Virtual Verduria

Verdurian Names

The Verdurian’s three names
Grammatical rules
Historical development
Names and marriage
Terms of address
Noble and clerical titles
The three sources of nomî
Caďinorian names
Cuzeian names
Elenico names
Family names (ženatî)

The Verdurian’s three names [To Index]

Most Verdurians have three names: the nom or given name; the pirei or patronymic, and the ženata or family name. In certain rural areas no ženata is given, although this is becoming rare.

In form the pirei is simply the genitive of the father’s name: Nícolo → Nícolei, Abend → Abendei. Among the upper classes girls are sometimes named with a matronymic (mirei) instead. In exceptional cases (for instance, when the mother is a sovereign queen), a boy may receive a mirei.

Grammatical rules [To Index]

The nom is always declined; the pirei never. The ženata is declined or not, depending on its origin: most are regular nouns; a few are adjectives; and some are genitives (and thus do not decline). The common ending -ey, though derived from the genitive, is considered a nominative form and does decline.

Thus Belgobán’s The Fall of the Abolinerons is in Verdurian So Tombo Abolineronië.

The ženata is masculine in form for males, feminine for females. Thus the sister of Ihano Atirey would be Terásia Atirea. Feminine ženatî are formed according to uniform rules:

masc. ending fem. ending
-oPavleto -ePavlete
-uŽiradu -iŽiradi
-uyZanuy -iZanui
-eyBelgey -eaBelgea

Where the ženata is an adjective, the regular feminine form is used, of course; and where it is a genitive (e.g. Eltuë, Caizure), there is no distinct feminine form.

Noble titles have genders of their own, and are declined according to that gender, not that of the titleholder:

nom. gen.
Maria conta Ulian Marë conte Ulianei
Ondorot Cont Scušana Ondorotei contei Scušane

Titles derived from genitives (e.g. Pelymei) again do not decline.

Historical development [To Index]

In early Caďinorian times people generally had just one name. As names were generally compounds of two words drawn out of a pool of hundreds of common name elements, this system sufficed for villages, tribes, and even small cities.

Families and descent have always been important in Caďinorian society, and the patronymic was used in imperial times. It was not considered part of a person’s name, but was a means of disambiguation (Antaevon Scurrinevii), along with places of origin (Dareios Seraeoroť ‘of Seraeor’), occupations (Turredoroť etromorion ‘the schoolteacher’), and adjectives (Ponereslos rukhris ‘the quick’).

The patronymic became more important in feudal times, when occupations were passed on father to son. The baronial clerks would register a baby’s birth under the name of the father; this was done, among other reasons, to prevent young men from representing themselves as members of another profession than their father’s. In some backward countries, notably Hežina, ženatî are unknown, and the name + patronymic combination is still known as the nom beomei, the “baron’s name.”

Even in late Caďinorian times there was an increasing tendency to repeat ancestral names rather than devise new names, and by the medieval era the stock of acceptable name elements had greatly diminished. Names and even names plus patronymic no longer served well to distinguish persons. Nicknames, names of occupations, places of origin, and other distinguishing marks were increasingly brought into play; and these are, of course, the origin of the modern ženatî.

Since the Family Law of 3047, all persons residing in the province of Verdúria have been required to have ženatî. (Those who had none were required to pay a fee to register one with the authorities. For a few centuries this regulation in effect amounted to a tax on foreigners, those most likely to be samženatî.)

Names and marriage [To Index]

Women do not take their husband’s ženata, but their children of either sex do. Verdurians consider a woman to belong to her husband’s family (ženát), but they are very conscious of descent and like to know where she’s from.

The exception is when a noblewoman marries a commoner (or, increasingly, when the daughter of some commercial magnate marries beneath her); in this case the husband assumes the more illustrious name of his wife. (When the marriage is annulled the courts have ruled that the husband no longer has a right to the name as originally spelled; which accounts for a sprinkling of variations of prestigious names, as, Aržentey, Aržentei, Aržantey.)

Terms of address [To Index]

Formal address (for lay commoners) is the ženata with an honorific, normally graženom (mister) or graženka (Mrs.). Those educated at a university have a right to the honorific šriftom (or šriftoma). These honorifics are abbreviated Gn, Ga, Šm.

Thus Antonio Petrei Eluceon would be known as graženom Eluceon; Sara Beretei Caleona would be graženka Caleona.

(Someone without ženata is unlikely to be addressed formally; but if there is occasion to do so the proper form is honorific + nom: graženom Calto. To so address a Verdurian would be taken as an insult— calling him a rustic and a foreigner to boot.)

Those in official positions are addressed by their title plus ženata in the course of their duties:

ovnelom Bardëy Judge Bardëy
širo Pivor Lieutenant Pivor

The rules for when to use formal address are complex. Generally, shopkeepers and clerks use it with customers; servants with their employers; bureaucrats and professionals with those of middle class rank and above; bourgeois with strangers of the same class and above; students with teachers; the upper class with strangers of the middle class.

Formal address is most characteristic of the middle class— they like to use it, and they like to be called by it. The lower classes use it only when they have to deal with the classes above them; the upper classes treat it much more lightly.

The next degree of familiarity is the nom er pirei. This is how strangers call each other among the lower class; it is also how anyone from casual acquaintances to fairly good friends address each other among the bourgeois. It is how a merchant is allowed to address a favorite customer, and how a professor calls a student. It is a common form of address also in rural areas.

Employers generally call their servants by the ženata alone (except in Aránicer, where, quirkily, the pirei alone is used). This form of address is common wherever a sort of distanced familiarity is the norm— among soldiers, students in universities and exclusive schools, employees of the same large institution or office. Nicknames are also common in these environments.

With close friends (wherever they are found) and family one of course uses the nom sul (given name only). Schoolchildren, monastics, artists, and close-knit teams of workers use the same intimate form of address.

The use of formal tu generally correlates with use of formal address or name and patronymic; that of intimate le with the use of ženata or nom alone.

There is, naturally, regional variation in the application of these standards. By the standards of the rest of the Plain, Verdurians are uncommonly quick to use informal terms of address— although by American standards they remain quite formal. The southern and eastern countries are more formal than the Verdurians. Rural areas are more formal, but above all more uniform, than urban— many fewer nuances exist.

Noble and clerical titles [To Index]

The usual form of direct address for nobles and prelates is the nom followed by the title:

Caloton šoh Duke Caloton
Ihano ilneo Bishop John
Alric Dalu King Alric

On second reference the title alone (šoh, ilneo, etc.) will do; also common are locutions such as estát lë ‘your greatness’, řemát lë ‘your holiness’.

The more powerful the personage addressed, or the more humble one wishes to appear, the more likely one will supplement either form of address with an honorific such as este ‘great’, telnë ‘worthy’, lonul ‘honored’. Thus este Caloton šoh, este šoh; lonul Ihano ilneo; telnë ilneo, and so on. Patriarchs are entitled to the honorific lyö řem ‘most holy’.

One can also, informatively, include the name of the fief or clerical dominion:

Caloton šoh Celenorei Caloton, Duke of Célenor
Ihano ilneo Pelymei Ihano, Bishop of Pelym

Kings however place the dynastic name before the title:

Alric Vleteon dalu King Alric Vleteon
Mëranac ftore Abolineron dalu King Mëranac II Abolineron
Icëlana Abolinerona Elrei Queen Icëlana Abolineron

Close friends address a noble not by his nom or ženata but by his domain name: e.g. Celenorei, Scušana. This is also the way a noble is referred to in a history or a novel (except by those writers aristophilic enough to insist on the use of the title for every reference).

One almost never, then, uses the ženata of a noble. So Caloton Matrey, Duke of Célenor, may be called este šoh, Caloton šoh, Caloton šoh Celenorei, Celenorei; but never Matrey . In a full identification the ženata may be thrown in after the title: Caloton šoh Matrey Celenorei.

The wife of a noble is addressed with his title (and likewise the husband of a titled woman). In countries following “Verdurian law” (including Krasnaya, Lapiri, Benécia, Koto, and Erenat), other relatives, unless they have titles of their own, are strictly speaking commoners. They may be addressed with noble honorifics rather than graženom, but the ženata must be used. Thus the Duke’s wife is called Anfrea šoha Celenorei; but his brother is graženom (or telnë) Matrey.

In countries following “Caďinorian law” (including Ctésifon, Svetla, Cerey, and Hežina), the children of nobles are legally nobles themselves, though without titles, and like titled nobles are referred to using the title of nobility, not the ženata. The brother of the Duke of Belbau is thus este Belbau. This scheme might be expected to produce a very large nobility, and so it does. In countries with very entrenched nobilities, such as Svetla, one may encounter a “noble” operating a fish stand, whose nearest titled ancestor is fourteen generations back. The spread of nobility is however greatly limited by the tendency of nobles to marry within their own class.

The three sources of nomî [To Index]

There are three main classes of Verdurian given names: native Caďinorian (caďinî), Elenico, and Cuzeian (cuzeî). These categories are correlated strongly but not exclusively with the major religions.

Caďinorian names mostly follow the ancient pattern of a combination of two name-elements. In ancient times almost any two words could be combined into a name; in medieval times elements were in effect chosen from a restricted set of elements; and in modern times names are almost never devised from scratch, but are taken from a set of long-accepted compound names. Due to their origins, however, there is an unusual variety of accepted names.

The names which have survived this selection process vary by region. The list given below comprises those most commonly found in Verduria and along the Svetla. Hežina and Viminia are however known for their distinct names, and virtually any province has a few characteristic nomî not found elsewhere.

Also listed with the caďinî names are words derived from single Verdurian words. The proportion of such names has steadily grown over the centuries.

In general terms it is the pagans who have caďinî names; converts to Eleďát generally take Elenico or Cuzeian names (and of course give them to their children). There are a few exceptions— a few great saints had Caďinorian names, and these are naturally acceptable for Eleďi. The one-word names are more likely to be used by Eleďi as well.

Cuzeian names (or rather their adaptations into first Caďinor and then Verdurian) have been popular among Caďinorians since ancient times. They have been particularly associated with the Arašei and later with the Eleďi; but pagans have also often adopted them, especially in the Eärdur valley.

Finally, the Elenicoi brought Greek names with them, which have (adapted into Verdurian) become the typical names of the Eleďi. A few pagans will nonetheless be found with Elenico names, whether apostates, or persons named after Eleďi relatives; or after heroes or kings in the lands where Eleďi have achieved power or reknown. (Andrea, for instance, is a popular name among people of all religions in Verduria.)

Verdurians have accumulated a few names from neighboring languages, chiefly Flaidish, Kebreni, Ismaîn, and Barakhinei. A few sea captains or soldiers have brought back a name or two from Téllinor or Xurno. This trend is reinforced by a Verdurian custom: it is generally the wife who names children, and foreign wives often choose names that remind them of home.

Nicknames [To Index]

Verdurians are fond of modifying names. Almost every name, of whatever origin, has a dizzyingly large set of variants, used under different circumstances or at different stages of life. As can be expected, diminutives and nicknames are strongly affected by regional variation. Popular suffixes and their connotations are different in almost every kingdom and province. The Viminian diminutive -ic, the Southern -alt, and the Barakhinei -ec have become stereotyped regionalisms.

Caďinorian names [To Index]

The traditional Caďinorian name is built from two elements: for instance doroť ‘sign’ and londos ‘honor’ could be combined as Doroťlondos or Londodoroť. There was also Tailedoroť, Esistedoroť, Guesodoroť, and so forth. This method of forming names was common also in Cuêzi and in Axunášin, and has been plausibly traced back to proto-Eastern.

The system remained fully productive in Old Verdurian, although the list of acceptable name elements had become standardized at something over a hundred.

In Caďinor combinations generally made sense; but in Old Verdurian they were often chosen by sound alone, resulting in such absurdities as Belgopeh ‘peace-war’ or Ružneiže ‘red-snow’.

Over the centuries the tendency to re-use the names of ancestors or celebrities increased, and (with the adoption of ženatî) as the need for unique nomî diminished, with the result that in modern times new names are almost never devised. There are still hundreds of names in common use; a selection is given below.

Some of these are not combinations at all, but simple Verdurian words (Lelesa ‘faith’, Belgom ‘warrior’); others are names of deities (Caloton, Išira).

The name elements show a normal derivation from Caďinor (e.g. tailes → taye); but the combined forms, curiously enough, show only a few centuries of wear. In effect the combinations were made afresh each time they were given as a name. Thus, for instance, Caďinor Londosuertos would be expected to produce Verdurian Londosört; but because the individual components have been individually worn down to lon and sör, it produces Lonsör instead.

Combined names

Name elements are given with English gloss, CAĎINOR equivalent, and the most common present-day names (masculine and feminine) they form the first element of. All OV elements forming at least two common modern-day names are given.

Elements could occur as either the first or the second half of a pair. The gender of the second element determined that of the combination; but feminine forms could be formed by adding -a, and masculine forms by removing the final vowel.

Not all elements have survived as independent words in Verdurian.
Name element Masculine names Feminine names
- god - AIĎOS Aďamor, Aďdul, Aďiosu, Aďřem Aďamora, Aďažela, Aďdula, Aďia, Aďlona
al - earthly - ALES Albes, Aldan, Alefár, Alric, Alsar, Alunařo Albenda, Alita, Alsara, Avaďra
an - first(born) - AN Anárion, Ancor, Andorot, Andul, Anfréy, Ažerey Alésia, Anelure, Anfrea, Ažerea
andor - mighty - ANDEOR Andlon, Andörn, Andorom Andozula
ban - road - BANOS Banelut, Banes, Banžosu, Bansort, Banvuran
belgo - war - BELGO Belgefár, Belges, Belglavo, Belgolón, Belmëra, Belörn, Belzon Belzona
benda - blessing - BENEDA Bendazón, Bendom, Bendrot Bendasea
bes - hero - BAESOS Beselut, Besfant, Bezglavo
bur - puzzle - BUROS Budrot, Buloneon, Burzon Burcuma
calo - heat - CALO Caleon, Calesta, Calodën, Calones, Calozer Caleona, Calomëra, Calonesa
clai - bright - CLAIES Claiglavo, Clainožu, Claioř, Claizon Claili, Claimëra, Claisea, Claizula
com - marvel - CUOMOS Comelut, Comnes, Conglavo Concai, Comeli, Comleti
cor - court - CURIES Coreon, Cornes Coršeli, Corvaďra, Corvana
cör - heart - CUERDOS Cörpon Cörinye, Cöržina
cuma - hearth - CUMA Cumaneže
dan - village - DANNOS Dambes Danžina
dašo - animal - DASCO Dašcör, Dašfant
dën - day - DENNOS Dënes Dënesa
diči - gentle - DITRIS Dičivuran Dičicöra, Dičinye, Dižina
dom - house - DOMOS Domefár, Domfrey
dorot - sign - DOROÊ Dorotáď Dorobenda
draco - dragon - DRACOR Draceon, Dracoum, Draczol
-dul - given - DUL
ďal - enrich - ĎAL- Ďaldan, Ďaldom, Ďálefar, Ďalfrey, Ďalir Ďalasea, Ďalfréa, Ďalira
ďom - stone - ĎOMILES Ďomeon, Ďoncör Domleti
efar - lord - AEFAR Efaristo
es(t) - great - ESISTES Ésecom, Esfalban, Esfalnan, Esfant, Estdorot, Ezdom, Ezgareon Esécoma, Esfréa, Estuli, Ezneže
ele - free - ELEUS Elenes, Eleonařo, Eleom Elenesa, Elesea, Elticai
elir - life - ELIR Eligliny, Eliric Elireti, Eliglini
elu(t) - virtue - AELUTH Elubes, Elucom, Elucör, Elulón, Eluvuran Elucöra, Elusea, Elutia, Eluvaďra
elure - lovely - EILURES Elulira, Eluneže, Eluresta, Elurenesa, Elurinye, Elusea, Elužorta
-eon - clan - -EION
er - south - AER Erdan, Ereon, Eresta, Ernes
esta - summer - AESTAS Estacalo, Estadul, Estanes Estanesa
fale - white - FALILES Falbes, Faledašo, Faledom Falneže, Falsasna, Faležorta
fant - spirit - FANTOS Fatandor, Fandul Fandula
fi(li) - fern - FILIS Finařo Filisea, Fišeli, Fivaďra
fori - fertile - OFORIS Foridašo Forisea, Forižina
fre(a) - faith - FREIA Frédan, Frédrot, Fréďal Frecöra, Freďala, Fremëra
gar - sense - GAROS Garcör, Gardom, Garnařo Garbenda, Garžina, Garžuli
gen - oppress - GAEN Gencör, Genéh, Gendan, Geric, Gësar, Gešec Geďala
ges - power - GUESOS Gesfant, Gesglavo, Gesom, Gesric, Gesvuran Gescai
glavo - sword - GLABRO Glavric
glini - long - GLINIS Glinelir, Gliniglavo
gröse - powerful - GUESRES Grösefar, Grösoř Gröseleti
hum - vigor - KHUMOS Humbes, Humefár
ili - moon - ILIS Ilcorey, Ílinař, Ilisör Ilcorea, Ilicoma, Iliďala, Ilimëra, Ilineže, Ilisea, Ilivaďra
inye - kind - INGES Inëbes, Inëcör, Inësör Inyelura, Inëméli, Inësöra
kai(ru) - luck - KARIU Kaidan, Kaidorot, Kaifar, Kairuzón, Kaišec, Kaivuran, Karësta Kailona, Kaimeli
kol - iron - KOL Kolbes, Kolcör, Kolhum Koleva
leti - wealth - LETA Letidan, Letisör, Letizon Leticai, Leticora, Letisea
lir - melody - LIR Licor, Liteon Limëra, Lidiči, Lircai
lon - honor - LONDOS Londrot, Lonefár, Lones, Lonsör, Lontay Loncai, Lones
mei - water - MEIS Meicom Mecai, Mešeli
meli - way - MELIS Meleon, Mélicom, Mélišec Melicai, Melícoma, Melinye, Melleti, Memëra
mëra - fire - MIERA Mërcalo, Mërošec, Mërozol Mëracai, Mërili
mura - wonder - MIURA Murdorot, Murgen Muraďala, Murtai, Muruže
nan - north - NAN Nanes, Nanefár, Nanric Nanesa
nařo - two-sheds Nařbes, Nařřem Nařřema
neže - snow - NEICTE Nežefár, Nežnan, Nežnes Nežili, Nežnesa
-nes - born - NESEC
nožu - night - NOCTU Nožnes Nožili, Nožnesa
nou - rain - NOU Nounes, Nozon Nošeli, Nounesa, Nožorta
nusse - determined - NUSISES Nuscör, Nuseon, Nušec
oh, oř - gold - OKh Ohdorot, Osör
-om - man
op - prosperity - OPOS Obadrot, Opkairu, Opletu, Oporo, Opric, Opsör Opfori, Opsöra
on - again Onkairu, Onhum, Onžosu Ombenda, Omëra, Onvaďra
örn - eagle - UERONOS Örmban, Örnric, Örnum
-(o)rion - ruler - -(O)RION
pal - friendly - PALLES Palcör, Paleon, Palfrey Palcöra, Palfrea
pe - peace - PEOS Pédom, Pédrot, Pésar Pécai, Pecuma, Pevaďra
pon - manly - PONOS Poncör, Pondašo, Pones, Ponumeon, Ponvuran
ric - dominant - RIKH Ribelgo, Rivuran Riďala, Rimëra
ruže - red - RUGITES Rušec, Ružar, Ruždom, Ružóř, Ružrec, Ružžol Ružmëra, Ružmura, Ružorta
řem - sacred - KREM Ředom, Řemaď
řezi - holy - KRENSIS Řescör, Řesfrey, Řezmur, Řežul Řescöra, Řescuma, Řesfrea
sasna - pine - SACNA Sasneže
sar - east - SAR Sarbes, Sarnes, Saroro, Sarric, Saruž Sanařei, Sarcai
sea - woman - SAEA Seadul Selona
sört - fate - SUERTOS Sördom, Sördul, Söric Sördiči
sul - young - SULEIA Sulbes, Sulefár Sumëra, Suvaďra
-šec - showing
šeli - grace - SIELIS Šelicor Šelicöra, Šeliri, Šelimei, Šelurana, Šemeli, Šelivaďra
tai - brave - TAILES Taidan, Taicör, Taipon, Taivuran Tasea, Tašeli, Taižina
tel - west - TEL Telnes, Teleon, Telric Teltuli
tihi - quiet - THIKHIS Tigar, Tihum, Tilir, Timey Ticai, Tiliri, Tišeli, Tivaďra
tuli - breeze - THULIS Tulimër Tuliti
vaďra - delicacy - VAĎORA Vaďriha
veaďa - love - VEHAĎA Veaďanes, Veaďlon Veaďacuma, Veaďanesa
vuran - warrior Vuraneon
zer - pizza - ZEROS Zerban, Zercalo, Zerdorot
zol - strong - ZOL Zoldrac, Zolďom, Zolfant, Zolges, Zolšec, Zolvuran Zolcai, Zolmëra
zon - year - ZONNOS Zombur Zonglini, Zonleti
zula - joy - ZULA Zuldom, Zulsör, Zulzon Zulcöra, Zulsöra, Zulzona
žen - people - GENOS Žeďal, Ževuran Žeďala, Ževurana
žina - girl - GINA
žive - lively - GIVES Žilir, Živcör, Živmey Žifcai, Žifcöra, Žisea, Živadra, Živinye
žorta - flower - IORTA
žuli - way - IULIS Žuliosu, Žullon Žulinesa
žosu - mercy - IOSU Žobes, Žozban, Žozuran Žoscöra, Žožina
Note on vurand: This name element did not exist in Caďinor as such; it derives from OV vurak, from Caďinor virakh; the -ak was (mis)interpreted as a diminutive and replaced with the augmentative -and.

Non-combined names

Masculine names
Abend (related to benda?)
Ailuro ‘cat’
Antavon (emperor)
Bardinó ‘coyote’
Beluan ‘beautiful’
Benec ‘blessing’
Bendra (emperor)
Boďneay ‘war god’
Brac ‘glory’
Bubo ‘lout’
Bundrul ‘lucky’
Ceva (emperor)
Caiem ‘a planet’
Caloton ‘sun god’
Calto (from Caloton)
Capir ‘reverent’
Cepelil ‘loyal’
Comblon (emperor)
Čascuro ‘hope’
Čucul ‘panther’
Dasco ‘animal’
Dauš ‘tiger’
Ďumil ‘strong as stone’
Elil ‘vigorous’
Ervëa (emperor)
Getemil ‘leaderlike’
Giuro ‘stallion’
Gurëom ‘lion man’
Guriš ‘wrath’
Hírumor ‘a planet’
Icëlan ‘nymph’
Idurul ‘desired’
Iliacáš ‘a moon’
Ilďanea (emperor)
Keadau (1st emperor)
Kírumor ‘a planet’
Kutro ‘attendant of Enäron’
Maranh ‘a legendary hero’
Medro ‘greatness’
Mëf ‘childlike’
Mëranac ‘fire god’
Mëril ‘fiery’
Mudray ‘wise’
Nečeron ‘god of trade’
Obad ‘prosperous’
Oraž ‘storm’
Orest ‘true’
Oruseon ‘god of wisdom’
Parnom ‘mountain man’
Peil ‘peaceful’
Pelerin ‘cape’
Për ‘rock’
Pondril ‘audacious’
Renár ‘fox’
Sokol ‘falcon’
Sör ‘fate’
Syetnor ‘god of wine’
Tay ‘brave’
Veaďul ‘loved’
Valur ‘brave’
Verat ‘boar’
Vereon ‘attendant of Enäron’
Virny ‘loyal’
Yanul ‘admired’
Zol ‘strong’
Žantul ‘prophesied’
Žendrom (philosopher)
Feminine names
Ailura ‘cat’
Ayeša (fr. Ismaîn)
Ažele ‘tender’
Ažirei ‘sea goddess’
Beluana ‘beautiful’
Beneca ‘blessing’
Bosa ‘luck’
Brura ‘heather’
Buheda ‘goddess of grain’
Capiye ‘reverence’
Curulë ‘star’
Časka ‘spark’
Čiste ‘pure’
Čorižina ‘type of flower’
Demeča ‘springtime’
Diďitise ‘delicate’
Elila ‘vigorous’
Estre ‘summery’
Eši ‘goddess of art’
Faďna ‘patient’
Fidra ‘goddess of night’
Frea ‘faith’
Guduna ‘antelope’
Gurë ‘lion’
Icëlana ‘nymph’
Idurula ‘desired’
Iliažë ‘a moon’
Imiri ‘attendant of Išira’
Išira ‘goddess of light’
Išire ‘a planet’
Istibri ‘out of mourning’
Koleva ‘an epic heroine’
Lavísia ‘dance’
Lelesa ‘faith’
Lereže ‘happy’
Letusca ‘butterfly’
Mélnite ‘thankful’
Miďë ‘celebration’
Mudraë ‘wisdom’
Munifa ‘splendor’
Naunai ‘a moon’
Neyže ‘snow’
Nölne ‘type of flower’
Obada ‘prosperous’
Ofóriza ‘fertility’
Onoale ‘rainbow’
Oresta ‘true’
Pizufëa ‘type of flower’
Ravi ‘delight’
Řase ‘rose’
Řavcaëna ‘goddress of agriculture’
Sasna ‘pine’
Sezuë ‘spring (of water)’
Silui ‘songbird’
Silva ‘forest’
Suléa ‘youth’
Susluoma ‘potato’
Šeli ‘grace’
Šöna ‘pretty’
Tašiorta ‘tulip’
Tičure ‘merry’
Timely ‘gentle’
Tsísia ‘diamond’
Valura ‘bravery’
Vena ‘deer’
Vësi ‘attendant of Išira’
Veaďula ‘loved’
Vlerë ‘goddess of love‘
Vlerëi ‘a planet‘
Yacura ‘partridge’
Žantula ‘prophesied’
Živesa ‘liveliness’
Žoya ‘jewel’

Cuzeian names [To Index]

Cuêzi names are often formed on the Caďinorian model, from two roots; but the majority, perhaps, are either simple Cuêzi words (Eteîa ‘flower’, Dulāu ‘duty’, Oluon ‘buttress’, Niōre ‘beauty’, etc.), or formed from simple words by the use of characteristic affixes (e.g. zeili ‘lively’ → Zeilisio; mīsia ‘joy’ → Misiē). As in Caďinor, this process was originally fully productive.

In later times Cuzeians tended to name children after ancestors or famous figures, so that there came to exist a stock of canonical names; and many of these were borrowed into Caďinor.

Most Cuêzi names exist in two forms in Verdurian: a traditional form inherited from ancient times, and subject to the usual Caďinor to Verdurian sound changes; and a modern form borrowed directly from Cuêzi. The former are used along the Eärdur, the original Cuzeian homeland; the latter are characteristic of modern Kebri and Érenat. Either form may be found in Verduria.

The forms given below are the traditional Eärduran forms, as found in the Book of Eleď. These are the Verdurian rather than the Benécian or Barakhinei forms; but they have been influenced by these more conservative dialects, avoiding for instance the softening of t, d, c, g.

The original Cuêzi forms and meanings are also given.

The modern Avélan forms are not given, but they are readily recoverable from the Cuêzi: remove any final -s; write ā as ä, ē as ei, ō as ö, ū as ü, ī as ï (the latter are supposed to be pronounced long, but ö and ü with normal Verdurian values are commonly heard); ignore the circumflexes; add an accent if the stress would not fall on the same syllable as in Cuêzi. Examples:

Adāurio → Adäurio Amīsia → Amïsia
Ecūnas → Ecüna Coêliboe → Coéliboe
Samīrex → Samïreh Sarēina → Saréina

Masculine names

Acuyo [Acuōre]
Adaro [Adāurio ‘blue’]
Alauda [Alaldas ‘star’]
Ambrišo [Ambrisio ‘dance’]
Arana [Araunas ‘eagle’]
Araš [Arrasos (first human)]
Atau [Antāu (epic hero)]
Azënár [Azienār ‘forest’]
Bánimu [Banimu ‘voyager’]
Bar [Bāuros ‘old’]
Bardau [Bardāu ‘brotherly love’]
Beret [Beretos ‘green’]
Bizbero [Bisbēruos ‘fearless’]
Bizbirah [Bisbirax ‘no enemies’]
Brinumo [Brinūmio ‘near God’]
Celošo [Celōusio ‘swordsman’]
Civea [Civēyas ‘submission’]
Colira [Coelīras ‘devotion’]
Dománavo [Domānavas ‘generosity’]
Dulau [Dulāu ‘duty’]
Ecuna [Ecūnas ‘hero’]
Einatu [Einātu (an archangel)]
Enotivo [Enōtivas ‘sojourner’]
Éres [Eressos ‘westerner’]
Iceleď [Ēcēiledan ‘love God’]
Iriam [Iriand (first iliu)]
Leria [Lerias ‘understanding’]
Loscuna [Lôdicūnas ‘honorable deed’]
Muroro [Mūroros ‘wonder’]
Namašo [Namāsio ‘lordliness’]
Olon [Oluon ‘buttress’]
Óromo [Oromo]
Poncuna [Pomicūnas ‘manly deed’]
Remobau [Rēmobēu ‘holy peace’]
Sahoro [Sauōros ‘salty’]
Samiř [Samīrex ‘brightness’]
Solešo [Solēsio ‘truth’]
Suro [Sūro ‘owl’]
Teronél [Teronelo ‘miracle born’]
Urez [Urezos ‘bear’]
Visánavo [Vissanavas ‘knowledge’]
Vyon [Vionnas ‘lyre’]
Zelišo [Zeilisio ‘lively’]
Zid [Zīdos ‘trouble’]

Feminine names

Alana [Alāna]
Aláudë [Alaldillê ‘starlike’]
Alue [Ailuē ‘graceful’]
Ambeca [Ambecā ‘grace’]
Ambrise [Ambrisei ‘dancer’]
Amiša [Amīsia ‘joy’]
Besoma [Bēusomâ ‘dream of peace’]
Brinuma [Brinūmē ‘near God’]
Camélia [Caumēliye ‘sweetheart’]
Camiši [Cammisi ‘yellow’]
Colibe [Coêliboe ‘love-inducing’]
Dizama [Diazamē ‘promise’]
Ecune [Ecūnei ‘heroine’]
Epete [Epetei ‘singer’]
Eteya [Etêia ‘flower’]
Eti [Āeti ‘lake’]
Etinë [Etiniē]
Fuli [Fuli ‘fern’]
Icadita [ēcaditē ‘longed for child’]
Iori [Yeōre ‘river’]
Laleda [Laleide ‘youth’]
Lare [Lāure ‘pretty’]
Lerete [Leretē ‘clever’]
Leritene [Leribodē ‘full of understanding]
Lúvore [Lūvore ‘love’]
Murere [Mūrorē ‘wonder’]
Niore [Niōre ‘beauty’]
Nóe [Nōue ‘rain’]
Olesama [Olesāma]
Petinuma [Petinūmē ‘sing to God’]
Ridilenda [Ridilenda ‘laughing maiden’]
Rüše [Ruyise ‘red’]
Sarena [Sarēina ‘easterner’]
Siysa [Siyise ‘a flower’]
Someše [Somêsie ‘dream of the sea’]
Suraliha [Sualixue ‘sun’]
Teroneli [Teronelē ‘miracle born’]
Tisati [Tisāti ‘spray’]
Urisama [Urisāma]
Useže [Usēge ‘pheasant’]
Yoreta [Yoreta ‘a flower’]
Zélia [Zeilia ‘lively’]
Zëne [Zienē ‘fertile’]
Ženöra [Denūra (first woman)]

Note on Ženöra: The origin of this form is uncertain. Some derive it from a dialectal form *Genūra. A change d → g is found in some Cuêzi dialects; but why Caďinor should have borrowed the word from one of them is inexplicable. More likely is confusion with žen ‘people’ or žina ‘girl’, an attempt perhaps to find a meaningful Caďinor derivation for the name of such an important personage.

Elenico names [To Index]

The Elenicoi encouraged the adoption of Elenico names by their converts, and these have become the typical names of Eleďi, eclipsing even the native Cuzeian name lists.

Most Elenico names remain recognizable forms of the original; but six hundred years of linguistic change have made their mark on them. Indeed, since the names were all introduced at the same time, long after the Classical period of Caďinor, their evolution is an interesting and important source of information on the nature and evolution of Old Verdurian.

The names show also some of the evolution of Greek. It can be seen that the Elenicoi arrived after the b-d-g/p-t-k/ph-th-kh obstruent system of Classical Greek had already evolved into the Hellenistic v-ď-gh/p-t-k/f-th-kh, the diphthong αι had shifted to [e], ου to [u], and ευ and αυ to [ev/av].

The Greek forms were translated using a fairly straightforward transliteration, whose only surprising feature was the transliteration of κ as k rather than c before u; apparently the Greek κου sounded to Verdurian ears as too unlike their frontal /ku/, and more like a /qu/. The unfamiliar Greek γ was transliterated as g.

The original Old Verdurian forms, as used in the Avélan Bible, are given below, with the Greek, in brackets. (Substantial variation was found as these unfamiliar names found their way into other texts.)

The Greek names were adopted into the Verdurian declensional system. Thus, the Greek -ος, understood to be a case ending, was Verdurianized as -o, -ας as -a. Feminine names ending in a consonant were given an ending -a or -i, while masculines in -ης were given more acceptable forms based on the oblique root (e.g. Apellen ← acc. ’Απελλῆν).

The main entries in the list below are of course the main modern Verdurian forms. There are many variants, and even a few additions. For instance, feminine forms have been created for many originally masculine names.

The retention of final -os as -o shows that the loss of Caďinor -os was no longer a productive process in Verdurian. Likewise the retention of k and g before front vowels would not have occurred if the names had been borrowed at an earlier time. And the transliteration of ’Ακύλας as Akula rather than Aküla shows that Old Verdurian had not yet developed a phonemic [y].

Such late processes as the conversion of medial ť to ď can be seen, however; or the softening of ȟ to h (still fricative at this date in Avéla, though aspirated in Verdurian, and silent today); or ntt, or ily. A few difficult consonantal clusters were simplified; e.g. vgv or ž; ďrdr; final csc.

Verdurian has shortened a number of names, and sometimes changed declensions, often substituting for instance -a for -e, rare in native feminine names (Helene → Elena), and generalizing -o (perceived as something of a marker of Elenico names) to some masculine names that did not originally possess it (e.g. Apleno, Samuilo).

Masculine names

Aďám [Aďam, ’Αδάμ]
Aďiano [Aďriano, ‘Αδριανος]
Akula [’Ακύλας]
Alekio [Alecsio, ’Αλέξιος]
Andrey [Anďrea, ’Ανδρέας]
Apleno [Apellen, ’Απελλῆς]
Apolo [Apollo, ’Απολλώς]
Äron [Aaron, ’Ααρών]
Atipa [Antipa, ’Αντίπας]
Atónio [Antonio, ’Αντονιος]
Avräm [Avraam, ’Αβραάμ]
Ávusto [Avgusto, ’Αὺγουστος]
Cefa [Κηφας]
Cläďo [Clauďio, Κλαύδιος]
Clemet [Clement, Κλήμησ]
Como [Cosmo, Κόσμος]
Cornél [Cornelio, Κορνέλιος]
Ďamano [Ďamiano, Δαμιανος]
Ďanël [Ďaniel, Δανιὲλ]
Ďareo [Ďareio, Δαρεῖος]
Ďavíd [Ďaviď, Δαβίδ]
Ďemečo [Ďemetrio, Δημήτριος]
Ďonušo [Ďionusio, Διονύσιος]
Elia [Helia, ‘Ηλίας]
Emanél [Emmanuel, ’Εμμανουήλ]
Emio [Aemilio, ’Αεμιλιος]
Erasto [”Εραστος]
Eseo [Hesaia, ‘Ησαϊας]
Ezecio [Ezecia, ’Εζεκίας]
Eženiy [Evgenio, ’Ευγένιος]
Felic [Felics, Φῆλιξ]
Fiemo [Filemo, Φιλήμων]
Filipo [Filippo, Φίλιππος]
Gamlël [Gamaliel, Γαμαλιήλ]
Gavrël [Gavriel, Γαβριήλ]
Gayo [Gaio, Γάϊος]
Iason [’Ιάσων]
Icovo [Iacovo, ’Ιάκώβ]
Iesu [Iesus, ’Ιησοῦς]
Ihano [Ioanno, ’Ιωάννης]
Iosif [Iosef, ’Ιωσήφ]
Iudá [Iouda, ’Ιουδάς]
Isäc [Isaac, ’Ισαάκ]
Iulio [’Ιούλιος]
Kano [Luciano, Λουκιανός]
Kuro [Κῦρος]
Lavreto [Lavrentio, Λαυρεντιος]
Lazaro [Λάζαρος]
Lino [Λῖνος]
Luc [Luca, Λουκᾶς]
Marco [Μάρκος]
Mario [Μαριος]
Martino [Μαρτινος]
Mateo [Matťaio, Ματθαῖος]
Matia [Matťia, Ματθίας]
Meliďéc [Melȟiseďec, Μελχισεδέκ]
Mihel [Miȟael, Μιχαήλ]
Moseo [Mouse, Μω”διασεσῆς]
Naďanél [Naťanael, Nαθαναήλ]
Nicano [Nicanor, Nικάνωρ]
Nícolo [Nicolao, Nικόλαος]
Pavel [Pavlo, Παῦλος]
Petro [Πέτρος]
Rufo [‘Ροῦφος]
Řegoro [Gregorio, Γρηγόριος]
Řisto [Ȟristoforo, Χριστοφόρος]
Samuilo [Samuel, Σαμουήλ]
Savel [Savlo, Σαῦλος]
Serio [Sergio, Σέργιος]
Sevasto [Sevastiano, Σεβαστιανος]
Sila [Σίλας]
Simon [Simon, Σίμων]
Solom [Solomon, Σολομών]
Sostén [Sosťen, Σωσθένης]
Stefano [Στέφανος]
Sumeo [Sumeon, Συμεών]
Taďeo [Ťaďďaio, Θαδδαῖος]
Teďoro [Ťeoďoro, Θεόδωρος]
Timeo [Τίμαιος]
Timoďeo [Timoťeo, Τιμόθεος]
Tito [Τίτος]
Tomao [Ťoma, Θωμᾶς]
Tuhico [Τυχικός]
Tuhon [Tuȟon, Τυχων]
Varďolo [Varťolomaio, Βαρθολομαῖος]
Varnava [Βαρνάβας]
Vasëo [Vasileio, Βασίλειος]
Venamín [Veniamin, Βενιαμίν]
Zahar [Zaȟaria, Ζαχαρίας]
Zena [Ζηνᾶς]
Žoržo, Iorio [Georgio, Γεοργιος]

Feminine names

Aďiana [Aďriana, ‘Αδριανα]
Agaďe [Agaťe, ’Αγαθη]
Agne [Hagne, ‘Αγνη]
Aleďea [Aleťeia, ’Αλήθεια]
Alekia [Alecsia, ’Αλεξια]
Ana [Anna, ”Αννα]
Andrea [Anďrea, ’Ανδρεια]
Anëla [Angela, ’´Αγγελα]
Atónia [Antonia, ’Αντονια]
Cecia [Caecilia, Καεκιλια]
Cläďa [Clauďia, Κλαυδία]
Coma [Cosma]
Ďámari [Δάμαρις]
Ďanëli [Ďaniela]
Ďarea [Ďareia]
Ďorca [Δορκάς]
Ecačine [Aicaterine, ’Αὶκατερίνη]
Elena [Helene, ‘Ελένη]
Elia [Elia, ’Ελία]
Elisave [Elisaveta, ’Ελισάβετ]
Emia [Aemilia]
Ešra [Esťera, ’Εσθήρ]
Eva [Eva, Εῦα]
Evnica [Evnice, Εύνίκη]
Ežénia [Evgenia]
Ferénica [Ferenice, Φερενίκη]
Fove [Foive, Φοίβη]
Harma [Ȟarma, Χάρμα]
Hloe [Ȟloe, Χλόη]
Ihana [Ioanna, ’Ιωάννα]
Iri [ῖρις]
Iulia [’Ιουλία]
Kurya [Curia, Κυρία]
Loi [Λωϊς]
Luca [Luca]
Lúďia [Luďia, Λυδία]
Luďuca [Luďuica, Λουδουικα]
Margite [Margarite, Μαργαρίτης]
Maria [Μαρία]
Martina [Martina]
Mélanë [Mélania, Μέλανια]
Miheli [Miȟaela]
Natalia [Nαταλια]
Pësi [Περσίς]
Petra [Petra]
Priša [Prisca, Πρίσκ(ιλλ)α]
Raheli [Raȟeli, ‘Ραχήλ]
Reveca [Revecca, ‘Ρεβέκκα]
Roďa [Roďe, ‘Ρόδη]
Ruďa [Ruťa, ‘Ρούθ]
Sara [Sarra, Σάῥα]
Sofia [Σοφία]
Suntua [Suntuhe, Συντύχη]
Susana [Susanna, Σουσάννα]
Šena [Csena, Ξενα]
Taďea [Taďeo]
Taviďa [Taviťa, Ταβιθά]
Teďora [Ťeoďora]
Terásia [Ťerasia, Θηρασία]
Timoďea [Timoťeia]
Trufena [Trufaina, Τρύφαινα]
Varvara [Βάρβαρα]
Varďola [Varťolomaia]
Vasëa [Vasileia]
Veači [Veatriksa, Βεατρικσ]
Vënica [Vernice, Βερνίκη]
Verena [Βερενα]
Yuliana [’Ιουλιανα]
Zahara [Ζαχαρια]

Family names (ženatî) [To Index]

This is by no means a complete listing; merely an enumeration of the most common ženatî found in Verduria province, with their meanings (if known). nom indicates a ženata based on an ordinary given name.

Adianey Eleďe nom
Aldaney nom
Aďamorey nom
Aďo divine
Aďremey nom
Alésiy nom
Alletiey nom
Anaseriy city
Andur mighty (Barakhinei)
Anëtey descendent
Aodey province
Araney Cuzeian nom
Araric south band (Barakhinei)
Arcalney Arcaln fortress
Arin island where Arcaln is
Aržentey silver
Atirey of Atiro
Avrämey Eleďe nom
Azënar Cuzeian nom
Azifse fat
Azure blue
Ažirey goddess Ažirei
Bardëy from Bardau
Bardiney coyote
Barsucey badger
Base low
Bazno fighter (Ismaîn)
Bečom cooper
Behdeley picture
Belgey war
Belgobán nom
Belörney nom
Belucaro beautiful diamond
Benda blessing
Berikme reknowned (Barakhinei)
Boďmorey nom (dialectal)
Bosey luck
Breve short
Brune brown
Bulondom baker
Buyeley town
Caizure Caizuran
Caleon nom
Calney fortress
Calseom shoemaker
Caltey god Calto
Cankéu outlander (Barakhinei)
Capirey nom
Ceďnare day of week
Ceřecom alchemist
Cistile crown
Clemetey Eleďe nom
Cliďu priest
Comey Eleďe nom
Condu rich man (Barakhinei)
Cördu heart
Coržey of the gorge
Craďey type of fish
Crifom scribe
Cucey shrine (Barakhinei)
Cumoney ally
Cunr swans (Ismaîn)
Čaise tea-colored
Čanom potter
Čelures river (Ismaîn)
Čuculey leopard
Čuney oak
Čurmey pear juice
Daroden healthy day
Dauš tiger
Debere secret
Demeča spring
Desë of the bridge
Deštaë of Deštai
Diburey of Dibur
Dičy gentle
Dineon a clan name
Dinkop melonhead (Barakhinei)
Dobriy Dobray
Doliney valley
Domur good (Ismaîn)
Draceon nom
Dulau Cuzeian nom
Ďanëley Eleďe nom
Ďarmimey wilderness
Ďévora Eleďe nom
Ďumatom mason
Ďumëy stone
Ecokíy dukes (Barakhinei)
Eilonuy of Eilonu
Eley center
Eliley vigorous
Elirey life
Eluceon nom
Eluloney nom
Elutë from Eluti
Endom carpenter
Enil timid
Enotivey Cuzeian nom
Epražo newcomer
Erdaney south village
Ereon south clan
Éresey Cuzeian nom
Erom man of the south
Ésecom nom
Esta summer
Ešireon clan of Eši
Etaldey plain
Etaldey plain
Eucarey miner
Ežcud ugly
Fäbom painter
Fačiu soldier (Barakhinei)
Fale white
Fevomq carver
Filipey Eleďe nom
Firustey of Firusta
Flave yellow
Foriy fertile
Forte loud
Gal bath
Gambra sea turtle
Gäsey goose
Gavrëley Eleďe nom
Geteme powerful
Grogec miller
Guey ford
Gunoro armorer
Haču hunter (Barakhinei)
Haute tall
Hupa halfling
Hutorey farm
Hutorom farmer
Huvec dyer
Ihaney Eleďe nom
Ihtüec fisherman
Ileon moon clan
Imiru after goddess Imiri
Ismaë Ismaîn
Isorain off the estate
Išereon clan of Išira
Išicrey Išira
Iveri winter
Kaney Eleďe nom
Kunom money-man
Kurey Eleďe nom
Lanyom mercer
Lapis rabbit
Lazarey Eleďe nom
Lekaro physician
Lescey selling
Letidaney nom
Lonsörey nom
Loscuna Cuzeian nom
Loša of the Loša river
Lotom boatwright
Luomey apple
Lureš beautiful (Ismaîn)
Macre thin
Maranhey hero Maranh
Maranhëy city Maranhë
Marcey Eleďe nom
Margitey Eleďe nom
Matrey master (dialectal)
Melondan a city
Menley river Menla
Mëril fiery
Mese benevolent
Mestë of the fields
Miheley Eleďe nom
Mirtíy blueberry
Miturey town
Mlake black
Motucöm shepherd
M&üsey point, cape
Myasom butcher
Nanaric north band (Barakhinei)
Nanom northerner
Nařou two-sheds
Necocréy of Necocre
Nëralúca St. Luca
Nëramária St. Mary
Nërapríša St. Priša
Nëraváči St. Veači
Neroney god Nečeron
Nëroniháno St. Ihano
Nërongáyo St. Gayo
Nëronkúro St. Kuro
Nëronmatéo St. Mateo
Nëronmíhel St. Mihel
Nëronpável St. Pavel
Nëronpétro St. Petro
Neskaryu Christmas
Nezë of the island
Neziey island
Nölney type of flower
Nrüsk fool
Nuey town
Obadeon prosperity clan
Obuneon nom
Oknorey goldlander (Barakhinei)
Olašu beginning (a month)
Oloney Cuzeian nom
Oneley baths
Orgaric proud band (Barakhinei)
Örn eagle
Oron shortening of Oruseon
Ořeon gold clan
Osol donkey
Osörey nom
Paleon nom
Parne of the mountains
Parnom mountain man
Pavleto from Pavel
Pavley Eleďe nom
Pavon wagon
Peiley nom
Peleti autumn
Pelom sailor
Pirosolom father Solomon
Purnes mountains (Ismaîn)
Puznur small place (Ismaîn)
Rälom cook
Revouse bearded
Rivuran nom
Rožy crazy
Ruřy fast
Ružeon red clan
Rúžžue reddish
Řafor place of justice
Řanorey of Řânor
Řasmesti rose field
Řis grain
Řode Hroth
Sabadey sabbath
Sáluer whore
Saney lord
Samirey Cuzeian nom
Sariley easterner
Sarom easterner
Savley Eleďe nom
Scilec shrubber
Scušaney of Scušana
Selëy river
Sfica nail
Simoney Eleďe nom
Siřcar fighter
Sižom blacksmith
Smire humble
Snucay servant
Sönilec saddler
Streloro fletcher
Sulorey hermit
Suvoney nom
Süy of Sü
Šautom skinner
Šaymeon Šayu clan
Šayumor city
Šerian province & city
Škuašy silly
Šmirulo humble
Šrayom magician
Šualom horseman
Šuča pig
Tabose lumpy
Tellec seeker
Telom westerner
Tihy quiet
Tire purple
Tuhoney Eleďe nom
Ulianey of Ulian
Uol ox
Uprusin by the inn
Urezey Cuzeian nom
Uselen by the river
Ušete shouter
Uverom tailor
Vereon a god
Vešdaney of Vešdan
Viminë of Viminia
Vinom winegrower
Vižo ordinary
Vleteon Vlerë clan
Vuraney warrior
Yagom hunter
Zaharey Eleďe nom
Zanuy barbarian tribe
Zavere of Zavera
Zeorey of Zeor
Zerom pizza-maker
Zolbrak strong arm
Zoleon strong clan
Zolfantey nom
Zomburey nom
Zömey of Zöm
Žambey border
Žeizey shrine
Žilirey nom

© 1997 by Mark Rosenfelder
Virtual Verduria