, Eleonařo, Eleom||Elenesa, Elesea, Elticai|
|elir - life - ELIR||Eligliny, Eliric||Elireti, Eliglini|
|elu(t) - virtue - AELUTH||Elubes, Elucom, Elucör, Elulón, Eluvuran||Elucöra, Elusea, Elutia, Eluvaďra|
|elure - lovely - EILURES||Elulira, Eluneže, Eluresta, Elurenesa, Elurinye, Elusea, Elužorta|
|-eon - clan - -EION|
|er - south - AER||Erdan, Ereon, Eresta, Ernes|
|esta - summer - AESTAS||Estacalo, Estadul, Estanes||Estanesa|
|fale - white - FALILES||Falbes, Faledašo, Faledom||Falneže, Falsasna, Faležorta|
|fant - spirit - FANTOS||Fatandor, Fandul||Fandula|
|fi(li) - fern - FILIS||Finařo||Filisea, Fišeli, Fivaďra|
|fori - fertile - OFORIS||Foridašo||Forisea, Forižina|
|fre(a) - faith - FREIA||Frédan, Frédrot, Fréďal||Frecöra, Freďala, Fremëra|
|gar - sense - GAROS||Garcör, Gardom, Garnařo||Garbenda, Garžina, Garžuli|
|gen - oppress - GAEN||Gencör, Genéh, Gendan, Geric, Gësar, Gešec||Geďala|
|ges - power - GUESOS||Gesfant, Gesglavo, Gesom, Gesric, Gesvuran||Gescai|
|glavo - sword - GLABRO||Glavric|
|glini - long - GLINIS||Glinelir, Gliniglavo|
|gröse - powerful - GUESRES||Grösefar, Grösoř||Gröseleti|
|hum - vigor - KHUMOS||Humbes, Humefár|
|ili - moon - ILIS||Ilcorey, Ílinař, Ilisör||Ilcorea, Ilicoma, Iliďala, Ilimëra, Ilineže, Ilisea, Ilivaďra|
|inye - kind - INGES||Inëbes, Inëcör, Inësör||Inyelura, Inëméli, Inësöra|
|kai(ru) - luck - KARIU||Kaidan, Kaidorot, Kaifar, Kairuzón, Kaišec, Kaivuran, Karësta||Kailona, Kaimeli|
|kol - iron - KOL||Kolbes, Kolcör, Kolhum||Koleva|
|leti - wealth - LETA||Letidan, Letisör, Letizon||Leticai, Leticora, Letisea|
|lir - melody - LIR||Licor, Liteon||Limëra, Lidiči, Lircai|
|lon - honor - LONDOS||Londrot, Lonefár, Lones, Lonsör, Lontay||Loncai, Lones|
|mei - water - MEIS||Meicom||Mecai, Mešeli|
|meli - way - MELIS||Meleon, Mélicom, Mélišec||Melicai, Melícoma, Melinye, Melleti, Memëra|
|mëra - fire - MIERA||Mërcalo, Mërošec, Mërozol||Mëracai, Mërili|
|mura - wonder - MIURA||Murdorot, Murgen||Muraďala, Murtai, Muruže|
|nan - north - NAN||Nanes, Nanefár, Nanric||Nanesa|
|nařo - two-sheds||Nařbes, Nařřem||Nařřema|
|neže - snow - NEICTE||Nežefár, Nežnan, Nežnes||Nežili, Nežnesa|
|-nes - born - NESEC|
|nožu - night - NOCTU||Nožnes||Nožili, Nožnesa|
|nou - rain - NOU||Nounes, Nozon||Nošeli, Nounesa, Nožorta|
|nusse - determined - NUSISES||Nuscör, Nuseon, Nušec|
|oh, oř - gold - OKh||Ohdorot, Osör|
|-om - man|
|op - prosperity - OPOS||Obadrot, Opkairu, Opletu, Oporo, Opric, Opsör||Opfori, Opsöra|
|on - again||Onkairu, Onhum, Onžosu||Ombenda, Omëra, Onvaďra|
|örn - eagle - UERONOS||Örmban, Örnric, Örnum|
|-(o)rion - ruler - -(O)RION|
|pal - friendly - PALLES||Palcör, Paleon, Palfrey||Palcöra, Palfrea|
|pe - peace - PEOS||Pédom, Pédrot, Pésar||Pécai, Pecuma, Pevaďra|
|pon - manly - PONOS||Poncör, Pondašo, Pones, Ponumeon, Ponvuran|
|ric - dominant - RIKH||Ribelgo, Rivuran||Riďala, Rimëra|
|ruže - red - RUGITES||Rušec, Ružar, Ruždom, Ružóř, Ružrec, Ružžol||Ružmëra, Ružmura, Ružorta|
|řem - sacred - KREM||Ředom, Řemaď|
|řezi - holy - KRENSIS||Řescör, Řesfrey, Řezmur, Řežul||Řescöra, Řescuma, Řesfrea|
|sasna - pine - SACNA||Sasneže|
|sar - east - SAR||Sarbes, Sarnes, Saroro, Sarric, Saruž||Sanařei, Sarcai|
|sea - woman - SAEA||Seadul||Selona|
|sört - fate - SUERTOS||Sördom, Sördul, Söric||Sördiči|
|sul - young - SULEIA||Sulbes, Sulefár||Sumëra, Suvaďra|
|-šec - showing|
|šeli - grace - SIELIS||Šelicor||Šelicöra, Šeliri, Šelimei, Šelurana, Šemeli, Šelivaďra|
|tai - brave - TAILES||Taidan, Taicör, Taipon, Taivuran||Tasea, Tašeli, Taižina|
|tel - west - TEL||Telnes, Teleon, Telric||Teltuli|
|tihi - quiet - THIKHIS||Tigar, Tihum, Tilir, Timey||Ticai, Tiliri, Tišeli, Tivaďra|
|tuli - breeze - THULIS||Tulimër||Tuliti|
|vaďra - delicacy - VAĎORA||Vaďriha|
|veaďa - love - VEHAĎA||Veaďanes, Veaďlon||Veaďacuma, Veaďanesa|
|vuran - warrior||Vuraneon|
|zer - pizza - ZEROS||Zerban, Zercalo, Zerdorot|
|zol - strong - ZOL||Zoldrac, Zolďom, Zolfant, Zolges, Zolšec, Zolvuran||Zolcai, Zolmëra|
|zon - year - ZONNOS||Zombur||Zonglini, Zonleti|
|zula - joy - ZULA||Zuldom, Zulsör, Zulzon||Zulcöra, Zulsöra, Zulzona|
|žen - people - GENOS||Žeďal, Ževuran||Žeďala, Ževurana|
|žina - girl - GINA|
|žive - lively - GIVES||Žilir, Živcör, Živmey||Žifcai, Žifcöra, Žisea, Živadra, Živinye|
|žorta - flower - IORTA|
|žuli - way - IULIS||Žuliosu, Žullon||Žulinesa|
|žosu - mercy - IOSU||Žobes, Žozban, Žozuran||Žoscöra, Žožina|
In later times Cuzeians tended to name children after ancestors or famous figures, so that there came to exist a stock of canonical names; and many of these were borrowed into Caďinor.
Most Cuêzi names exist in two forms in Verdurian: a traditional form inherited from ancient times, and subject to the usual Caďinor to Verdurian sound changes; and a modern form borrowed directly from Cuêzi. The former are used along the Eärdur, the original Cuzeian homeland; the latter are characteristic of modern Kebri and Érenat. Either form may be found in Verduria.
The forms given below are the traditional Eärduran forms, as found in the Book of Eleď. These are the Verdurian rather than the Benécian or Barakhinei forms; but they have been influenced by these more conservative dialects, avoiding for instance the softening of t, d, c, g.
The original Cuêzi forms and meanings are also given.
The modern Avélan forms are not given, but they are readily recoverable from the Cuêzi: remove any final -s; write ā as ä, ē as ei, ō as ö, ū as ü, ī as ï (the latter are supposed to be pronounced long, but ö and ü with normal Verdurian values are commonly heard); ignore the circumflexes; add an accent if the stress would not fall on the same syllable as in Cuêzi. Examples:
Adāurio → Adäurio Amīsia → Amïsia Ecūnas → Ecüna Coêliboe → Coéliboe Samīrex → Samïreh Sarēina → Saréina
Adaro [Adāurio ‘blue’]
Alauda [Alaldas ‘star’]
Ambrišo [Ambrisio ‘dance’]
Arana [Araunas ‘eagle’]
Araš [Arrasos (first human)]
Atau [Antāu (epic hero)]
Azënár [Azienār ‘forest’]
Bánimu [Banimu ‘voyager’]
Bar [Bāuros ‘old’]
Bardau [Bardāu ‘brotherly love’]
Beret [Beretos ‘green’]
Bizbero [Bisbēruos ‘fearless’]
Bizbirah [Bisbirax ‘no enemies’]
Brinumo [Brinūmio ‘near God’]
Celošo [Celōusio ‘swordsman’]
Civea [Civēyas ‘submission’]
Colira [Coelīras ‘devotion’]
Dománavo [Domānavas ‘generosity’]
Dulau [Dulāu ‘duty’]
Ecuna [Ecūnas ‘hero’]
Einatu [Einātu (an archangel)]
Enotivo [Enōtivas ‘sojourner’]
Éres [Eressos ‘westerner’]
Iceleď [Ēcēiledan ‘love God’]
Iriam [Iriand (first iliu)]
Leria [Lerias ‘understanding’]
Loscuna [Lôdicūnas ‘honorable deed’]
Muroro [Mūroros ‘wonder’]
Namašo [Namāsio ‘lordliness’]
Olon [Oluon ‘buttress’]
Poncuna [Pomicūnas ‘manly deed’]
Remobau [Rēmobēu ‘holy peace’]
Sahoro [Sauōros ‘salty’]
Samiř [Samīrex ‘brightness’]
Solešo [Solēsio ‘truth’]
Suro [Sūro ‘owl’]
Teronél [Teronelo ‘miracle born’]
Urez [Urezos ‘bear’]
Visánavo [Vissanavas ‘knowledge’]
Vyon [Vionnas ‘lyre’]
Zelišo [Zeilisio ‘lively’]
Zid [Zīdos ‘trouble’]
Note on Ženöra: The origin of this form is uncertain. Some derive it from a dialectal form *Genūra. A change d → g is found in some Cuêzi dialects; but why Caďinor should have borrowed the word from one of them is inexplicable. More likely is confusion with žen ‘people’ or žina ‘girl’, an attempt perhaps to find a meaningful Caďinor derivation for the name of such an important personage.
Most Elenico names remain recognizable forms of the original; but six hundred years of linguistic change have made their mark on them. Indeed, since the names were all introduced at the same time, long after the Classical period of Caďinor, their evolution is an interesting and important source of information on the nature and evolution of Old Verdurian.
The names show also some of the evolution of Greek. It can be seen that the Elenicoi arrived after the b-d-g/p-t-k/ph-th-kh obstruent system of Classical Greek had already evolved into the Hellenistic v-ď-gh/p-t-k/f-th-kh, the diphthong αι had shifted to [e], ου to [u], and ευ and αυ to [ev/av].
The Greek forms were translated using a fairly straightforward transliteration, whose only surprising feature was the transliteration of κ as k rather than c before u; apparently the Greek κου sounded to Verdurian ears as too unlike their frontal /ku/, and more like a /qu/. The unfamiliar Greek γ was transliterated as g.
The original Old Verdurian forms, as used in the Avélan Bible, are given below, with the Greek, in brackets. (Substantial variation was found as these unfamiliar names found their way into other texts.)
The Greek names were adopted into the Verdurian declensional system. Thus, the Greek -ος, understood to be a case ending, was Verdurianized as -o, -ας as -a. Feminine names ending in a consonant were given an ending -a or -i, while masculines in -ης were given more acceptable forms based on the oblique root (e.g. Apellen ← acc. ’Απελλῆν).
The main entries in the list below are of course the main modern Verdurian forms. There are many variants, and even a few additions. For instance, feminine forms have been created for many originally masculine names.
The retention of final -os as -o shows that the loss of Caďinor -os was no longer a productive process in Verdurian. Likewise the retention of k and g before front vowels would not have occurred if the names had been borrowed at an earlier time. And the transliteration of ’Ακύλας as Akula rather than Aküla shows that Old Verdurian had not yet developed a phonemic [y].
Such late processes as the conversion of medial ť to ď can be seen, however; or the softening of ȟ to h (still fricative at this date in Avéla, though aspirated in Verdurian, and silent today); or nt → t, or il → y. A few difficult consonantal clusters were simplified; e.g. vg → v or ž; ďr → dr; final cs → c.
Verdurian has shortened a number of names, and sometimes changed declensions, often substituting for instance -a for -e, rare in native feminine names (Helene → Elena), and generalizing -o (perceived as something of a marker of Elenico names) to some masculine names that did not originally possess it (e.g. Apleno, Samuilo).
Adianey Eleďe nom
Andur mighty (Barakhinei)
Araney Cuzeian nom
Araric south band (Barakhinei)
Arcalney Arcaln fortress
Arin island where Arcaln is
Atirey of Atiro
Avrämey Eleďe nom
Azënar Cuzeian nom
Ažirey goddess Ažirei
Bardëy from Bardau
Bazno fighter (Ismaîn)
Belucaro beautiful diamond
Berikme reknowned (Barakhinei)
Boďmorey nom (dialectal)
Caltey god Calto
Cankéu outlander (Barakhinei)
Ceďnare day of week
Clemetey Eleďe nom
Comey Eleďe nom
Condu rich man (Barakhinei)
Coržey of the gorge
Craďey type of fish
Cucey shrine (Barakhinei)
Cunr swans (Ismaîn)
Čelures river (Ismaîn)
Čurmey pear juice
Daroden healthy day
Desë of the bridge
Deštaë of Deštai
Diburey of Dibur
Dineon a clan name
Dinkop melonhead (Barakhinei)
Domur good (Ismaîn)
Dulau Cuzeian nom
Ďanëley Eleďe nom
Ďévora Eleďe nom
Ecokíy dukes (Barakhinei)
Eilonuy of Eilonu
Elutë from Eluti
Enotivey Cuzeian nom
Erdaney south village
Ereon south clan
Éresey Cuzeian nom
Erom man of the south
Ešireon clan of Eši
Fačiu soldier (Barakhinei)
Filipey Eleďe nom
Firustey of Firusta
Gambra sea turtle
Gavrëley Eleďe nom
Haču hunter (Barakhinei)
Ihaney Eleďe nom
Ileon moon clan
Imiru after goddess Imiri
Isorain off the estate
Išereon clan of Išira
Kaney Eleďe nom
Kurey Eleďe nom
Lazarey Eleďe nom
Loscuna Cuzeian nom
Loša of the Loša river
Lureš beautiful (Ismaîn)
Maranhey hero Maranh
Maranhëy city Maranhë
Marcey Eleďe nom
Margitey Eleďe nom
Matrey master (dialectal)
Melondan a city
Menley river Menla
Mestë of the fields
Miheley Eleďe nom
M&üsey point, cape
Nanaric north band (Barakhinei)
Necocréy of Necocre
Nëralúca St. Luca
Nëramária St. Mary
Nërapríša St. Priša
Nëraváči St. Veači
Neroney god Nečeron
Nëroniháno St. Ihano
Nërongáyo St. Gayo
Nëronkúro St. Kuro
Nëronmatéo St. Mateo
Nëronmíhel St. Mihel
Nëronpável St. Pavel
Nëronpétro St. Petro
Nezë of the island
Nölney type of flower
Obadeon prosperity clan
Oknorey goldlander (Barakhinei)
Olašu beginning (a month)
Oloney Cuzeian nom
Orgaric proud band (Barakhinei)
Oron shortening of Oruseon
Ořeon gold clan
Parne of the mountains
Parnom mountain man
Pavleto from Pavel
Pavley Eleďe nom
Pirosolom father Solomon
Purnes mountains (Ismaîn)
Puznur small place (Ismaîn)
Ružeon red clan
Řafor place of justice
Řanorey of Řânor
Řasmesti rose field
Samirey Cuzeian nom
Savley Eleďe nom
Scušaney of Scušana
Simoney Eleďe nom
Süy of Sü
Šaymeon Šayu clan
Šerian province & city
Tuhoney Eleďe nom
Ulianey of Ulian
Uprusin by the inn
Urezey Cuzeian nom
Uselen by the river
Vereon a god
Vešdaney of Vešdan
Viminë of Viminia
Vleteon Vlerë clan
Zaharey Eleďe nom
Zanuy barbarian tribe
Zavere of Zavera
Zeorey of Zeor
Zolbrak strong arm
Zoleon strong clan
Zömey of Zöm