Virtual Verduria

Ismaîn

Ismaîn is a sister language of Verdurian, spoken by the foppish and irritable people of Ismahi. (At least, that's what the Verdurians think of them.) It has a more French feel to it, I think. As can be seen on this map, Ismahi is to the east of Verduria, along the Mišicama littoral.

© 1999 by Mark Rosenfelder

Introduction
Phonology
Declension Case usage
Adjectives Declension Adverbs Articles
Pronouns
Conjugation
Numbers
Derivational morphology Nominalizers Adjectivizers Verbalizers
Syntax Verb Usage Constituent order Noun phrases Negatives Questions Subordination Prepositions Comparatives
References Conventional expressions Calendar Names
Example
Sound changes from Caďinor
Lexicon


Introduction [To Index]

Ismaîn, a descendent of Caďinor, is spoken in the lands of Ismahi, Denisovič, and Azgami east of Verduria.

This area, forming the ancient Meťaiun state of Leziunea, was one of the last areas west of the Ctelm Mountains to fall under Caďinorian rule. Indeed, it retained its independence until the Munkhâshi conquered it (1612) preparatory to their reinvasion of the Plain. When Ervëa and Attafei combined to destroy Munkhâsh, the imperial idea was triumphant, and Leziunea was incorporated into the Caďinorian state. No great resistance is recorded, and the area slowly aborbed the Caďinorian religion and learned the Caďinor language. The Meťaiun language persisted until at least the 19th century, and some features of Ismaîn are held to derive from the influence of Meťaiun.

Amid the dislocations of the medieval era, the area drifted into independence in the early 2500s, as the kingdom of Ismahi. Our first records of Old Ismaîn are popular lays of about two centuries before, joined later by stories, sermons, and a flowering of epic verse-- mostly relating to minor Leziunean heroes inflated into avatars of the national character, since Ismahi has always had a fairly strong sense of itself as a distinct nation within the Caďinorian sphere.

The language of law and religion remained Caďinor, but the vernacular of the court at Raizumi (Raȥumi) became increasingly prestigious; the children of nobles were sent to the capital to learn correct speech. Literature in the vernacular flourished, and by the 2900s (a century earlier than in Verduria) government records were kept in Ismaîn.

There have been many influences on Ismaîn. Kebri erupted onto the littoral in the 2800s, conquering almost all of Érenat (and the easternmost sliver of Ismahi). Kebreni traders plied the Ismaîn littoral, and many words were borrowed from their language, from commercial terms to slang.

Ismahi was caught in the middle of Elena Eleďe's wars with Kebri; the end result was the loss of the Gulag littoral (which had been de jure a part of the kingdom and de facto virtually a Kebreni colony, and which became de jure independent (as Denisovič) but de facto a Verdurian protectorate) and closer ties to Kebri. Another layer of Kebreni vocabulary entered the language-- e.g. philosophy, technology, accounting.

Nonetheless cultural intercourse with Verdurian has been constant, and Ismaîn has borrowed many words from Verdurian (and contributed some back). However, Ismaîn scholars still prefer to write their most important works-- their writing for the ages-- in Caďinor (reserving the vernacular merely for textbooks, commentaries, journals, and other ephemera). Reborrowing from Caďinor has, as in the case of Verdurian, enriched the language and facilitated communication with other states of the Plain.

In 3197 the eastern nobles rebelled, setting up their own kingdom, Azgami, with Dhekhnami support. The eastern dialects (in general more conservative and less subject to foreign influence) now absorbed some Dhekhnami vocabulary, notably military and diplomatic, with some slang and terms of abuse.

Phonology [To Index]

The consonantal and vocalic system of Ismaîn is shown below, in Ismaîn orthography, IPA equivalent, and transliteration.
Ismain phonology

Consonants

Verdurians (and English speakers) have trouble with Ismaîn's retroflex and alveolo-palatal fricatives, hearing ş ȥ as s/z or š/ž, and ç j as č/dž (an affricate pronunciation of ç and j is common word-initially). Such incorrect pronunciations must be avoided. Chinese speakers have an advantage, however: Ismaîn ş corresponds to (pinyin) sh, and ç to x.

If the phonetic terms throw you and your Chinese is rusty: ş is a sh pronounced with the tongue curled up behind the upper teeth, rather like the s in American English sure. ç is like the consonant in German ich with the tongue raised a bit; or alternatively, like a sh with some ich-like friction. The Polish ś is the same sound.

Ismaîn y is a high, unrounded central vowel, halfway between [i] and [y]. (It's like Swedish u without lip rounding.)

Since Kebreni also has the ç j y sounds (spelled ś ź y), and the Mišicama littoral was the last Monkhayic area to be conquered by the Caďinorians, a Monkhayic substratum influence has been suspected here. However, these sounds are not reconstructed for Meťaiun, and they are more likely due to influence from modern Kebreni. (At times the littoral was virtually a Kebreni colony).

c is used to represent the fronted [k+] found before front vowels, a, and most consonants; k is used for the retracted [k] (or even uvular [q]) found before back vowels. Phonemic status has sometimes been claimed for this distinction, on the basis of a few apparent violations of these distributional generalizations, such as as kêsŕa 'strategy', culi 'party'. These violations, however, always turn out to be Verdurian loan-words (or reborrowings from Caďinor), and have a tendency to be 'normalized' (cêsŕa, kuli), which lends support to the allophonic interpretation.

Vowels

Most final vowels have reduced to [i] or [ə]; the latter is normally spelled e, but a after another e; thus emea [ɛmɛə]. The distinction between open [ɛ] and [ə] (schwa) may be marginally phonemic, on the basis of such minimal pairs as ce [kə] 'which' and ce [kɛ] 'who'. But these may be better explained by a rule that e does not reduce in one-syllable words (cf. me [me] 'water'); note that ce 'which' is really a clitic.

In Ismaîn dialect, nasalized î and ê are pronounced identically, as an open [ɛ̃], as are û and ô, as an open [ɔ̃]; the orthography preserves phonetic distinctions no longer made (except in some remote rural areas of Azgami).

Syllabics

r, n, and l can be syllabic in Ismaîn, as in thus lŕe, Saikn, eştł (compare English butter, button, bustle). Syllabic r is written ŕ; the distinction is phonemic, as can be seen with minimal pairs such as raçni 'thigh', ŕaçni 'spider'. The consonantal r is also pronounced with more closure, like a British r, but not trilled.

As in English or Catalán, l is clear beginning a syllable and dark (velarized, written ł) ending one; syllabic ł is always dark. As syllabic ł can precede a vowel (ułô 'ox'), the distinction is marginally phonemic. Syllabic n is always final and has no special orthographic representation. It almost always follows a consonant, but appears in some infinitives, 3p forms, and datives after a vowel; pun 'push' is pronounced /pu n/ (two syllables), not /pun/.

Students of Verdurian should note that Ismaîn h is aspirated, like an English h, not silent, as in Verdurian.

Stress

Stress generally occurs on the penult (second-to-last syllable). Syllabic consonants (e.g. ŕ) count as syllables.

The Ismaîn alphabet

The order and names of the letters in Ismaîn:

The blue letters are used only in writing Caďinor, but are learned as part of the alphabet; the red letters are innovations. The letters ca ga were ces, ges in Caďinor; the lowering preserved them from becoming çe, je. The resulting e / a / e / a pattern in the letter names was generalized to the 5th and last rows.

The nasalization diacritic is named mole 'soft', so e.g. ê is named e mole.

Note that Verdurians do not use the Ismaîn names for the innovated letters; they call ş ȥ ç j ŕ ł šen ismaë, ež ismaë, čen ismaë, čen vuáë, ra ismaa, la ismaa.

Declension [To Index]

Sound changes from Caďinor to Ismaîn-- notably the loss of most consonants and the weakening of final syllables-- have eliminated the distinctions between many case forms. In addition, the loss of gender as a syntactic category motivated an analogical levelling (e.g. the regularization of the ablative).

The result is a system indicating number and just three cases, nominative, dative, and ablative. The commonest patterns are shown below.

part honor summerheat night body job
s. nom lôde eşte şale noçti çire mesi
s. dat sŕn lôdn eştn şaln noçtn çirn mesn
s. abl sŕes lôdes eştes şales noçtis çires mesis
pl. nom sŕi lôȥi eşta şalo noçtu çiri mesu
pl. dat sŕn lôȥn eştn şaln noçtn çirn mesn
pl. abl sŕis lôȥis eştas şalos noçtus çiris mesus
There is no general plural morpheme; rather, the plural root depends on the ending of the s. nom.: most commonly cons. → -i; -e → -i; -i → -u. There are however several sources of irregularity: Irregular plurals are noted in the lexicon.

(The expected reflexes of Caďinor feminine plurals would have been identical to the singular, and in fact we see this in some Old Ismaîn texts. The modern endings have been formed by analogy from (former) masculines in -e and neuters in -i.

The dative is formed by replacing the final vowel (if any) of the nominative with syllabic -n. If the root ends in -n-, an epenthetic -d- is inserted: mani 'hand' → mandn. Note that this only produces a distinctive plural form for words with an irregular plural form, such as lôde above, or 'life', which has the plural form liri and thus datives lŕn, lirn.

The ablative is formed by adding -s to the nominative plural form (-es after a consonant, as in ).

( Again, the forms deriving from Caďinor feminine nouns (which would otherwise have been identical to the nominative) have been formed by analogy.)

Case usage [To Index]

The names of the cases are chosen for ease of comparison with other Caďinorian languages, and are slightly misleading for Ismaîn.

The nominative is used for both subjects and direct objects.

The dative is used for indirect objects and the object of prepositions, and for destinations expressed without a preposition (e.g. maçtandn 'to the city'). It is not used as a formal genitive, as in Verdurian. ("The man's god" is se ŕeştis aze, not *ŕeştin.)

The ablative has taken the place of the Caďinor genitive (lêcŕynes mani 'a doctor's hand'), but also retains its role indicating the source of an action or movement (maçtanes 'from the city').

The ablative is not used as a partitive, as the Verdurian genitive is. Compare:

(Ismaîn) Vuli êzin sreve.
(Verdurian) Vulu šerëi.
I want some beer.

Adjectives [To Index]

Declension [To Index]

Sound changes and the elimination of the accusative conspired to eradicate the number, case, and gender markings of Caďinor adjectives. By the time of Old Ismaîn, the nominative forms for the II. declension adjective bases 'low'-- s. bases, bases, basies, pl. baseit, basei, baset-- had fallen together into just two forms, baze and s.f. bazi. The III. declension forms s. rogis, rogis, rogis, pl. roguit, rogui, rogiat had similarly collapsed to roji (s. and f.pl) and roju. The relatively low functional load and lack of clear expression of gender and number led to the use of a single form in all contexts.

As with nouns, dative and ablative marking subsisted, though it was generalized to a uniform -n and -s respectively. However, these endings have disappeared from speech (except in a few fixed idioms) and are increasingly rare in writing.

It is now considered correct to omit the case endings when they are redundant with those of the noun: e.g. leve lêcŕynes niri 'the crazy doctor's machine', though they are retained in more formal contexts-- olŕs azes ôre 'the mighty god's shadow'.

Adverbs [To Index]

Adverbs are regularly formed via the suffix -gi (cognate to Verdurian -ece), or -e if the adjective ends in a consonant:
lŕe beautiful → lŕegi
roji crazy → rojigi
şip mute → şipe
êȥił quiet → êȥile
meli good → meligi well

Articles [To Index]

The Ismaîn definite article is se, which is invariable. It's considered an adjective by Ismaîn grammarians, and indeed it derives from a Caďinor adjective (soh 'aforementioned'). Note the pronunciation, [sə]. It becomes s before a vowel.

It's common to use en 'one' (parallel to plural êzin 'some') as a sort of indefinite article, though it is not absolutely required, as in English:

Lolŕ leli (en) şirn ceȥe fu î Ranŕn?
Did you see an elephant when you were in Rhânor?

Pronouns [To Index]

Personal pronouns [To Index]

nom acc dat abl
I se es sen es
thou le ec len les
he/she şi şu şin tes
we te ten tâde
you mih myn mos
they şa şâ şan şas
he/she loşu loşu lonşu lossu
thou lolŕ lolŕ lonŕ losŕ
you lomû lomû lonû lozmû
s. refl. zes zyn zes
pl. refl. zan zas

Note that accusative forms have survived in the pronominal system. Accusative pronouns are used for direct objects.

The personal pronouns se 'I' and te 'we' are used only for emphasis, the verb form normally serving to indicate the subject. With third person verbs şi 'he/she/it' or şa 'they' are assumed if no subject is given.

The lo- forms were originally formal pronouns; e.g. lolŕ derives from lôde lŕi 'your honor', originally only one of many such expressions. However, lolŕ and its plural lomû are now used in almost all contexts.

Le and mih survive in some remote rural areas and in legal contexts, and le is sometimes used as a rather poetic expression of intimacy, something like tu in Brazilian Portuguese-- in popular songs, for instance.

Loşu has not been similarly generalized; it is still used with superiors, or between high-ranking equals. Note that there is no formal form (that's caught on) for 'they'.

Reflexive pronouns are used when (third person) subject and object are the same: lave zes 'he washes himself/ she washes herself'. There are no formal forms.

Interrogative pronouns [To Index]

nom acc dat abl
who ce ces  cyn ces
ca can cas
what cete cetn cetes
where cenŕe cenŕn cenŕes
when ceȥe
how cedyli
how much eşkoli
why pŕcetn
which ce

The dative and ablative forms of pronouns of place (where, here, etc.) are used only as locatives (i.e., they are not used after prepositions or as genitives).

Deictic pronouns [To Index]

Nominal
Adjectival
nom dat abl
this one ete etn etes    this eli
that one tode todn todes that iȥi
here eçte eçtn eçtes now nûc
there iȥeçte iȥeçtn iȥeçtes then âçe

Impersonal pronouns [To Index]

some every no
adj. êzin çei su
-one ni pi nite
-thing sizy pizy nizy
-where sigeȥi puȥe niguȥe
time sidêne pidêne sudêne

Conjugation [To Index]

There are three conjugations in Ismaîn, easily identified by the final -c, -n, or -ŕ in the infinitive. Sample conjugations are given below, as well as the forms for the irregular verb ezn 'to be'. For ease of comparison, the same verbs are used as in the Caďinor section; but there are no differences in conjugation between the two -n verbs or the two -ŕ verbs.

Second person forms are given apart; they are used as such only in remote rural areas (and in legal language). Third person verb forms are used for both the lo- pronouns and for le/mih.

Present

verb elirec
live
rign
look
mizn
rejoice
beçtŕ
move
clajŕ
beat
ezn
be
1s eliro riga miza beçti clagi sa
3s elire rige mize beçti claji e
1p elirê rigê mizê beçtî clagî ezê
3p elirn rign mizn beçtn clagn sen
2s elire rige mize beçty clajy se
2p eliro rigi mizi beçti clagi eze

The 1p ending is always the 3s nasalized; the 3p ending is always -n.

The 1s and 3s endings are usually the same in -ŕ verbs. If there is no explicit subject 'I' can be assumed.

(Clagi: The appearance of -g- in some forms is typical of verbs in -.)

Past

verb elirec rign mizn beçtŕ clajŕ ezn
1s eliry rigy mizy beçty clajy fuȥe
3s eliri rigi mizi beçte claje fu
1p elirî rigô mizô beçtê clajê fom
3p eliryn rigyn mizyn beçtyn clajyn fyn
2s eliry rigy mizy beçte claje fuȥe
2p eliri rigu mizu beçte claje fo

The 3s -i ending has been extended from the -ec to the -n verbs, which otherwise would have had forms identical to the present; note that this spoils the nasalization rule in the 1p, though only for -n verbs.

As if in recompense, the -n conjugation's 1s ending -y has been extended to the other two conjugations (and 3p -yn has been extended to the -ŕ verbs).

Past anterior

verb elirec rign mizn beçtŕ clajŕ ezn
1s elirŕy rigŕy mizŕy beçtŕy clajŕy fŕy
3s elirŕi rigŕe mizŕe beçtŕe clajŕe fŕe
1p elirŕî rigŕê mizŕê beçtŕê clajŕê fŕê
3p elirŕyn rigŕyn mizŕyn beçtŕyn clajŕyn fŕyn
2s elirŕy rigŕy mizŕy beçtŕe claŕje fŕy
2p elirŕi rigŕu mizŕu beçtŕe clajŕe fŕe

The past anterior is formed by infixing -ŕ- before the personal ending. Note, however, the 3s -e and 1p -ê for -n verbs.

Pres. subjunctive

verb elirec rign mizn beçtŕ clajŕ ezn
1s eliredo rigema mizema beçteşi clajeşi eşto
3s elirede rigeme mizeme beçteşi clajeşi eşte
1p eliredê rigemê mizemê beçtesî clajeşî eştê
3p eliredn rigemn mizemn beçteşn clajeşn eştn
2s elirede rigeme mizeme beçtede clajede eşte
2p eliredo rigemi mizemi beçteşi clajeşi eşte

The subjunctive forms derive from the Caďinor remote tenses.

The present subjunctive is formed by inserting the infixes -ed-, -em-, -eş- into the present tense forms for each conjugation. (That is, the personal endings match the present indicative.) Ezn has suppletive forms, as shown.

The subjunctive is used for doubtful, desired, conditional, or potential actions: vuli ȥi luzeme 'I wish he'd go'; Lolŕ laprine, lolŕ eşte eçte 'If you had hurried, you would be here.' (Note the absence of an explicit 'if'; conjoining two clauses in the subjunctive has the effect of an if-then clause.)

Used alone, it functions as a polite or 1st/3rd person imperative: Rigeme! 'Look!' Luȥemê! 'Let's go!' Elirede elŕyn! 'Long live the king!'

Past subjunctive

verb elirec rign mizn beçtŕ clajŕ ezn
1s elireşo rigina mizina beçtiri clajiri eşo
3s elireçe rigine mizine beçtiri clajiri eçe
1p eliregê riginê mizinê beçtirî clajirî eşcê
3p eliregn rigindn mizinn beçtirn clajirn eşcn
2s elireçe rigine mizine beçtire clajire eçe
2p elirege rigini mizini beçtiri clajiri eşce

The past subjunctive is formed with the infixes -eg-, -in, -ir-, with the same endings as the present subjunctive (not the past indicative). Note the variant forms of -eg- in the singular.

Participles

verb elirec rign mizn beçtŕ clajŕ ezn
past elirił rigił miził beçtił clajił
present elirile rigec mizec beçtic clajic ezec
The past participle has been generalized to end in - for all verbs. The present participle retains more of the Caďinor irregularity; but ending -ic has spread to all verbs in -ŕ. The participles are used as adjectives (or nominalizations) only, and are never used as verbal forms. Don't attempt to use them for a progressive or passive tense.

Where English would use a participle referring to the subject to give a subsidiary action, Ismaîn uses î plus the infinitive: î leln losŕ mŕine... 'Seeing your boat....'.

Imperatives

The imperative is used for friends, family, children, and animals; but for speaking to superiors, in any formal context, and for the first and third person, the present subjunctive is used instead.

verb elirec rign mizn beçtŕ clajŕ ezn
s. elire rigi mizi beçti clagi
pl. elireł rigił miził beçtił clagił

Irregular verbs

The following verbs have irregular present forms.

eştandn
come
ebezn
can
den
give
nezn
be born
vulŕ
want
lyvec
love
faşn
do
1s eşta yza da neza vuli lo fy
3s eşte ebe de ni vił ly fe
1p eştanê ebezê nezê volî lyvê faşcê
3p eştandn yzn den neȥn voln lyvn faşn
2s eşte yze de neze vił ly fe
2p eştani ebeze ȥi nezi voli lyvo faşko
falŕ
be nec.
yzŕ
provide
cylŕ
muster
1s fali yzi kuli
3s y cił
1p falî yzî kulî
3p faln izn cyln
2s faly y cił
2p faly yzi kuli
Other irregular forms are indicated in the lexicon.

Numbers [To Index]

digit x10 ordinal
1 en deç pŕu
2 zin teȥeç tŕe
3 ȥin têdeç temŕe
4 paŕ şiȥeç şitne
5 pâs pâdeç pâte
6 sus suşdeç suşte
7 hep iȥeç hebe
8 yçi yȥeç ycri
9 nuri nŕdeç nŕti
10 deç seşes deçti

Numbers under 100 are formed by concatenation: şiȥeç paŕ 44, iȥeç pâs 75. Note that ones numbers end in -deçten, not -deçen.

The ancient Meťaiun practice of counting by ŕâde, eighteens, is still common in Ismahi.

Larger numbers: 3481 = ȥin mił ŕ paŕ seşes ŕ yȥeçten.

Derivational morphology [To Index]

Nominalizers [To Index]

-eȥe Nominalizes simple actions, names qualities; Caď. -eia, -eio, V. -ea, -eo
jele calm → jeleȥe calmness
sule young → suleȥe youth
toçn abound → toçeȥe abundance

-eşe Abstract processes; qualities; Caď. -eica; V. -eca, -esa
leln see → leleşe vision
pigre lazy → pigreşe laziness

-âte Abstract quality, operation, craft; Caď. -antos; V. -át
sizr offer → siȥâte
travâte
empire
zovâte sorcery

-ile Result, instance, or associated object; Caď. -ile, V. -ë
gundn arm → gynile armor
iron → holile steel
prr bet → pŕile

-ŕe Collection, metaphorical extension; Caď. -ora, -ura, V. -ora
bej grape → bejŕe bunch of grapes
bŕeh arm → bŕehŕe armful
loge word → logŕe dictionary

-(ŕ)yn Doer-- f. (ŕ)e-; Caď→ -(r)ion
alasŕyn elder; lêcŕyn doctor
hudŕyn farmer
travyn emperor
rulyn cook

The present participle is also used: tehrec sculptor, grojile miller; lurizic dancer. These forms are epicene, but in a few cases feminine forms -ece, -ileȥe, -ice have been derived-- e.g. sorece 'girlfriend'.

-ȥe Feminine; generalized from the reflex of Caď. -ia as in velaia → velaȥe.
vele 'uncle', velaȥe 'aunt' (inherited)
ôko 'shepherd', ôkoȥe 'shepherdess'
aze 'god' → azeȥe 'goddess' (by analogy-- since aiďa would also have produced aze)

For large animals without a suppletive feminine term (cf. bedŕe 'bitch', troȥe 'sow', ymête 'mare'), female forms can be formed with this suffix: gŕôȥe 'lioness', lubehȥe 'vixen'. For other animals, the adjectives sr 'male' and yne 'female' are preferred: yne sŕi 'female mouse', sr myşe 'male sparrow'.

-n Inhabitant; generalized from Caď. -on. Always consonantal. F. -e or, if the root ends in -e, -ȥe.
Ismahi → ismahn, ismahe
Kure
Kebri → kurn, kureȥe
Vŕezr
ea Verduria → vŕezren, vŕezreȥe

-ymi Inhabitant or follower; Meth. -umi (borrowed into local Caď. and reinforced by Kebreni -um as well as Ismaîn -yn); f. -umiȥe.
Saikn → Saiknymi
Elezn
Eleď → Eleznymi follower of Eleď
prire real → prirymi realist

-şe Diminutive; cognate to Old Verdurian -ka
ume tub → umeşe basin
midre mother → mişe Mom
Salodeȥn Caloton → Salodeşe Calto

-ic Diminutive; formerly very productive; many items lexicalized; less productive today, except for proper names.
lêne line → lênic stroke
no rain → noic drizzle
adône room → adônic cabin
kone dog → konic puppy (names of animal offspring generally use -ic)
nure bed → nuric cradle
Caď. mihis spoon → mic teaspoon

-ô Augmentative (with adjectives, names a person who's much that way); Caď. -onda
Caď. ursos bear → ŕsô
hoşe cat → hoşô mountain cat
pone warrior → ponô macho man, stud
lŕje fat → lŕjô fat man
Caď. mihis spoon → miô tablespoon

-âde Area, office; Caď. -anda, V. -ana
Caď. claeter vow → cledâde seminary
komide count → komidâde county
naçtyn president → naçtynâde presidency

-nŕe Place-- often used in calques on Verdurian words; Caď. -naure, V. -náe
aze god → aznŕe temple
hône money → hônŕe bank
ziec race → ziecnŕe racetrack

-êse Associated tool, place, or object; Caď. -ensa:
nage foot → najêse couch
taln cover → talêse cover, covering

-ozy Instrument or associated object; Caď. -osios, V. -oš
dôge wax → dôgozy seal
meli bee → melozy honey
savn soap → savnozy tallow
zrn play → zrozy toy

Adjectivizers [To Index]

-ize Common adjectivizer; Caď. -ises, V. -ise
çire body → çirize physical
elŕi → elŕize
sili
grace → silize graceful

-ede Another common suffix; Caď. -etes, V. -ete
ŕe clay → ŕede practical
amrr respect → amŕede respectful

-re Quality; also -ri; Caď. -res, -ris
elis virtue → elustre virtuous
gule bile → gułre angry
rih speed → ryhri fast

-ne Quality (sometimes used as a substantive); Caď. -nes, V. -ne
ałdec receive → ałdene hospitable
nyln wrap → nylne skirt
neje craft → nejine delicate
lesye rational being → lesyne rational

-ił Characteristic of; Caď. -il
êȥi wood → êȥił shy
no rain → noił rainy
pone warrior → ponił manly

-eşme Tendency; Caď. -esmes, V. -eme
gŕe sense → gŕeşme sensible
tegr stand → tecreşme solid

-^n Relating to a place.
Ismahi → ismaîn
Vŕezrea Verduria → vŕezrên

-syli In the manner of (from ablative ending + ily 'way')
belŕ friend → belŕsyli friendly
todŕe servant → todŕsyli servile

su- Negative or incapacity (from su 'none'):
amŕede respectful → suamŕede disrespectful
praȥe honest → supraȥe dishonest
leln see → sulele blind
eşpagn speak → suşpage mute

ni- Somewhat (from ni- 'some'):
ciçi weak → niciçi weakish, sickly
dŕmŕ sleep → nidŕme a little sleepy

ebe- -able (from ebe 'can')
beçtŕ move → ebebeçte moveable
leln see → ebelele visible
crejn eat → ebecreje edible

Verbalizers [To Index]

-rn Movement; Caď. -bren, V. -ven
î in → îrn enter
Caď. is out → izurn leave

-aşr Use (generally with parts of the body); Caď. -atir, V. -ačir
piȥi eyelash → piȥaşŕ blink
lure lip → luraşr kiss

-îsn Intense or prolonged action; Caď. -ins-, V. -iz-
môndn work → mônîsn toil
rign look → rigîsn stare
noŕ rain → noîsn storm

î- Causative; V. im-
caşŕ hide → îcaşŕ terrorize
creȥec believe → îcreȥec convince
ripe → îmŕŕ ripen
vulŕ want → îvulŕ seduce

- Repetition or habitual action; Caď. ren-; V. on-
eştandn come → rêştandn return
eşpagn speak → rêşpagn repeat
luȥn go → rêluȥn frequent

Syntax [To Index]

In general Ismaîn syntax is quite similar to Verdurian. If a point is not covered below, it can be assumed to work as in Verdurian.

Usage of verbs [To Index]

Tense
The past anterior is used as in Verdurian, for references to a farther past in the midst of a passage already in the past tense:
Ceȥe se voił iȥeştanî, se tagene nûc zes azesre.
When the messenger arrived, the battle had already been lost.

The subjunctive is similar to the Verdurian conditional (e.g. both are used in if clauses, in wishes, to make a subordinate clause indefinite, or to soften requests). But the subjunctive is used after verbs of wishing or wanting, unlike the conditional; and the various degrees of conditionality seen in the Verdurian conditional are absent in Ismaîn.

Auxiliaries and Aspect
The future tense is expressed using the auxiliary luȥn 'go' with the infinitive: Luȥa brign 'I'm going to fight.' However, the subjunctive is used when the future action is considered uncertain or unlikely: Ȥumo ȥi brigeme şime, 'I don't think he'll fight.'

Den 'give' is used as a causative:

Si zi es razr se kone, mişe!
He made me shave the dog, Mommy!

Denec 'continue' can be used as a progressive, much like Verdurian dénuo (to which it is cognate):

Dene eştandn es domn.
He keeps coming to my house.

Other common auxiliaries are ebezn 'is able to', vulŕ 'want', laşn 'ought', preȥŕŕ 'permit', eşŕ 'almost', eştandn 'just':

Reȥe es eşe eşkuştn.
My grandmother almost died.
Losŕ lyve eşte luraşr iȥi pon?
Didn't your lover just kiss that soldier?

Ismaîn uses these auxiliaries in place of Verdurian's auxiliary adverbs (dénuo, siča, nunece). Note that there is no direct equivalent of ya, yatá. However, completed action is often implied by the absence of denec.

Object focus
There is no passive in Ismaîn, but the most common Verdurian expedient for focussing the object-- OVS order-- cannot be used in Ismaîn, since accusatives are not distinguished from nominatives. Instead, the object is fronted (OSV order):
Se dali ly se ŕȥiȥe.
The king loves the witch.
Se ŕȥiȥe se dali ly.
The witch is loved by the king.

Where the subject is unknown or unstated, the reflexive can be used (as in Verdurian, except the pronoun follows rather than precedes the verb):

Şŕeve leçe zes eçte.
Beer is sold here.

With animate subjects this could lead to ambiguity (is the witch loved by someone, or does she love herself?) The indefinite article en can be inserted before the verb to emphasize the passive meaning:

Se bâsyn ȥize zes. The foreigner hates himself.
Se bâsyn en ȥize zes. The foreigner is hated.

Constituent order [To Index]

Sentential word order is generally SVO. OVS order is sometimes used for emphasis, generally when the object forms the topic. This should not be attempted when the meaning is not clear from the context.
Eli bouni ałtŕe se hudŕyn.
this cows knows the farmer
These cows, the farmer knows them.
The more common means of topicalizing the object is to front it (that is, to use OSV order).

Ismaîn places accusative pronouns after, not before the verb as in Verdurian: Lo şu 'I love her.'

Adverbs are normally placed just before the verb-- not after it as is usual in Verdurian, nor at the end of the sentence as in English.

Lolŕ boveregi aȥeşe se Belaşe Êdŕnes?
Did you foolishly lose the Sword of Enäron?

Noun phrases [To Index]

Within the noun phrase, numbers, articles, and single adjectives normally precede the noun; compound articles and subordinate clauses follow it.

All this is as in Verdurian. However, genitives precede rather than follow the noun in Ismaîn: grojiles eşkoi 'the miller's cabbage', es hoşe 'my cat'. (This is usually considered to be under the influence of Kebreni; note that older Ismaîn worked like Verdurian or Caďinor, as evidenced by expressions like lôde lŕi 'your honor'. Genitives also tend to migrate after the noun when determiners or adjectives are added to the noun phrase: iȥi boȥe sorec çirynes 'that big boyfriend of the lieutenant's')

Negatives [To Index]

There are a number of negative particles in Ismaîn. These developed, rather as in French, from various expressions like "I won't drink a drop, I won't walk a step, I won't eat a crumb, I won't stay a moment." The 'not' has been lost, making the intensifier into the new negative:
Luȥa pitŕ tapre. I won't drink a drop.
Zoclisi tełni sic. The priest didn't find a thing.

The negative particles, and their original meanings, are:

sic (little) thing
şime step
nizic nothing
mi spoonful
tapre drop
frişe crumb
megic instant
çip peep

All of these have been generalized and can be used in all contexts, though there is still a tendency to use the last five with semantically appropriate verbs-- e.g. tapre with verbs of drinking or pouring. Mi is the most general of those, usable with anything involving a physical quantity-- you can negate 'read (books)' or 'buy' with it, but not 'dream' or 'imply'.

The most common particles are sic and şime. Nizic has an emphatic meaning: vuli nizic means 'I don't want it at all.'

For those particles which can still be used with a nominal meaning (basically all but nizic, mi, megic), the positive meaning can be forced by modifying the noun. Thus:

Se jy glîte tapre.
The boy didn't swallow (swallowed nothing).
Se jy glîte en tapre.
The boy swallowed one drop.

Other negative words like nite 'no one' or sudêne 'never' should be considered alternatives to the ordinary negative particles-- that is, you say Clajy sudêne s'altiłneo 'I never flogged the archbishop', not *Clajy sic sudêne s'altiłneo.

Questions [To Index]

The simplest way to form yes-no questions is simply by inflection:
Lolŕ tełni lossu şirn?
Did you find your elephant?
You can also (a bit more formally) precede the statement with eşte ȥi, literally 'is it that...' in the subjunctive:
Eşte ȥi lolŕ leleme es crif?
Would you read my manuscript?
Or (informally) append the tag eçu, borrowed from Kebreni:
Lolŕ ałtŕe iȥi lele raizumne, eçu?
You know that cute Raizumi girl, right?
As in Verdurian, question words can either be fronted or left in the appropriate syntactic position within the sentence.
Ce eşcrive ceçn rulêses miri?
Who knows how to put out kitchen fires?

Si saȥe en zŕe kû cetn?
He ordered a pizza with what?

Pŕcetn se zoclisi kûprozi jen sic es neşe?
Why didn't the priest take my daughter home?

Cenŕ e iȥi şirn?
Where is that elephant?

A fronted object or direction interrogative is followed by ȥi 'that'.
Es meze ugŕbi ces?
Ces ȥi es meze ugŕbi?

Who did my son insult?

Se kurn luȥi cenŕn kû es ozłn?
Cenŕn ȥi se kurn luȥi kû es ozłn?

Where did the Kebreni go with my donkey?

Subordination [To Index]

Sentence complements are subordinated using the particle ȥi, and appear in normal S or O position:
Ȥumo [ȥi se bone rêluȥi jen].
I think [that the cow has returned home].

[Ȥi vił kudec se maçtane] ôlaşe.
[That it wants to attack the city] is likely.

A clause can be subordinated to a noun phrase with the same particle (not with the interrogative pronouns ce or cete).
Şŕeşti [ȥi tene sic bŕegi] ebe sic pêtn çişte.
The man [who has no arms] cannot play the guitar.

Pŕuşe ebe pêtn se pêtile [ȥi se sei lyvn].
But he can sing the song the women love.

Note that only word order indicates the role of the referent in the subordinate clause: in the first example, there is no subject given before tene, so şŕeşti is assumed to take that role; in the second, there is an explicit subject before lyvn, so pêtile must be the object.

As in Kebreni, subordinate time and place expressions use this general mechanism rather than any time- or place-specific subordinator.

Sudêne luȥa rêluȥn se nŕn [ȥi ômeti sen se mł mohci].
I will never go back to the place [that served me the bad clams].

Prepositions [To Index]

The following chart gives the commonest prepositions, with their base meanings. Note that prepositions often have very idiosyncratic uses. This is all the more true in Ismaîn, which is influenced directly by Caďinor, Verdurian, and Kebreni usage.
ah against işpre behind, after, in back of
aȥi away from, out of, made of ko alongside, beside, next to
buz without with
de at (time), during ô near, among, at the house of
ede about (subject), as to, as for pre before, in front of, till
hube under, below pro for, in order to, because of
î in, inside, into tre across, over, beyond
ir above, over saş through, using, all the way till
izi outside, outside of on, on top of
izô around, surrounding şł between
Phonologically , prepositions are clitics in Ismaîn; most notably, those ending in a vowel cause a following consonant to voice. So pre komidn 'before the count' is pronounced (but not written) pregomidn. The prepositions ending in a nasal also insert an n before a vowel: î avisŕn 'in the academy' is pronounced înavisŕn.

Where Verdurian would use the prepositions ad 'to', Ismaîn uses the dative alone; and where Verdurian uses de 'from' or i 'of', Ismaîn uses the ablative alone.

Prepositions normally govern the dative. Some writers, imitating rather than preserving Caďinor usage, use the three cases to make distinctions of direction:

î domn (dat.) in the house (location inside)
î dome (nom.) into the house (movement inside)
î domes (abl.) out of the house (movement outside)
sŕ meȥedn (dat.) on the table (location on)
sŕ meȥede (nom.) onto the table (movement onto)
sŕ meȥedes (abl.) off the table (movement off of)

But it is more usual to ignore the first distinction (dat/nom), and for the second (abl.) to use prepositions of opposite meaning: aȥi domen 'outside the house'.

For time expressions Ismaîn always uses prepositional phrases (unlike Verdurian but like Caďinor): de ôtŕn 'in the morning' (cf. Ver. utron), de ȥin hŕin 'at the third hour', pro noçtin 'for a night', de çei dêndn 'every day', tre iȥi vitren 'after that evening'.

Comparatives [To Index]

To express a comparative "X is more Q than Y", Ismaîn uses an expression (calqued from Kebreni) that literally means "X is Q, against Y (or, compared to Y)":
Se saȥuȥee e lŕe ah jirendn.
The princess is more beautiful than an ibis.

"X is less Q than Y" is expressed as "X is not Q, against Y":

Se saȥu e sic lŕe ah mŕsyn.
The prince is less beautiful than a beaver.

There is no set superlative; one must resort to paraphrases such as

S'elŕyn e pŕu ede mułeşen
The king is first in dullness.

References [To Index]

Conventional expressions [To Index]

Emei! Meli dêne. Meli vitre. Tre zetŕn.
greetings good day good evening across tomorrow-DAT
Hello! Good day. Good evening. Till tomorrow.
Ni e î jen? Ce e? Pilea. Îreme. Azeşi.
someone is in home who is moment enter-SUBJ sit-SUBJ
Is anyone home? Who is it? Just a moment. Come in. Sit down.
Cedyli ȥi luȥe? Meligi. Male sic. Ŕtegaŕdi şyrn es.
how that goes well badly not bunions hurt-3p me
How are you? Very well. Not bad. My bunions hurt.
Toçe şałne lonŕ? Eşte şałnic. Sa şałne, saş Şalodeȥn!
enough hot you-DAT comes warm am hot thru Caloton
Hot enough for you? It's warm out. I'm hot, by Calto!
Plŕe es rêşn lolŕ. Losŕ şaȥeȥi. Yza manudn lolŕ?
pleases me meet you your orders can-1s help you
Pleased to meet you. At your service. Can I help you?
Oȥi. Sic. Ebe. Eşrivo sic. Luȥi preşŕ losŕ midre.
so not can know-1s not go-IMP ask your mother
Yes. No. Maybe. I don't know. Go ask your mother.
Losŕ ajelen. Melnida. Nizic. Ruseşi es. Cyłpi.
your kindness thank-1s nothing-DIM pardon-SUBJ me guilty-1s
Please. Thank you. You're welcome. Excuse me. I'm sorry.
Tre rê'le. Fu plŕeşe. Êdŕn bêjeşi! Se prire e iȥeçte.
across reseeing was pleasure Enäron bless-SUBJ the true is there
Goodbye. It's been a pleasure. Enäron bless you! The truth is out there.
Eşkoli zôni ȥi lolŕ tene? Teno teȥec paŕ zôni. E ce hŕe? E se şitne hŕe eşcŕeȥes.
how-many years that you have have-1s 20 4 years is which hour is the 4th hour afternoon-GEN
How old are you? I'm 24. What time is it? It's 4 in the afternoon.
Cete ȥi lolŕ zes apele? Lo lolŕ. Tode e tiplybe?
what-ACC that you refl call love-1s you that is wig
What's your name? I love you. Is that a wig?

Calendar [To Index]

Days of the week Months of the year
Ismaîn Verdurian season Ismaîn Verdurian
craşne scúreden demetri (spring) olaşci olašu
içŕne širden resleȥe reli
fizrne fidren cŕêdô cuéndimar
şalone calten eşte (summer) veŕişe vlerëi
ajŕne zëden şale calo
leşcŕe néronden reşkuleşe recoltë
êdŕni ceďnare kuleşe (fall) igŕe yag
jele želea
içireşe išire
yŕi (winter) eşcŕi shoru
froe froďac
beziâde bešana
Both days and months have the same basic meanings as in Verdurian (inherited from Caďinor, of course). However, scúreden and zëden take the names of their patron goddesses (Řavcaena and Ažirei) rather than their portfolios (the land and the sea); and for néronden the old name based on the name of the god, necŕne, has given way to simply 'market'.

-ne on the day names is of course a worn-down form of dêne 'day'.

The fifth-year leap day, kasten in Verdurian, is caçile. Both words mean 'hidden (day)'.

Names [To Index]

Below I list the most common name elements for forming Caďinorian (pagan) names. As in Verdurian (see the monograph Verdurian names), names are usually formed from two of these elements, without always much regard for meaning. Note that this list largely overlaps with but is not identical to the list of Verdurian roots.

The elements are listed in a compact form to save space, as follows:

x root used only in names
(x) material drops out in end position
[x] material drops out in first position
x voiced in end position after a vowel, in first position before a vowel (h → g). Applies to all initial s and s, which therefore are not underlined so as not to conflict with each other.
x- element used only in first position
-x element used only in final position
L written ł if it ends a syllable, otherwise l
R written ŕ if it ends a syllable, otherwise r

Girls' names are chosen according to meaning (and the taste of the family), not according to the ancient gender. Often a final -ȥe is added. (Conversely it's removed from a male name even if it's etymologically part of the root.)

Some examples:
m: Âdŕeȥn, Lôdeȥin, Gliniglure, Beşezł, Bŕegevŕ, Humegł, Alerih
f: Lŕejine, Memaçe, Faleneçte, Elyjeneȥe, Lyşyse, Ŕoneȥe, Îjezał
either: Ezielis, Azedŕes, Frejił, Noçtinezec, Eştejił, Azegome, Obezône

âdR mighty glini long pone warrior
ale earthly glure sword rih speed
aze god guze power ŕ south
bane road gŕe good sense ŕone eagle
bêjiL blessed h(o)L iron ŕse bear
belŕ friend hume guts ŕte flower
bene[ȥe] blessing îje kind -ŕyn, -ŕe leader
bese hero ili shiny sea woman
beşe war jene clan sigi quiet
bŕec glory jine girl sili grace
claşe bright jive lively sule young
cŕde heart kome wonder east
cŕi court kume hearth sŕte fate
cŕy grace l(i)ŕ melody ş(e)ŕ pure, male
daşce animal lôde honor şale heat, Calto
dêne day loge word şin oak
dome house lyşi meadow şişte pure
dragR dragon lŕe beautiful t(e)L west
dŕes sign maçe mistress tale brave
elis virtue me water ûse sweet
ely[de] free melŕ better vazŕe grace
elŕ life meȥe benevolent ve[a]se generosity
elŕe lovely mire fire voiL sent
evr lord â, ^- first -yn, -e leader
ezi- great nen north yzi mercy
eşte summer neçte snow zaL enrich
êȥi wood nezec born z(o)L strong
-eȥn clan noçti night zome stone
ezre ivy nyze determined zône year
fal[il]e white holy zule joy
fâte spirit obe wealth ȥiL given
fili fern oh gold (ȥu)jiL desired
fre[ȥe] faith ovŕ[i] prosperous
g(e)n oppress pe peace

Below are listed most common Eleďe names. They were borrowed from Old Verdurian, or more precisely Old Avélan, early enough that a few sounds lost in Verdurian (e.g. h) were preserved.

Masculine Feminine
Âdre Ezece Melizec Tezore Âdreȥe Hŕme Ylane
Alece Eȥeni Miheł Timea Agadŕne Hloe Raheł Yleȥe
Aplene Felic Moze Tide Agaze Iri Revece Yzuȥe
Apole Fileme Mŕce Tome Âheł Koşmeȥe Roze Zamari
Arn Filipe Mŕtine Tuhô Alezeȥe Kureȥe Ruze Zanele
Âtipa Gamaleł Nazneł Vŕzoł Aleceȥe Lineȥe Sare Zareȥe
Âtone Graveł Nikoł Vŕhnave Âne Lizavede Sileȥe Zeneȥe
Avran Hegore Oane Vazile Âtoneȥe Loi Soviȥe Zŕce
Aveguşte Hişteve Ozis Venimê Azane Lukeȥe Sûty
Azan Hŕhe Paveł Yle Cecile Luziȥe Suzâne
Aziane Ikove Petri Yzu Clazeȥe Luzyce Sene
Cefe Izac Samył Zaneł Eliȥe Mateȥe Tazeȥe
Claze Izô Saveł Zarea Emeȥe Melani Tavize
Clemête Koşme Sevaşte Zamane Eştŕe Miheli Teraȥe
Cŕnele Kure Sile Zahare Eve Mŕgide Timeȥe
Ele Lavrête Simô Zaviz Evnice Mŕiȥe Tideȥe
Eme Lazare Solô Zemeçe Eveheni Nadali Vazileȥe
Eneł Line Soştê Zene Fŕnice Oaneȥe Vetrice
Eraşte Luce Sŕhe Fove Petri Vŕene
Eştefe Lukene Sumeô Hacne Prişce Vŕnice
Ezea Mate Tazea Helene Pŕsi Vŕvŕe
Arashei religion was never strong in the littoral, so that very few Cuzeian names were known there. Some have been borrowed in recent years from Kebri and Érenat, in fairly transparent forms (e.g. Adaurie for Ada:urio, Ver. Adäurio.)

Quite a few Kebreni names have been borrowed over the years. These are not listed here; they are generally transparent.

The usual diminutive endings for names are -ic and -şe. You also truncate the name to its stressed syllable: Alerih → Rihic or Rihşe, Îjezał → Zalic, Obezône → Zônic, Soşte → Soştic, Ylane → Lanic or Lanşe, etc. One can also use the augmentative -ô (also with the abbreviated root) for a jocular affective name, often used by adolescents: Rihô, Zalô (or Zalôȥe), Soştô, Lanzô, etc.

Example [To Index]

The sample text comes from Allyşi Tłine's Vitre sŕ Vŕeȥe Cilime (Dinner on Green Hill), a memoir of life in Raizumi's art colony early in the century. Ismahi is known for the rambunctiousness, not to mention decadence, of its intellectuals-- perhaps because its autocratic government makes no place for them.

Mŕizes lurize [To Index]

Frue de vitren, Mŕiȥe traze pitŕe, zeleȥi subuz kû şyrin Gŕedł ŕ Paveł kûprozŕyn şu sŕ se cilimn ô Pavełn. Ŕegi, Fŕnice, Paveles cire, kûlemŕe şu, ŕ vulŕe voŕ şu jen. Pŕuşe Gŕedł eşpagŕe ȥi işpre ȥi trajŕyn şu traze res ŕ kû talô suzizeȥen, eçe pre nizy, se azi işdŕjemn şu. Melisŕtregi şi oloşi jele de se prâden.

Işpre şi pêti en Mŕnais pêtile. Si teni sorne va, alede ŕ ûse. Neşi se çelyşicŕe, ŕzigi Fŕnice ruse şu.

Âçe şi lurize, ȥi Paveł pêti se çişte. Si liali zes sŕ en meȥede, pułneri najis, se meȥedi fyn nizic traze zł, ŕ toçegi dejelô, pŕuşe şi tôbe şime. Paveles pêtile fu hŕ ŕ demeȥe, ŕ şi silizegi lygimi eçtes ŕ iȥeçtn, tes glini bŕegi rolyn, pidêne beçtic, î ylin en ŕaȥis.

Si olôti zes ȥi eştani traze şałne, ŕ dave zes şami, degaşe zes alede, macre çire. Si deni avŕ brezi aȥi melaşte azre sesen izô zes limŕin, ŕ nimŕne şi dave ŕzi etn, ŕ bŕugi şâ eşte saş toşein, î rolŕ şâ î şaleȥen. Nûc şi eşe ezn pułneri, adreli zes pyş ŕi limŕi kû şizi tesn, zes breve sôsŕe çeveȥe, zes nejine naji. Fu sorne lurize; ŕ işpre ȥi pugi, şi aze buz rêtaln zes limŕi.

Fŕnice rene homi, pŕuşe Gŕedł eşpagi şin îsigŕ zes. --Lolŕ e nizic zoclisi, eçu?-- eşpagi. Si eşte mł lurizic, ŕzi se ruseşi sic şu; pŕuşe pro ȥi şi e en meli, sa lŕeje ŕ ŕzi lolŕ laşe ezn.

Mŕiȥe's dance [To Index]

Earlier in the evening, Mŕiȥe had drunk too much, so that it was all that Gŕedł and Paveł could do to bring them up the hill to Paveł's house. Indeed, Fŕnice, Paveł's wife, had been disgusted with her, and had wanted to send her home. But Gŕedł said that after dragging her so far and with such difficulty, she'd be damned if it would be for nothing. Fortunately she calmed down during dinner.

Afterward she sang a song of Mŕnai. She had a lovely voice, high and sweet. The company were enchanted, and even Fŕnice forgave her.

Then she danced, while Paveł played the guitar. She got up on a table, barefoot-- the tables were none too strong, and we were rather worried, but she didn't fall down. Paveł's song was slow and sad, and she swayed gracefully back and forth, her long arms twisting-- always in motion, like a bird.

She complained that it was too hot, and removed her tunic, revealing her tall, thin body. She was wearing bands of fine blue silk across her breasts, and presently she removed these too, and used them as scarves, twirling them in the air. Now she was almost naked, showing her small round breasts with their sharp nipples, her short brown hair, her delicate feet. It was a lovely dance; and when it was over she sat down without covering up her breasts again.

Fŕnice was offended again, but Gŕedł told her to be quiet. "You are not a priest, are you?" she said. "If she was a bad dancer, I wouldn't forgive her either; but as she is a good one, I am happy and so should you be."

Footnotes

Pitŕe. In English we tend to abandon the past perfect after the time frame is established, but Ismaîn continues in the past anterior till the flashback is over-- here, an entire paragraph.

Eştani traze şałne. In Ismaîn (as in Verdurian) you don't say it 'is' warm, but it 'comes' warm.

Eşe ezn pułneri. In effect 'almost' is an auxiliary verb (eşŕ) in Ismaîn: instead of saying "she was almost naked", you say "she almosted to be naked.".

For nothing. Literally, "it were for nothing, the gods damn her." Both clauses being in the subjunctive, an if-then condition is implied.

Like a bird. Literally, "in the way of a bird", which is how metaphors are expressed in Ismaîn.

As she is a good one. Literally, "because that she is a good [an adjective used as a substantive needs no supporting noun], I am happy and also you should be."

Comparison with Verdurian [To Index]

It may be of interest to compare Ismaîn with its sister language; here is the fourth paragraph of the sample text again, in Ismaîn and translated line by line into Verdurian.

Si olôti zes ȥi eştani traze şałne, ŕ dave zes şami, degaşe zes alede, macre çire.
Zet feyne dy žanne tro cal, er deuverne hendana zië, ozë dekašre soa cira zië hautä er macrä.

Si deni avŕ brezi aȥi melaşte azre sesen izô zes limŕin,
Dénuo zet abilne ab bresin is telnen azuren setan tra limuren zië,

ŕ nimŕne şi dave ŕzi etn, ŕ bŕugi şâ eşte saş toşein, î rolŕ şâ î şaleȥen.
er fruece otál cam deuverne, er cam bruhne com toššeyen, kaëm launivne im šalean.

Nûc şi eşe ezn pułneri, adreli zes pyş ŕi limŕi kû şizi tesn,
Nun fue prosice polnë, ontne soem limurem zië pavem er bulsem cum soin čisuin tetin,

zes breve sôsŕe çeveȥe, zes nejine naji.
ševeom brevem yontem, nežnem nažem zië.

Fu sorne lurize; ŕ işpre ȥi pugi, şi aze buz rêtaln zes limŕi.
Fue eyurë lavísia; er kiam urokešne ásure sam surošan on limurem zië.

Sound changes from Caďinor [To Index]

F = [+front]; B = [+back]; H = [+high]
lg → ȥ ulgec → uȥec
ll → ȥ /i_ anguilla → âguȥe
i → ȥ /V_V Alameia → Alameȥe, helgaios → eȥaȥe
c → ç /_[+stop] iectu → içti
l → 0 /_l matella → madele
(s,t,d) → 0 /_# leus → ly, tund → şin, dect → deç
l → ł /_C, _# elcar → ełşŕ, espuel → eşpuł
k → kh /#_B konna → hône
g → j /_F, _n drogis → droji, cugna → kujne
c → ç /_F, _n lisucia → lizyçi, racnis → raçni
c → ş /_a calco → şałce, rocca → roşe
d → ȥ /_H, Vi_ dithas → ȥise, londuran → lôzrn, creidas → creȥe
t → ş /(V,#)_H, Vi_ latuan → laşn, tisis → şizi, daitos → zaşe, but cinta → çîte
u → y /(C,#)_C(C)i celuscir → çelysr
d → ȥ /V_V kudos → huȥe
b → v /V_V hibu → ivi
p,t,k,c,s,f→[+vcd] /V_V leta → lede, luka → luge, oforis → ovŕi
kh → g /V_V rikhan → rige
y(n,m) → î / _C gluntir → glyntir → glîtŕ
V(n,m) → V^ / _C grandos → grâde, konna → hône
h → 0 homra → ôre, pahor → paŕ
a → e /C_(C)# pusa → puze
o → e /C_(C)# genos → jene, collo → kole
u → i /C_(C)# noctu → noçti, manus → mani
o → u /_ł polnos → pułne
(s,z) → [+retr] /Vi_ Eleisa → Eleize → Eleȥe
a → 0 /_([+back],e) raeďos → reze
u → 0 /_o cuomos → kome
o → 0 /e_ seoris → seri → zisŕi
i → 0 /V_ aiďos → aze, creidas → creȥe
e → 0 /H_ ciel → çił, ruema → rume
Fu → y /_ ciulis → çyli, leus → ly
io → y /_ riotos → ryde
ir → ŕ / _# salethir → salesŕ, but silirus → siliri
Vr → ŕ, V t i saudara → suzre, acernos → asrne
(a,e)b → u /_r glabro → glure, nebri → nuri
ib → y /_r kibru → kyri
b → 0 /V_r probren → prorn
th → s reth → res, thikhis → sigi
ď → z aiďos → aze, ďannos → zâne
kh → h /_ iuekhos → yge
s → 0 /[+stop]_ opser → opŕ
k → c /_(F,a) kekan → cegn, kapro → capre
k → c /_[+liquid] krase → craze
c → k /_B cugna → kujne, scupo → eşkube
s → ş /_[+stop] stannos → eştâne, spica → eşpişe
V → 0 /_n# leilen → lelen, Endauron → Êdŕn-- not in monosyllables
Fm → V^ /_# krim → crî
s → st /_r aeluthres → elusre → elustre
ç → ş /_(r,ŕ) acernos → açŕne →asrne
ç → ş /#_[+stop] cteies → çteȥe → şteȥe → eşteȥe
ç → 0 /ş_
n → nd /_n# ctanen → ştann → eştandn
p → 0 /_(t,p) saeptos → sete, sioppa → sype
t → 0 /_t mettan → metn
s → ş /_m lismos → lişme
ş → eş /#_C stannos → eştâne, spica → eşpişe
r → 0 /_ŕ cruros → crŕe → cŕe
e → a /e_# Seraea → Sŕee → Sŕea
s → 0 /_[+sib] scehira → sçeŕe → şeŕe
e → 0 /_ł# tipel → şibł, uctal → uçteł → uçtł

Lexicon [To Index]

Plurals are given when the plural is not formed according to the regular rules cons. → -i; -e → -i; -i → -u. In addition, -e → -o plurals are not indicated when the Caďinor etymon ends in -O.

Ismaîn words borrowed into Verdurian include bašti ‘sticks’, čiste ‘guitar’, bečón ‘fast dance’, sorea ‘love song’, režučia ‘ballad’, velašir ‘elope’, cumetu ‘seafood salad’, šaune ‘broth’, rüdile ‘iced dessert’, penil ‘jam’, sašne, sasavi, glure, mešu, alasi ‘types of coins’, harige ‘a diacritic’, nilne ‘skirt’, süpa ‘cap’, nkaš ‘fear’, seslina ‘turquoise’, urze ‘strange’, žnea ‘cuteness’, žicse ‘cushion’.

Words borrowed from Verdurian include asŕ ‘merry’, altilneo ‘archbishop’, beô ‘baron’, bezr ‘observe’, carzile ‘scimitar’, ceznŕe ‘factory’, crif ‘manuscript’, culi ‘party’, ilneo ‘bishop’, kêsŕa ‘strategy’, lanica ‘panties’, ohule ‘gold coin’, ontece ‘experiment’, perun ‘million’, rieh ‘mirror’, sore ‘romance’, sorŕ ‘court’, şoh ‘duke’, tiplybe ‘wig’, toşea ‘scarf’, zaneme ‘velvet’, ziec ‘race’, zitel ‘highway’, ȥusni ‘lace’; as well as the loan-translations hônŕe ‘bank’, kûmaltŕn ‘understand’, kûprendn ‘grasp’, logŕe ‘dictionary’.

Ismaîn words borrowed from Kebreni include abaje ‘knife’, bej ‘grape’, bongryr ‘nasty’, bryh ‘eye’, buraç ‘sponge’, cahaba ‘coffee’, cahabŕe ‘coffeehouse’, çelu ‘tea’, eçu ‘tag question’, fyru ‘baths’; gonŕe ‘Kebreni quarter’, gŕcrege ‘ledger’, asane ‘army’, kulseu ‘commander’, vaneu ‘ruler’, ijicse ‘cushion’, lele ‘cute’, line ‘lord’, mijŕune ‘platinum’, mohce ‘clam’, nabreu ‘captain’, nyne ‘maiden’, ses ‘jewel’, tênu ‘port’, tihede ‘anchor’, tŕyveu ‘trader’, tŕyvn ‘trade’, vyro ‘sailor’, as well as many place names, such as Aveleh, Azgami, Ismahi, Raȥumi. (See also the Caďinor lexicon for borrowings from Monkhayic!)

Currently contains 1530 entries.
abaje knife [Kebreni abaźe]
âçe then (at that time) [ANCE]
adône room [ATONNOS]
adônic cabin, hut [dim. of ‘room’]
adreln show [AD + LEILEN ‘show to’, showing dissimilation]
âdŕ mighty, powerful [ANDEOR]
agasarde cholera [reborrowing of AGASARDA ‘poking disorder’]
âgyle eel [ANGUHILA]
ajelde kind [AGELLETES]
ajele kindness [AGELLA]
[Losŕ] ajelen Please [‘(by) your kindness’]
ah against [AȞ]
Ajire Ažirei, goddess of the sea[AGIREIS]
ajŕne the fifth day of the week, zëden [‘Ažirei’s day’]
alade grammar; the basics of any field; manual [ALUATAS]
aladize basic, preliminary; grammatical
Alameȥe Almea [ALAMEIA]
alaseȥe music [ALAIŤEIA]
alasi the alati, a type of bird; an emur coin with an alati stamped on it, worth 1/12 of a glure [ALAŤIS]
alasŕyn village chief [ALAŤORION]
alaȥe village [ALADEIA]
ale earthly [ALES]
alede high [ALETES]
alile garlic [ALILO]
albre womb [ALBRA]
aldec receive, welcome [ALDEC]
aldene welcoming, hospitable
altilneo (Eleďe) archbishop [Ver. altilneo]
altre other [ALTRES]
altŕn know (persons) [ALTERAN]
alşali treasure [ALCALIE]
amŕave law [HAMURABOS]
amŕŕ respect [AMARIR]
amŕede respectful
anŕ elder [ANOR]
apeln name, call [APPELLAN]
asane army [Keb. aṫana]
âse handle [ANSOS]
asŕ merry [Ver. äser]
âşe hip [HANCA]
âty prank, joke [ANTIU]
âtyde mischief [ANTIUTA]
âtyşi mischievous, naughty [ANTIUITIS]
aşŕne maple [ACERNOS]
avegŕ worse [AVECOR]
Aveleh Avéla [Keb. Avelaḣ]
avelehes cape [abl. of ‘Avéla’, where capes were once a fashion]
avêse clothes [‘wear’ + -êse]
avisŕ academy, ‘high school’ [AVISSAR]
avŕ wear, put on [HABER]
Azgami Ismaîn-speaking kingdom east of Ismahi [Kebreni Hazigami ‘land of the proud’]
aze god [AIĎOS]
azeȥe goddess
aznŕe temple [AIĎNAURE]
azŕ sit [ASIR]
azune seat [ASUENA]
azunil saddle [ASUENIL]
aȥi away from [AIUS]
aȥeşŕ lose [aȥi ‘away’ + eşŕ ‘fail’]
aȥurn amuse, have fun, (formal) play [AIUBREN ‘rest, retreat’, from AIUS ‘away’]
aȥurêse place of amusement [AIUBRENSA]
aȥibe fat [ADIPAS]
aȥŕde sapphire (pl. -da) [ADURDAS]
aȥŕe blue [ADURES]
balane date (fruit) [BALANOS]
bane road [BANOS]
bâse foreign [BANSES ‘of the road’, i.e. coming from out of town]
bâsyn foreigner
basŕ hit [BAŤIR]
başe barrel [BAITA]
başte stick [BASTOS]
başti the sticks, a percussion instrument consisting of various-sized sticks, some solid and some hollow
baze low [BASES]
bêbe gourd [BEMBOS]
beçtia movement
beçtô a fast dance accompanied by guitar, drums, and başti [augm. of ‘movement’]
beçtŕ move [BECTIR]
bedŕe female dog [BAETERA]
bej grape [Kebreni beź]
bejŕe bunch of grapes
bêjŕ bless [BENGIR]
belaşe sword (general term), pl. belaçi [BELAICA]
belŕ friend [BELOR]
belŕsyli friendly
beneȥe blessing [BENEDA]
beô a Verdurian baron [Ver. beom]
bese hero [reborrowing of BAESOS]
beziâde the third month of winter (and last of the year) [BAESIANDA ‘promise’]
bezr observe, inspect (esp. in a scientific sense) [Ver. beďir]
beȥe war [BELGO]
beȥline general (that is, the highest military rank below the king) [‘war-lord’]
bîde vine [BIDNO]
biȥŕ hoard[BILLIR]
boçtn have diplomatic relations with [BOCTAN ‘treat, deal with’]
boçteşe diplomacy; diplomatic relations [BOCTEICA]
boge block; die (pl. boçi) [BOCOS]
bone bull, cow [BOUNOS]
bongryr nasty, skanky [Keb.]
bosn kick [BOŤAN]
boşme wrinkled [BOSMES]
bove fool [BOBO]
bovere foolish
boze wrinkle [BOSOS]
boȥe big; much [BOLGES]
braşce flour [BRASCO]
breve short [BREVES]
breze strip; breast-binding [BRESOS]
brign fight [BRIGAN]
bruvn loosen [BRUVEN]
bruvne loose, loosened
mist [BER]
bŕâde bedroom [BAERANDA ‘seraglio’]
bŕazi brother [BARAĎU]
bŕde edge (pl. bŕȥi) [BORDOS]
bŕe lock [BAEROS]
bŕec glory (pl. bŕeçi) [BERAC]
bŕeh arm (pl. bŕegi) [BAREȞ]
bŕegŕe armful [BAREȞURA]
bŕeȥe path, trail [BEREDA]
bŕile coyote [BAURILOS]
bŕje alone, unaccompanied [BORGES]
bŕsôce badger (pl. bŕsôçi) [BURSONCOS]
bŕûde fog [BERUNDOS]
bŕua heather [BRURUA]
bŕugn use [BURUȞAN]
bryh eye [Kebreni bryiḣ dim. of ‘eye’]
bude target, goal (pl. byşi) [BUTOS]
bulôȥŕ bake [BULONDIR]
bumuçe few [BUMUSCES]
buraç sponge [Keb. buraḣ]
buşce mouth (pl. byçi) [BUSCOS]
buz without [BUSAN]
ca who (pl.) [KAE]
caçile kasten, the leap day taken every five years [‘hidden (day)’]
cahaba coffee (pl. -i) [Keb. kahaba]
cahabŕe coffeehouse [Keb. kahabarei]
capre goat [KAPRO]
carzile scimitar, Verdurian sword [OV carďile]
caşŕ hide [KASCIR]
cati jar, pot [KATTIS]
cave runty; docked (of tails) [KABES]
ce who (sing.) [KAE]
ce which [KET]
Ceaȥu Keadau, the first Caďinorian emperor [KEHADAU]
ceçn stop [KESCEN]
cede indecent, immoral [KAETES]
cegn kill [KEKAN]
cene reed, flute [KAENA]
cenŕe where [ce nŕe ‘what place’]
cesil child (pl. cesyli) [KEŤUL]
cesn bear (crops), yield [KEŤEN]
ceşe n stop (pl. ceçi) [KESCA]
Ceşmene the Ctelm mountains [CEŤMENE]
ceşte kind, type [KESTOS]
cete what [KETTOS]
cête plateau [KENTOS]
cevŕ ashes [KEVER]
ceznŕe factory [Ver. keďnáe]
ceȥe when [KEDA]
Ceȥn Kezon [KAEDUN]
cîe oil [KINHE]
ciçi weak [KISCIS]
cilime hill [KILIMA]
cire wife [KIRA]
cirule plum [KIRUELA]
clajŕ flog, beat [CLAGER]
claȥe bright [CLAIES]
cledâde seminary [CLAETANDA]
cleh fist (pl. clegi) [CLEȞ]
cloşce bell [CLOSCOS]
Craşene Řavcaena, goddess of agriculture [KRAVCAENA]
craşne first day of the week, scúreden [‘Řavcaena’s day’]
craze rose [KRASE]
creh cross (pl. cregi) [KREȞ]
crejn eat [CREGEN]
crene flint [KRENAS]
creŕ create [CREIR]
creşŕ grow [CRESCIR]
cretre nice, pleasant [CRETRES]
creve spine; keel [KREBA]
creze male dog [KRESOS]
creȥe lime (caustic substance) (pl. -a) [CREIDAS]
creȥec believe [KREDEC]
crih castle (pl. crygi) [KRUȞ]
crî kidney (pl. crimi) [KRIM]
crif manuscript [Ver. ‘scroll, manuscript’]
crive book [CRIVOS ‘scroll’]
crivn write [CRIVAN]
crivnŕe library [‘book-place’]
croge plaster, gypsum [KROGA]
crûbe cold, fever [KRUMBOS]
cruve shield [CRUVA]
cryçi muscle, flesh (pl. crugu) [KRUCIS]
cŕâtŕ ruby [CURANTOR]
cŕde heart (pl. cŕȥi) [CUERDOS]
cŕe leg [CRUROS]
cŕêde festival [CURENDA]
cŕêdô the third month of spring; the Grand Festival (Cuéndimar) in this month
cŕeȥe hen [CURA, plus. fem. suffix to differ from ‘leg’]
cŕi court (of a noble) [CURIES]
cŕje canyon [CORGE]
cŕolec sparkle, scintillate [CULOREC]
cŕolile star [CULORILE]
cŕove blood [KEROVOS]
cŕy luck, favor [KARIU ‘happiness’]
csel evil [CŤELT]
culi party [Verdurian culë]
cylŕ call out, muster (army, police, etc.) [CULLIR ‘host’]
cyl be guilty [CULPIR]
Cylpi. I’m sorry.
cyşil tick (insect) [CUTIL]
çei each, every [SCEHIS]
çêje fowl [SCENGE]
çelôde bronze [CELONDOS]
çelu tea [Kebreni celu, from Belesawa čae lu]
çelyşŕ hear, listen to [CELUSCIR]
çelyşic listener
çelyşicŕe audience, company, those present
çelŕe river [CELERE]
çêne beak, bill [CENNA]
çeple virgin [CEPLES ‘chaste’]
çeşce boulder (pl. çeçi) [CESCOS]
ceşŕyn baron (third and lowest level of Ismaîn nobility) [KESCARION ‘steward’]
ceşŕe baroness
çeşku heavy [CESCUES]
çeve hair (pl. çeveȥe) [SCEVEIS]
çezu wet [CESUES]
çezuêse glaze [CESUENSA]
çeȥe neck [SCEIA]
çîçeȥe necklace [‘around neck’]
çigŕi country, homeland [CICURIS]
çile shrub [SCILA]
çilŕn need[CILORAN]
çil sky [CILEL]
çip n peep, squeak; adv not [imitative]
çipn peep, squeak
çire body [CIRA]
çirize physical [CIRISES]
çiryn lieutenant [SCIRION]
çişte guitar; box [CISTA ‘box’]
çiştile crown [CISTILA]
çîte around, circling [CINTA]
çîtilŕe bracelet [‘around wrist’]
çitre lemon [CITRO]
çizn shoot (arrows) [SCISAN]
çure ankle [SCEBRA]
çurn build [CEBRAN]
çyli eyebrow [CIULIS]
dâdec establish, found [DANDEC ‘lay out’]
dali king (used for Verdurian-speaking rulers styling themselves dalu; anyone else is an elŕyn) [DALU ‘prince’]
daltec chisel, chip [back-formation from DALTOR, the tool]
daltozy chisel [daltec + -ozy]
dasyzi jade [DAŤUSIA]
daşce animal (pl. daşko) [DASCO]
davŕ take off, remove (clothes) [*DEHABER]
de during, at (a time) [DE ‘from, at’]
deç ten [DECT]
deçyn sergeant, ensign (commander of a detail of troops) [‘ten’ + -yn]
deçten eleven [DECT (ER) AN]
deçti tenth [DECTIS]
dedozy button, fastener [DETOSIOS]
dedozişe scallop ['little button']
degaşŕ reveal, show [DEKASCIR]
deje right (direction) [DEGES]
dejeln worry, be worried [‘un-calm’]
demetri spring (season) [DEMETRIA]
demeȥe sad [‘un-playful’]
den give; as an auxiliary, cause (irregular; see Conjugation) [DAN]
dene paper, document [DAENOS]
denŕyn clerk [‘paper-doer’]
denec continue, persist, keep (doing) [DENEC]
dêne day [DENNOS]
devudn begin [DEBUTAN]
dezi bridge [DESIS]
dodôȥi thumb [DOTONDIS]
dôge wax [DONGA]
dôgozy wax seal
doli hollow [DOLIS]
dome house [DOMOS]
domŕe handsome [DOMERES]
domŕyn husband [DOMORION ‘steward’; but popularly supposed to derive from domŕe]
doşi finger [DOTIS]
dragŕ dragon [DRACOR]
droji yeast [DROGIS]
dŕes sign, prophecy (pl. dŕosi) [DOROŤ]
dŕi seagull [DAURIS]
dŕjn pull [DERGEN]
dŕmŕ sleep [DORMIR]
dŕse back [DORSOS]
ebebeçte moveable [‘can move’]
ebecreje edible [‘can eat’]
ebelele visible [‘can see’]
ebezn can, be able to [EPESAN]
ec thee [EK]
ecre sharp, sour [AECRES]
Eçi Eši, goddess of art [ESCIS]
eçilŕ try, attempt [ECILER]
eçte here [AECTA]
eçtes ŕ iȥeçtn to and fro, back and forth [‘from here and to there’]
eçu tag question [Keb. eśu ‘not’, used in this way]
edani lake [AETANIS]
ede about, as to, as for, when it comes to [ETA]
Êdŕn Enäron, the chief of the gods [ENDAURON]
êdŕni ceďnare, the last day of the week [former genitive of Êdŕn]
eglŕec praise [EGLEREC]
elese perhaps, maybe [e lese ‘there’s a case’]
Elezn Eleď [EILEĎAN]
Eleȥe Eleisa, capital of ancient Cuzei [ELEISA]
eli this [AELU]
elirec live [ELIREC]
elis virtue, justice, lawfulness [AELUŤ ‘virtue’]
elustre virtuous, fair; law-abiding (cf. şŕ) [AELUŤRES]
eluȥâde theater, playhouse
eluȥec actor, actress
eluȥênes today [AELUDENNOŤ]
eluȥn act, perform [*AELUDEN ‘edify, impart virtue’]
elyde free (not a slave) [ELEUTES]
elŕ life (pl. eliri) [ELIR]
elŕe queen [ELOREIS]
elŕi kingdom [ELORIA]
elŕize royal, kingly; governmental [ELORISES]
elŕyn king [ELORION]
elşŕ elcar [ELCAR]
emea greeting, salutation (pl. emei) [*EMAOS, from EMEC ‘speak’]
emei! hello!
emîsec lecture, teach [EMINSEC ‘speak at length’]
emŕ emur (tin/silver alloy) [HAEMUR]
en one [AN]
Eprâte Efrat river [EPRANTOS]
es me, my [EŤ]
êşa horror, terror (esp. supernatural) (pl. -u) [ENCAIS]
eşcra secret (pl. -u) [SCRAIS]
eşcrifte knowledge [SCRIFTA]
eşcrivec know (things) [SCRIFEC]
eşcrivec (+ infinitive) know how to
eşcrume pitch, tar [SCRUMA]
eşcŕe dark [SCORRES]
eşcŕeȥe afternoon [SCUREIDA]
eşcŕi darkness; first month of winter [SCORU]
eşe spike, point [AECA]
eşkoli how much [SCOLI]
eşkolişŕ cost [SCOLICER]
eşkoi cabbage (pl. eşkou) [SCOHU]
eşkoze thing [SCOSOS]
eşkube miser [SCUPO]
eşkuşe pig (pl. -u) [SCUTUA]
eşkuşte dead [SCUSTES]
eşkuştn die [from ‘dead’, replacing earlier eşkuştŕn from SCUSTEBRAN]
eşkuȥe noodle [SCULGA]
eşpa duty (pl. -u) [SPAIS]
eşpagn speak, say, tell [SPAȞEN]
eşpazn rescue, save [SPASIAN]
eşpede spice [SPETO]
Eşpedele Svetla river [SPETELA]
eşpelûşe cave (pl. -çe) [SPELUNCA]
eşpetri spicy [SPETRIS]
eşpî fresh [SPENS]
eşpiçe thick, wide [ESPICES]
eşpişe nail (pl. -çe) [SPICA]
eşpŕe brute, savage [SPEROS ‘wild beast’]
eşpŕŕ surrender [SPURIR]
eşpŕsyli brutal, savage
eşpule spear [ESPUILA]
eşpul shoulder [ESPUEL]
eşŕ fail; miss (a target or goal); as auxiliary, almost do [HESCIR ‘fall short’]
Eşi tôbŕ! I almost fell!
eştandn come [CTANEN]
eştâne tin [STANNOS]
eştaşte garden [CTASTOS]
eştalde plain [ESTALDOS]
eşte summer (pl. -a) [AESTAS]
eşte 3s present subjunctive of ezn ‘be’
eşte ȥi... Is it that...
eşteȥe sticky [CTEIES]
eştove roof [CTOVOS]
eştoȥe anger [CTODOS]
eştoȥil angry
eştrane coast, beach [STRANA]
eştranil coastal; the name of the coastal mountains
eştreli arrow [STRELIS]
eşture straw [STAUBROS]
eştŕŕ tend (animals) [STERER]
eştl cellar, storeroom (pl. eştoli) [ESTOL]
ete this one [AETTOS]
etrome school [ETROMOS]
êzin some [en zin ‘one, two’]
ezişte great [ESISTES]
ezn be [ESAN]
bŕugn eşte saş belaşe use as a sword, as if it were a sword
ezŕh premier Ismaîn noble rank, which Verdurians insist is equivalent to surcont (marquis), but which we could equally call a duke [ESARȞ ‘prefect’]
ezŕhâde the dominion of an ezŕh (marquisate or duchy)
ezŕhȥe marchioness (duchess)
eȥaȥe olive [HELGAIOS]
êȥi wood [ENDIS]
êȥil quiet, shy [ENDIL]
eȥŕe ivy [HAEDERA]
façize busy [FASCISES]
fâde stream, brook [FANDA]
fajyle round bean [FAGIOLO]
falahte host, horde, swarm [FALAȞTA ‘army’]
falî cliff (pl. faleni) [FALENS]
falile white [FALILES]
falŕ be necessary [FAILIR]
fâte spirit being, ghost [FANTOS ‘soul’]
faze front [FASA]
fazene patient [FAĎENES]
feşme rough [FESMES]
fige fig [FIKOS]
fili fern [FILIS]
fil thread, string [FIL]
Fiȥŕe Fidra, goddess of night [FIDORA]
fiȥŕne the third day of the week, fidren [‘Fidra’s day’]
flane flat [FLANES]
flave yellow [FLAVES]
fôde bottom (pl. fôȥi) [FONDOS]
fogec blow (of wind) [FOȞEC]
fozeşe crane (bird) (pl. -çe) [FOSECA]
frage strawberry [FRAGAS]
freȥe faith [FREIA]
friec crumble, fall apart [FRIREC]
frişe n crumb; adv not
frôde penis (pl. frôȥi) [FRONDOS ‘type of mushroom’]
froe cold; the second month of winter [FROHES]
frue early [FRUHES]
fŕhn hang [FORȞAN]
fŕi diarrhea [FORIA]
fŕmişe ant (pl. -çe) [FORMICA]
fŕn bear, lift, carry [FERIEN]
fŕne hay [FORNO]
fŕte loud [FORTES]
fŕy dung [FORIUS]
fude full [FUTES]
fuge able, capable [FAUȞES]
fuli leaf [FUELIS]
fuşn tint, dye [FUCAN]
fuvn paint [FAUBAN]
fuȥe soot [FULGO]
fyru baths, hot spring [Kebreni]
gali bath [GALIS]
gaŕde swelling, inflamation [reborrowing of GARRARDA ‘swelling-illness’]
gascia leprosy [reborrowing of GASCIA ‘spoilage, leprosy’]
gâse goose [GANSOS]
gaşpŕ waste [GASPIR]
gegule prison (pl. gegyli) [GAECULOS]
genŕ oppress [GAENIR]
geşile net [GAETILE]
gis rat (pl. gysi) [GUŤ]
glâse torch [GLANSA]
glini long [GLINIS]
glîtŕ swallow [GLUNTIR]
glôjec ring (v.) [GLONGEC]
glure broad sword (a thick, heavy sword); name of an Ismaîn silver coin (with a sword imprinted on it), the same value as a Verdurian fale, and 1/8 the value of a saçne [GLABRO]
gonŕe the semi-extraterritorial Kebreni settlement in many Ismaîn towns; the Ismaîn quarter in Verduria or Avéla [Keb. gonarei ‘settlement’]
goȥe face [GOLGOS]
grâde border (pl. grâȥi) [GRANDOS]
grah pea (pl. gragi) [GRAIȞ ‘chickpea’]
flave grah chickpea
greln v hail [GRELAN]
grili wheat [GRILU]
grive mushroom [GRIBOS]
grojec mill [GROGEC]
grojile miller
grl hail [GREL]
grucre turnip [GRUKRA]
gŕcrege ledger [Keb. gorkrege]
gŕe good sense [GAROS]
gŕes tower [GORAŤ]
gŕeşme sensible [GARESMES]
gŕô lion [GURIE + augm.]
gŕôȥe lioness
guête metal [GUENTOS]
gule bile [GULA]
guştn taste [GUSTAN]
guze power [GUESOS]
gulre angry [GULRES]
gundn arm, equip [GUNEN]
guŕe stallion [GUHIRO]
gutia epilepsy [reborrowing of GUTIA ‘shaking’]
gynile armor [GUNILE]
hâsive sulfur [ȞAMSIFA]
lame [ȞROM]
hebade liver [ȞEPATO]
hebe seventh [ȞAEPES]
hegi nature, character [ȞECU]
hep seven [ȞAEP]
hepdêne week [‘seven days’]
hiçe sum, amount [ȞICE]
hijene row, line [ȞIGENA]
hin language (pl. honi) [ȞRON]
hl iron [KOL]
hogi leather [KOȞU]
Holeve legendary heroine Koleva [KOLLEIVA]
holile steel [KOLILE]
homn stumble; be offended [ȞROMAN ‘limp’]
îhomn offend, cause to stumble
hône money [KONNA]
hônŕe bank [loan-trans. of Ver. kunnáe]
hôse male cousin [KONSO]
hôseȥe female cousin
hôsic advisor, counselor; councillor
hôsicŕe council [‘collection of advisors’]
Elŕynes Hôsicŕe King’s Council
hôsŕ advise [KONSIR]
hoşe cat (pl. -çe) [KOSCA]
hoşô mountain cat [augm. of ‘cat’]
hoşte bone [ȞOSTOS]
hove head [KOBOS]
hoȥn ban, shun [KODAN]
slow [ȞAUR]
hŕe hour [ȞORA]
hu confused [ȞRUIS]
hube under, below [ȞUPE]
hudŕ farm [ȞUTOR]
hudŕyn farmer
huge tail [KUEȞOS]
hugia holy place (in the wild) (pl. hugi) [ȞUCUA ‘oracle’]
hugi prophet, oracle [ȞUCUIS]
huguȥe prophetess, female oracle [ȞUCUIA]
hulpe fruit [KOLPOS]
hume guts, vigor [ȞUMOS]
hune land [ȞUNOS]
hupe equal [reborrowing of ȞUEPES]
huve egg (pl. hyvi) [ȞUVOS]
huvi cruel, brutal [KUEBIS]
huȥe hole (pl. hyȥi) [KUDOS]
huȥn chicken (pl. huȥoni) [ȞUION]
hyȥi chest, bosom [ȞRUDIS]
i (now rare) eye [HIE]
î in [IM]
Iane Iáinos (Cuzeian/Eleďe god) [IAINOS]
îcaşe terror, fear (of merely human misery)
îcaşŕ terrorize (esp. said of an army) [‘make hide’]
îcrejn feed [‘make eat’]
îcreȥec convince, persuade [‘make believe’]
Içire Išira, goddess of light [ISCIRA]
içireşe the planet Išire; the third month of fall [Içire + nominalizer]
içni simple [IACNIS ‘clear’]
içŕne the second day of the week, širden [‘Išira’s day’]
içti feather [IECTU]
ige hunt (pl. iji) [IAGOS]
igŕe hunting time; first month of fall
îde pepper [HINDOS]
îdolŕ dig [INDOLIR]
ihsu fish (pl. -u) [IȞŤUIS]
îje kind, gentle [INGES]
ijicse pillow, cushion [Keb. iźicse]
ijn hunt [IAGEN]
ile idea [IELA]
ili shiny [ILIS]
iliȥi or [ILI + DIA]
ilôti quartz [ILONTIS]
ily iliu (pl. -i) [ILIU]
ilŕe wrist [ILURA]
ilneo (Eleďe) bishop [Ver. ilneo]
imeşcŕŕ darken [‘make dark’]
îmŕŕ ripen [‘make ripe’]
Inoma Ënomai, Almea’s sun [IENOMAIS]
iône bread [HIONNOS]
ir above, over [IR]
irese crop [IREŤA]
îrn enter [IMBREN]
iryȥine leech [HIRUDINA]
iŕi sound, noise [IARIS]
îsigŕ quiet down (s.o.); with reflexive shut up [causative of sigi]
ismahe Ismahi (woman)
Ismahi Ismahi
ismahn Ismahi (man)
Ismaîn adj. Ismaîn; n. Ismaîn language
işcŕe kohl [HIESCORRES]
işdŕjn uproot, weed; (of gods) damn, destroy [IS ‘out of’ + DERGEN ‘pull’]
işirn spirit (seat of will and passion, heart; or, the entire soul) [ITIRAN]
işkuzn tempt [ISKUSAN]
işpre behind, after, in back of [IS ‘out of’ + PRED ‘in front of’]
işŕi Caďinorian paradise [ISCARIA]
îtŕ amber [IANTAR]
ivi owl [HIBU]
îvulŕ tempt, seduce [‘make to want’]
izi outside, outside of [IS ‘out of’ + IM ‘in’]
izô around, surrounding [IS ‘out’ + ON ‘near’]
izurn exit, leave [ISUBREN]
iȥeç seventy [IEDECT]
iȥeçte there [iȥi ‘that’ + eçte ‘here’]
iȥeştandn arrive; come (where the movement, whatever the subject, is not toward the speaker) [iȥi ‘that’ + eştandn ‘come’]
iȥi pron that [ILLU]
je home (pl. jezi) [GES ‘household god’]
luȥn jen go home
jele calm; the second month of fall [GELES]
jeleȥe calm [GELEIA]
jeme twin [GEMINA]
jene clan, tribe [GENOS]
jine girl [GINA]
jinea girlishness
jirene ibis [GIREINOS]
jître sash; symbol of office [GINTRO]
jive lively, active [GIVES]
jy boy (pl. ji) [GIOS]
kêsŕa strategy (pl. -i) [Verdurian kensora]
ko alongside, beside, next to
koji fornication, adultery [COGIA]
kojŕ fornicate, commit adultery [COGIR]
kole calf (of leg) [COLLO]
koleby colep, a type of fish (pl. -i) [COLEPIOS]
kome wonder, marvel [CUOMOS]
komidâde county [COMITANDA]
komide count, earl (pl. komişi) [COMITOS]
komideȥe countess
kone dog [CUONOS]
konic puppy
konopli hemp [CONOPLIA]
kose side; ; grammar case [COŤOS]
kovil warp (of fabric) [COFIL]
with [CUM]
kudec attack, assault [CUTEC]
kugic cock, rooster [‘crower’]
kugŕ v crow [imitative]
kugŕi a standard weight (6.065 kg in Raizumi) [CUCURIS]
kûlemn reject, expel; be disgusted with [ as intensive + ‘throw out’]
kûlemŕe disgusting
kuleşe fall, autumn [CULLEICA]
kulde elbow [CULDA]
kulseu commander (of an army), commodore (of a fleet) [Keb. kulseu]
kûjezâte trust
kûjezn trust [CUNGESAN]
kujne swan [CUGNA]
kûmaltŕn understand, sympathize with [loan-trans. of Ver. cumoteran]
kume hearth [CUMA]
kûmetil a platter laid with food [‘arranged’]
kûmetn sort, arrange [‘put with’]
kûprendn understand, grasp, realize [loan-trans. of Ver. cumprenan]
kûprozn accompany; escort, take (someone somewhere) [‘walk with’]
kuraȥe reason, rationality [reborrowing of CURAIA]
Kure Kebri [KEBREI]
kutea stroke, apoplexy [reborrowing of CUTEIO]
Kuzaȥe Cuzei [CUEZAIE]
kuȥe spoon [CULGO]
kyri copper [KIBRU]
ladrile brick [LADRILO]
lajene bottle [LAGENA]
lajuŕ lapis lazuli [LADZUAR]
lamire sheet; cloth (in quantity) [LAMIRA]
lamiric (piece of) cloth; tie, cravat (originally çeȥes lamiric)
lanica panties [Ver. lanika ‘underwear’]
landn suffer [LAINAN]
lâne flax [LANNOS]
lânile linen [LANNILE]
laprn run [LAPREN]
lase tired [LASSES]
laşŕe cotton [by haplology from laşaşŕe, from LACATUREI]
laşn should, ought [LATUAN]
laşôde brass [LAITONDOS]
lavani tongue [LABANIS]
lavn wash [LAVAN]
le thou [LET]
lebtraçtil newcomer [LEBTRACTUL]
lêce cure [LENKA]
lêcŕyn doctor [LENKARION]
leçn sell [LESCEN]
lede coin [LETA]
ledn fly [LETAN]
lege 100,000 [LEȞOS]
legn (tell a) lie [LEGAN]
lele cute [Keb.]
leleşe vision [LEILEICA]
leln see; read (latter extension due to Kebreni) [LEILEN]
den leln show, perform
leldâte acting
leldile a performance
leldec actor, performer [‘one who gives to see’]
lême milk [LEMMA]
lemn throw out, discard [LAEMAN]
lêne line [LENNOS]
lênic stroke (of a letter) [dim. of ‘line’]
lese example; case, instance [LEŤA]
lesye rational being, one of the intelligent species of Almea [reborrowing of LESUIAS, after Ver. lesüas]
lesyne rational
leşcŕe market; sixth day of the week, néronden [*LESCURA]
leşile sail [‘fly-thing’]
leştn talk to [LESTAN ‘hang out’]
lêtili lentil [LENTILIS]
leve new [LEBES]
Lezynea the ancient kingdom of Leziunea (occupying what is now the Ismaîn-speaking countries) [LESIUNEA, from Meṫ.]
lezyni relating to Leziunea, or by extension to the Ismaîn-speaking countries [LESIUNIS]
lialn rise, raise, lift; refl. get up [LIHALAN]
liçi bald [LICIS ‘barren’]
limŕe breast [LIMURA]
line sir; gentleman; archaic nobleman, lord [Kebreni linna ‘lord’]
lineȥe madam; gentlewoman; archaic noblewoman, lady
liŕ melody, verse (pl. liri) [LIR]
lişi lawsuit [LITIS ‘quarrel’]
lişme slug, snail [LISMOS]
lizude slimy [LISUTES]
lizyçi swamp [LISUCIA]
lôde honor [LONDOS]
loge word (pl. loji) [LOGOS]
logŕe dictionary [loan-trans. of Ver. logora]
lolŕ you (sing. formal) [lôde lŕi ‘your honor’]
lome apple [LOMOS]
lomû you (plural) [lôde mûde ‘your honor’]
loşu he, she (formal) [lôde şu ‘his/her honor’, from LONDOS TUAE]
lôȥŕn appoint [LONDURAN]
lŕe beautiful [LURES]
lŕede clever [LERETES]
lŕeje happy [LEREGES]
lŕgâde plaza [LARGANDA]
lŕi understanding (perceptive portion of soul) [LERIAS]
lŕi your (archaic) [LERIS]
lŕje wide, fat [LARGES]
lŕpe petal [LERPA]
lŕŕ wrestle [LURIR]
lubeh fox (pl. lubegi) [LUPEȞ]
lubehȥe vixen
ludâte athletics, exercise
ludn exercise, play (a sport) [LAUTAN ‘compete’]
luge bend [LUKA]
lugn bend
lune circle [LAUNOS]
luneşe ring [dim. of ‘circle’]
luraşr kiss [‘lip’ + -aşr ‘use’]
lure lip [LEBRE]
lurize dance [LAUBRISA]
lurizic dancer
lurizŕ dance [LAUBRISIR]
lutenec obtain, acquire, win [‘compete-have’]
luȥeşe departure [LAUDECA]
luȥn go; future auxiliary [LAUDAN]
ly glass [LEUS]
lygimn sway [*LUKIMAN ‘bend a little’]
lyrn pour [LIBRAN]
lyşi meadow, glade [LUTIS]
lyşn miss, lack; run out [LUTIAN]
lyve (female) lover (unlike sorece, implies a sexual relationship)
lyvec love [LIUBEC]
lyvyn (male) lover
lyvŕ love [LIUBOR]
mabole mafla, Almean poppy [MAPOLA]
macre thin [MACRES]
madele chamberpot [MATELLA]
mage dough, pasta [MACO]
magile jaw [MAȞILA]
majne stomach [MAGNOS]
malionile venereal disease [reborrowing of MALIONILE ‘female illness’]
mameni turkey [MAIMENIA]
maçe mistress [MASCEIS]
maçele butter [MACELO]
maçtane city [MACTANA]
maî maize [MAHINS]
male badly [MALA]
malne sick, ill [MALNES]
mani hand (pl. -u) [MANUS]
manudeşe help, assistance
manudn help, assist [*MANUDAN ‘give a hand’]
maşŕ master, overpower [MASCIR]
me water (pl. meȥe) [MEIS]
meclŕ mix [MECLER]
mecre meřa, a type of herb [MEKRA]
mege one tenth of an hour [MEGUA]
megic not [dim. of mege; i.e. a moment]
melâce black [MELANKES]
melâcn coal [MELANKOND]
melaşte best [MELASTES]
meli good [MELIS]
melic bee [MELIE + dim.]
melisŕte good fortune [MELIS SUERTOS ‘good fate’]
melisŕtre fortunate
melnidn thank, be grateful [MAELNITAN]
Melnida Thank you
melnidile thanks, gratitude
melozy honey [MELOSIOS]
melŕ better [MELIOR]
menenŕ wriggle [MENENER]
mesi job, task [MEŤIS]
mêşe model (pl. -çe) [MENCA]
meşme same [MESMOS]
meşti field [MESTIS]
meşu half; a coin worth half a glure [METUIS]
metn put [METTAN]
meûdn plow, till [MEHUNDEN]
meze son [MEĎOS]
mezŕe silence [MESURA]
meȥe benevolent, wise; watery [MEISES]
meȥede table [MEDETA]
meȥine natural; probable, typical [MEDINES]
mi not [MIHIS ‘small spoon’]
mic teaspoon; the Verdurian mika (.11 oz) [dim. of mi, originally ‘spoon’]
mîde wave [MEINDA]
midre mother [MIDRA]
mige mold, fungus [MICO]
mîge mat (pl. mîji) [MINGA]
mih you (plural— archaic) [MUȞ]
mîjile paper (substance) [MINGILE]
mijŕune platinum [Kebreni miźiruna]
milaze meat [MILASO]
mil thousand [MIL]
miô tablespoon; the Verdurian miy (.23 oz) [augm. of mi, originally ‘spoon’]
Miranec Mëranac, god of fire [MIERANAC]
mire fire [MIERA]
miril correct, proper, true (= accurate) [MIHIRES + -il]
mirozy chimney [‘fire-thing’]
mirtile blueberry [MIRTILE]
miryn ktuvok [‘fire’ + -yn]
mişe Mom [dim. of ‘mother’]
mişci bag, sack (pl. mişku) [MISCU]
mişi urine [MITIS]
mizn rejoice [MIĎEN]
ml bad (adverb, male) [MAL]
mode sheep (pl. moşi) [MOTOS]
Mode a town in Ismahi [Meṫaiun Mogdo ‘new city’]
mohce clam [Kebreni moḣca]
mole soft; nasalization diacritic [MOLLES]
moleni lightning [MOLENIA]
môndn work [MONNAN]
mônile work [MONNILE]
mônîsn toil, work hard [MONNINSEN]
môni hard-working [MONNIS]
moşini hoe [MOTINUS]
motŕ rot [MOTRIR]
moȥe moth [MOLGA]
ripe [MUR]
Mŕâh Maranh, a legendary hero [MARANȞ]
mŕe delay [MORA]
mŕn v delay
mŕeȥe tuna [MOREIA]
mŕine boat [MURINA]
mŕis carrot [MORUŤ]
mŕje deathly [MORGES]
mŕjn sink, immerse [MERGEN]
mŕsy beaver [MARSIO]
mûde your (archaic) [MUNDES]
mudra wise [MUDRAIS]
Mûhe Munkhâsh [MUNȞAS]
muçe many [MUSCES]
muȥe danger, peril [MULGO]
mul blunt, dull [MUEL]
muleşe bluntness, dullness
myşe sparrow [MUECA]
nabreu captain (of a ship) [Keb.]
naçidn carry, bring [NACITAN]
naçtn reign, preside [NACTAN ‘rule’]
naçtyn president
naçtynâde presidency
nage foot (pl. naji) [NAGA]
nagu manhood ceremony [NACUIS]
nagil adult [participle of nagŕ]
nagile adulthood, manhood
nagŕ undergo the nagu; become a man
najêse couch [NAGENSA]
nape dregs, sediment [NAPPA]
nebe grandson [NEPO]
nebeȥe granddaughter
Necŕyn Nečeron, the god of the market [NECŤERUON]
neçte snow [NEICTE]
neje craft [NEGE]
nen north [NAN]
nêjeşe sameness [NENGECA]
nejine delicate [NEGINES]
nese birth [NESSOS]
neşe daughter (pl. neȥe) [NECA]
neşn enchant [NETUAN]
nezi island [NEZIS]
nezn be born [NEN]
ni someone [NIES]
ni- somewhat (adjectivizer) [ni]
niçte smoke [NICTOS]
nigeȥe never [NIKEDA]
niguȥe nowhere [NIKUDA]
nimŕne presently, soon [‘(with) some delay’]
niri machine [NIRUS]
nîse nut [NINSOS]
nite no one [NIKTOS]
nîte foam [NINTOS]
nizic not [dim. of ‘nothing’]
nizy nothing [NISIOS]
niȥe nest [NIDOS]
niyn the knights who say ni
no rain (pl. nu) [NOU]
noçti night [NOCTU]
nodn swim [NOTAN]
noic drizzle [dim. of ‘rain’]
noicŕ drizzle
noil rainy
noîsn storm, rain hard [NOINSER]
nojn squeeze, press [NOGEN]
nome name [NOMOS]
nomelu weather [NOUMELIAT]
noŕ rain [NOER]
nosoni salmon [NOŤONIS]
noze wedding [NOSOS]
noŕȥe daughter-in-law [NOSERA; mod. based on -ȥe words]
noȥi knot [NODU]
holy [NIER]
nŕâje orange [NARANGE]
nŕe place [NAURE]
nŕdeç ninety [NERDECT]
nŕôde world [NAURONDA]
nŕone guild [NERONOS]
nŕŕ nourish, raise [NURIR]
nŕsani múrtany [NMURŤANIS]
nŕti ninth [NEBRIS, altered by analogy with deçti so as to differ from ‘nine’]
nûc now; already [NUNC]
nume direction (pl. nymi) [NUMOS]
nure bed [NUBRA]
nuri nine [NEBRI]
nuric crib, cradle [dim. of ‘bed’]
nuşce frost (pl. nyçi) [NUSCOS]
nyln wrap [NIULEN ‘curl’]
nylne skirt [‘wrapping’]
nyne maiden, young woman [Kebreni]
nytri seal, otter [NUTRIA]
nyze eager, determined [NUSISES]
ô near, among, at the house of [ON]
ô Mŕiȥen At Mŕiȥe’s house
obe wealth [OPOS]
oblidn forget [OBLITAN]
ôce herd (pl. ôko) [ONCO]
ogôȥŕ roast, broil [OGONDIR]
ogone flame [OGONOS]
ogonŕ burn [from ogone]
oh gold [OȞ]
ohule the Verdurian ořula (small gold piece) [Ver.]
ojire wing [OGIRA]
ôlaşn may, might, be probable [*ONLACEN ‘dwell near’]
oligi group [OLIGU]
ôko shepherd (pl. ôku) [ONCOIS]
ôkoȥe shepherdess [ONCOIA]
Olaşci the god Olašu; the first month of spring (and of the year) [OLASCU]
olôtn feel bad, regret; refl. complain [OLONTAN ‘feel’]
oloşn become [OLOCAN]
olŕ ponderous, pedantic [HOLIOR ‘thunderous, impressive’]
ol ear [OHEL]
ômetn set out, set down, lay out; serve (food) [ONMETTAN ‘put near’]
ontece scientific experiment, demonstration [Ver. onteca]
opŕ trick [OPSER]
orare color [reborrowing of ORARE]
ôre shadow [HOMRA]
ôreli navel [OMRELIS]
orenŕ judge, sit in judgment [OBRENIR]
ôri shadowy; grey
ôrile wolf [‘the grey one’]
oşa shelter (pl. -ȥe) [OSCAIS ‘haven’]
ôtŕe morning [ONTERO]
oveli wild boar [OBELIS]
ovŕi prosperous [OFORIS]
ozi knob [OĎIS]
ozl donkey (pl. ozoli) [HOSOL]
oȥi so, then; yes [ODIA]
pâdeç fifty [PANDECT]
pah neighbor [PAIȞ]
paŕ four [PAHOR]
pâs five [PANŤ]
pâte fifth [PANTES]
pave cart [PAVA]
pavôde wagon [PAVONDA]
palte coat [PALTO]
pe peace [PEOS]
pedec fart [PSETEC ‘burst’]
pejŕ throw [PEGIR]
pelaşe pity [PEILAICA]
pelâte Caďinorian coin [PELANTOS]
pelazi nostril [PELASIS]
pele shovel [PELLA]
peleşme similar (to) [PELLESMES]
peln resemble [PELLAN]
penil preserves, jam [‘kept’]
penŕ store, keep [PENIR]
perun million [Ver. perun]
pesi false, fake [reborrowing of PSIS]
pêsŕ weigh [PENSER]
pesŕe province [PEŤUERA]
pete stove [PETTOS]
pêtile song
pêtn sing; play (an instrument) [PENTAN]
pelbre bowl [PELBRO]
pi everyone [PSIAT]
pidêne always [‘every(one)’ + ‘day’]
pidre rock [PIEDROS]
pigre lazy [PIGRES]
pigreşe laziness [PIGREICA]
pilea moment, instant [PILEA]
pîne fin [PINNA]
pirn ferment [PIRAN]
pîse icëlan [PINSA]
pişe dad [dim. of ‘father’]
pitŕ drink [PITTIR]
pizy everything [pi from PSIES remodelled to match sizy, nizy]
piȥaşŕ blink [PILLATIR]
piȥi eyelash [PILLIS]
piȥŕ father [PIDOR]
plazne gorse [PALAZNOS]
pleştŕe history [PLESTURA]
plôbe lead (metal) [PLOMBOS]
plŕn please [PLERAN]
plŕeşe pleasure
pl floor (pl. poli) [POL]
pode deep [POTES]
polide ground; basis [POLITA]
pomŕe story, tale [POMAURE]
pone warrior [PONOS]
ponil manly, warlike
ponô macho man, stud
poşe goosedown [POSCA]
prâde dinner [PRANDO]
prâdenŕe dining room
praȥe honest [PRADES]
pre before, in front of, until [PRED]
Luȥa sic leln şu pre zetŕn. I won’t see her till tomorrow.
preȥŕŕ happen, take place; permit, allow [PREDURER ‘pass’]
prege peach [PRECOS]
prendn take [PRENAN]
preşŕ ask [PRECER]
prije nasty, malevolent [PRIGES ‘vicious’]
prire real, true (= the actual facts) [PRIRES]
prirôde reality, nature, the world [reborrowing of PRIRONDA]
pro for, in return for, in order to, because of [PRO]
proçi close, near [PROCIS]
proçeşe closeness
prorn guide [PROBREN]
proşŕ own, proper [PROCIOR]
prozile street [PROSILA]
prozn walk [PROSAN]
pryçi inn [PRUCIS ‘way-station’]
pryçyn innkeeper [PRUCION]
hunger [PSUR]
pŕcetn why [‘for what’]
pŕçte pigeon [PERICTA]
pŕene mountain [PARENA]
pŕile bet [PARILE]
pŕn watch, observe; notice [PSERAN]
pŕe green onion [PORRO]
pŕŕ bet [PARIR]
pŕsil parsley [PERSIL]
pŕşe dust [PUR + dim. (to avoid conflict with ‘hunger’]
pŕu first [PERUES]
pŕu denŕyn (chief) secretary
pŕuşe but [late Caď. PERUCA ‘rather’]
pŕûte marble [PORUNTE]
pŕve minor, unimportant [PARVES ‘small’]
pŕyn (chief) secretary, executive assistant [abbreviation of pŕu denŕyn ‘first clerk’]
pude well (for water) [PUTO]
pugn end, finish [PUGAN]
pule ball [PULA]
pulmone lung [PULMONOS]
pulne skin [POLNOS]
pulneri naked
pulneri najis barefoot
pun push [PUHAN]
puze flea [PUSA]
puȥe everywhere [PSUDA]
pygi weak (after exertion) [PUȞIS]
pyş little, small [PUŤIES + dim.]
ra shelf (pl. rau) [RAIS]
râde frog [RANDA]
rah crab (pl. ragi) [RAIȞ]
raçni thigh [RACNIS]
rasi punt, flatboat [RAŤIS]
raşŕ have sex [RASCIR ‘entertain’]
rave justice [RAVOS]
raȥî mind (intellectual portion of soul) [RADUM]
raȥŕ shave [RADIR]
Raȥumi Raizumi, the capital of Ismahi [Monkhayic Raisami ‘pine land’]
rêleln date (a woman) [‘see habitually’]
rêlelile date, rendez-vous; ‘re-seeing’, occasion of meeting again
Tre rêlelile, Tre rê’le Goodbye
rêluȥeşe return, returning
rêluȥn go back; frequent (a place) [‘go again’]
rêȥujia the desire to return; nostalgia; a genre of guitar songs [‘back-longing’]
reme oar [REMOS]
remŕ row [REMIR]
rene again [RENES]
res far [REŤ]
reslŕ sow [RESLIR]
resleȥe sowing; second month of spring
reşcylŕ harvest [RESCULLIR]
reşkuleşe harvest; third month of summer
rêşn meet [RENCAEN]
rêşpagn repeat; rehearse (a play or a lesson) [‘say again’]
rêştandn return [‘come again’]
reze official (of a government), steward, manager (in a business or household—not the owner, but one who holds responsibility) [RAEĎOS ‘servant’]
reȥe granny [abbr. of ureȥe]
reȥâte girls’ adulthood ceremony [nom. of RED- ‘instruct’]
reȥâtil adult (of women) [participle of reȥâtn]
reȥâtile (female) adulthood, womanhood
reȥâtn undergo the adulthood ceremony; become a woman
ri costly [RIES]
ridŕ laugh [RIDRIR]
rieh mirror [Ver. rihë]
rigile a sight [RIȞILE]
rigîsn stare [RIȞINSAN]
rign look [RIȞAN]
rih speed [RUȞ]
rimiȥe emerald [RIMIDE]
rize grain [RISOS]
rizûdn draw [RISUNDEN]
riȥŕ smile [RIDIR]
roge horn (of animal) [ROGOS]
roji crazy [ROGIS]
roŕ twist, twirl [ROHIR]
roşe epic (pl. roçi) [ROCCA]
rudŕe temperament [mod. Caď. RUDORA ‘collection of raw materials’]
rulêse kitchen [‘cook’ + -êse]
ruln cook [RAULAN]
rulyn cook [‘cooker’]
rume count [RUEMA]
ruȥe raw materials; ore [RUDA]
rusŕ excuse, pardon, forgive [RUŤER]
ryde ice [RIOTOS]
rydile dessert made with fruit syrup, liquor, and shaved ice [‘ice’ + nom.]
ryhri fast [RUȞRIS]
ryjide red [RUGITES]
ŕ south [AER]
ŕ and [ER]
ŕa fief, estate; feudal duty (pl. ŕau) [ORAIS ‘obligation’]
ŕane source [ARANOS ‘cradle’]
ŕaçni spider [ARACNIS]
ŕâde eighteen [ORANDA, from Meṫaiun]
ŕaȥi bird [URADUS]
ŕbe tree [ARBOS]
ŕce log [URKOS]
ŕceşe bow [ARCOS + dim., but now analyzed as ‘small log’]
ŕe clay, earth [HUROS]
ŕede down to earth, practical [adj. of ‘clay’]
ŕegi truly, indeed [ORA ‘truly’ + adverbial -gi]
ŕeh lesson, class (pl. ŕegi) [UREȞ]
ŕeme shallow [EREMES]
ŕeneşe purgative, enema [EREINECA]
ŕesle cranberry [ERESLOS]
ŕeşti man [URESTU]
ŕhune countryside [RURA + ‘land’]
ŕi round [ORIS]
ŕige long bean; the diacritic i used in ŕ (ŕ) [HARICO]
ŕil vassal [‘one who owes (a feudal duty)’]
ŕini lamb [ARINIS]
ŕize mortal [‘of clay’]
ŕjête silver [ARGENTOS]
ŕn owe (as a feudal duty) [back-formation from ŕa ‘fief’]
ŕone eagle [UERONOS]
Ŕôteȥn Oruseon, god of wisdom [ORUSEION]
ŕsô bear (animal) [URSOS + augm.]
ŕte toe [HORTO]
ŕtegaŕde bunion [‘toe-swelling’]
ŕteşe flower [IORTA + dim.]
ŕuln despoil, rob [HURULAN]
ŕune the heavens [URAUNA]
Ŕuȥŕ Eärdur river [ERAUDOR]
ŕuȥŕe strange, unusual [‘of the Eärdur’]
Ŕvilea Caď. emperor Ervëa [AERIVILEAS]
ŕzi also, even (precedes word modified) [‘and that’]
Ŕzi sa lela I see that too
Eliri ŕzi î Raȥumin He also lived in Raizumi
ŕzigi even (like ŕzi but expresses more surprise)
Ŕzigi sa lela tode Even I see that
ŕȥi spell, curse [ERDIS]
ŕȥiȥe witch [ERDITIS, mod. by analogy with other fem. words]
sabli sand [SABLIS]
saçne pine (the emblem of Ismahi); a large gold coin of Ismahi, worth 3 sasavu [SACNA]
sadre genuine SAUDRES]
Saikn capital of Azgami
salesŕ feel, experience [SALEŤIR]
sane left-handed [ŤAHINES]
sâne lord [SANNO]
sâneȥe lady
sasavi the great tufted owl (hupibu); a small Ismaîn gold coin with its image, worth 1/3 saçne [SAŤAE HIBU ‘owl of the tuft’]
sase tuft (of grass or hair)
saş through, using, by, all the way till [SAS]
saş abajen with a knife
Saş Êdŕn! By Enäron!
Ebe leştn saş zetŕn. He could talk till tomorrow.
savn soap [SABUND]
savnozy tallow [‘soap-thing’. Note that Caď. ‘soap’ derives from SABOS ‘tallow’!]
saȥe dirty [SALGES]
saȥu prince [SADUES]
saȥuȥe princess [SADUA, interpreted as SADUIA]
se I [SEO]
sea woman (pl. sei) [SAEA]
seclŕe insect [SETECLOROS]
segli rye [SEGLIS]
selede light [SELETA]
sen dream [SON]
ses jewel [Kebreni seṫ]
sese silk [SEŤA]
seslines turquoise [‘nobleman’s jewel’, because it could once be worn only by nobles]
seşaşŕe century [SECAŤORA]
sete fence [SAEPTOS]
sezi dry [SESIES]
seşes hundred [SECAŤ]
sic adv not; n a little thing [si- from ‘something’ etc. + dim.]
siçte forge, smithy [SICTO]
siçtyn smith [‘forger’]
sidêne sometime [si- from ‘something’ etc. + ‘day’]
sidŕ immediate [SITER]
sigeȥi somewhere [ŤIKEDIE]
sigi quiet [ŤIȞIS]
sili grace [SIELIS]
siliri wheel [SILIRUS]
silize graceful
sil alone, unique [SUL]
silve forest [SILVA]
simire poor [SIMIRES ‘humble’]
simole resin [SIMOLA]
sinŕe mother-in-law [SINERA]
sişi nonsense [ŤITU]
sivelŕ whistle [SIBELIR]
sizri serpent, snake [SIĎRIS]
sizy something [ŤISIOS]
siȥâte offer [SIDANTOS]
siȥi thirsty [SIDIS]
siȥŕ offer [SIDER]
slive egg white, semen [SLIVOS]
snuşn obey [SNUCAN]
sôce juice (pl. sôko) [SONCO]
soclŕ prick, stab [SOCLIR]
sogul falcon, hawk (pl. sogoli) [SOKUOL]
sondn dream [SONAN]
sôse earth, ground, soil [SONSOS]
sôsŕe earthly; brown
sore romance, affair, courtship [Ver. fsora]
sorea a romantic song
sorŕ romance, court, woo [Ver. fsorer ‘carry on an affair’]
sorec boyfriend, admirer (unlike lyvyn, doesn’t imply sex)
sorece girlfriend, admirer
sorne lovely, loveable, attractive
east [SAR]
on, on top of [SUHER]
sŕe cheese [SIURO]
Sŕea Serea river [SERAEA]
sŕi mouse [SURIS]
Sŕnŕe Sarnáe [SARNAURE]
sŕte fate [SUERTOS]
su none [SUIS]
suamŕede disrespectful
subuz only, just (before a noun, takes dat.) [‘not without’]
sudâde robe, dress [SUTANDA]
sudâşe skirt [dim. of ‘dress’]
sude hall [SAUTE]
sudêne never [‘no day’]
sudre court (of law) [SUDROS]
sugŕsi branch [SUCURSUS]
sule young [SULES]
sulele blind [‘no see’]
suleȥe youth [SULEIA]
sulre solitary [SULRES]
sumŕŕ study [SUMERIR]
sumŕne earlier [‘no delay’]
supraȥe dishonest
suŕ part [ŤUOR]
sus six [SUEST]
suşdeç sixty [SUESDECT]
suşpage mute [‘no speak’]
suşte sixth [SUESTES]
suȥe sweat [SUDOS]
suŕȥe sister [SAUDARA, influenced by -ȥe words]
suvŕ cork [SUBER]
suzize difficult
suzizeȥe difficulty
sydŕ decide (legally), sentence, pronounce, order [SUDRIR ‘judge, decide’]
syli breeze [ŤULIS]
syme fur [SIOME]
sype hat [SIOPPA]
syȥŕ v sweat [SUDIR]
şa they [CAI]
şadavi friendship [SCATABIS]
şadrn ride [SCADRAN]
şagâte vagina [SCAGANTOS ‘emptiness’]
şâh ham [SCANȞ]
şaji empty [SCAGIS]
şale heat; the second month of summer [CALO]
şalene fortress [CALENOS]
şaleȥe air [SCALEIA ‘breath’]
şaln breathe [SCALEAN]
Şalodeȥn Caloton, the sun god [CALOTEION]
şalone the fourth day of the week, calten [‘Caloton’s day’]
şalce heel (pl. şalko) [CALCO]
şalçeȥe shoe [CALCEIO]
şalçime knuckle [CALCIMA]
şalne hot [CALNES]
şalnea broth, hot soup
şalnic warm [‘hot’ + dim.]
şal revere [CALPIR]
şalte hide, fur, skin (of an animal) [SCALTES]
şaltuge rubber [CALTUCO]
şamea bench, stool (pl. -ei) [SCAMEA]
şami shirt, tunic [CAMIS ‘drapery’]
şâne district [SCANNA]
şasi helmet [CASSIS]
şasic shell [dim. of ‘helmet’]
şaştane chestnut [CASTANA]
şaze corner [CASOS]
Şazine the Caďinorian empire [CAĎINAS]
Şazinŕ the Caďinor language [CAĎINOR]
şaȥŕ order, command [CADIR]
şaȥeȥe order, command [CADEIA]
şcŕmaȥe disease, disorder [ISCORUMAIA ‘disharmony’]
şebe chain [CAEPOS]
şebile link (in a chain) [from şebe]
şeln would [CAELAN ‘suppose’]
şemişe cemisa, unit of distance (1000 şimi, =~ .75 km) [CAEMICA]
şeŕe palace [SCEHIRA]
şesu meal [CAEŤUE ‘feast’]
şevole onion [CAEBOLO]
şeȥec practice [CAEDEC]
şi he, she, it [TU]
şibl horse [TIPEL]
şiçtn tickle [TICTEN]
şijeze cactus [TIGESA]
şil each [TIL]
şime n pace, step; measure =~ .75 m; adv not [TIMA]
şimŕe council [TIAMORA]
şin oak (pl. şûdi) [TUND]
şine plate, dish; (colloq.) meal [TINE]
şip dumb, mute [TUP]
şirene prudent [TIRENES]
şirn elephant (pl. şirôȥi) [TIROND]
şisi palm [TIEŤUS]
şişte pure [TISTES]
şitne fourth [TIETNES]
şizi sharp, pointy [TISIS]
şiȥeç forty [TIEDECT]
şl between [CAEL]
şoh a Verdurian duke [Ver. šoh]
şŕ pure, righteous, saintly (cf. elustre) [CEOR]
şŕ male (perceived as a sense of the above word, though etymologically distinct) [CER]
-şŕ port (semantic element found only in place names) [CAER]
şŕâde fountain [TUORANDA]
şŕame shame [CERAMOS]
şŕâte purity, righteousness, saintliness
şŕave seashell [CERAVA]
şŕe pear [TURA]
şŕeve beer [SCEREVES]
şŕn flow; cry [TUORAN]
şŕne hinge, axis [SCERNO]
şŕre square [CARROS]
şuane pot [TUANA]
şuge lizard [CAUȞOS]
şuje stiff, rigid [TUGES]
şujêdec starch [TUGENDEC]
şume holiday [CAUMA]
şura chant, song (pl. -ȥe) [CABRAIS]
şuşe spot, dot (pl. -çe) [TUCA]
tuçe pox
şuşte frequent [TUSTES]
şuze shit [TUZA]
şyme plague [TIUMA]
şyrec hurt, be painful
şyri pain [TIBRIS]
kû şyrin barely, at great cost
şyzile mud [TUSILE]
tâbe lump [TAMBO]
tâde ablative of te ‘we’ [TANDES ‘our’]
tagene battle [TAKENA]
taji dynasty [TAGIA]
tale brave [TAILES]
talêse cover, covering [‘cover’ + -êse]
taleȥe waist [TALEIO]
taln cover [PTALAN]
talô such, so, to that extent [TAL + augm.]
tapre n drop; adv not [TAPROS]
taprn drip [TAPREN]
taşce cup (pl. taçi) [TASCOS]
taze bay [TASOS]
tazimŕşe magnet (pl. -çe) [TASIMURCA]
te we [TAS]
tecreşme solid, constant [TEKRESMES]
teçni narrow [TECNIS]
teçtec lick [TECTEC]
têdeç thirty [TMEDECT]
tege trunk (of tree or man) [TEIȞO]
tegŕ stand [TEKER]
tehrn sculpt [TEȞREN]
tehrec sculptor
tele rib [TEILA]
telndn find [dynamic sense of TELNEN ‘seek’]
telnile valuable [TELNILES]
temŕe third [TMERES]
tene plan [PTENA]
tenec have, obtain [TENEC]
tênu port, harbor [Kebreni temnu]
tes ablative of şi ‘he, she, it’ [TOŤ]
tese tip; nipple [TEŤOS]
teşe hammer (pl. -çe) [TAECA]
teşŕe pile, heap (pl. -çe) [TESCA + -ŕe]
teȥeç twenty [PTEDECT]
tiel (mathematical) point [reborrowing of TIEL]
tihede anchor [Keb. tiḣeda]
tiplybe wig [Ver. tiplüba]
tl west [TEL]
tobe mole [TOPOS]
toce element [reborrowing of PTOCOS]
toçe enough; abundant [TOSCES]
toçegi (adv.) enough, rather, quite
toçeȥe abundance [TOSCEIO]
toçn abound, teem [TOSCEN ‘be enough, abound’]
tôbŕ fall, drop [TOMBIR]
todŕe manservant [TOTAUROS]
todŕeȥe maidservant
todŕsyli servile
tone rice [TONOS]
toşea scarf [Ver. toššeya]
toume slot, niche [TOUMOS]
trâçn cut [TRANCEN]
trafil weft [TRASFIL]
trajn drag [TRAGEN]
travâte empire [ATRABANTOS]
trave grass [TRAVA]
traveȥe empress [ATRABIES + fem. ending to differ from ‘grass’]
travyn emperor [ATRABION]
traze too (much) [*TRASA, adverb form of TRAS]
tre across, over, beyond; until [TRAS]
Tre zetŕn Till tomorrow
trê axe (pl. trôse) [TRONS]
tremŕne later [‘after a delay’]
trene turtle [TRENA]
treple clover [TREPLOS]
trogn touch [TROGAN]
tromŕ fool, trick [TROMIR]
troȥe sow (female pig) [TROIA]
truȥn graze [TRAUDAN]
either [TAR]
tŕde slow [TARDES]
tŕe second [PTORES]
tŕse all [TERSES]
tŕyvâte trade, commerce
tŕyveu trader, merchant [Keb. toryveu]
tŕyvn trade [Keb. toryvau]
tugece arthritis [reborrowing of TUGECA ‘stiffness’]
turn strike, forge [TAUBREN]
turêse slang term for a sword, or for the Ismaîn silver glure [‘striker’]
ubi tight [HAUPIS]
ugŕ squash [UGOR]
ugŕbŕ insult [UCORBIR]
ûje nail, claw [UNGE]
ulede stair, step [ULETA]
ul old [UIL]
ulô ox (pl. oli) [UHOL + augm.]
ulve nose [OLVOS]
ume tub [HUMO]
umeşe basin [dim. of ‘tub’]
uçtl jar, bottle [UCTAL]
ure grandfather [ABRO]
ureȥe grandmother (often abbreviated to reȥe)
ûse sweet [UNSES]
uȥec brother-in-law (pl. -çi) [ULGEC]
va voice (pl. vu) [VUA]
vagi shrine, holy place (in town) [VACUS]
vagŕe altar [VACURES ‘holy of holies’]
vâje cheek [VANGE]
vajŕ wound [VAGIR]
vanec rule, govern [Keb. vanu]
vanâte government, rule
vaneu ruler, governor [Keb. vaneu]
vaze shapely; fine-lined, elegant [VAĎES ‘delicate’]
vazŕe shapeliness; fineness or elegance of line [VAĎORA ‘delicacy’]
vease generosity [VEHAŤA ‘charity’]
veasere generous
veji plant [VEGIS]
vele uncle (pl. -u) [VELAIS]
velaşr abduct a woman without her father’s consent; elope [from ‘steal’]
velaȥe aunt [VELAIA]
veln steal [VELEN]
vemene poison [VEMENO]
vên deer (pl. vêȥi) [VEHEND]
venŕe bulge [VENERA]
vesŕn travel [VEŤURAN]
vêşŕ conquer [VENCIR]
Veŕi Vlerë, goddess of love [VEHARIES]
veŕişe the planet Vlerëi; the first month of summer [Veŕi + nominalizer]
vetre foul, filthy [VETRES]
vijiln wait [VIGILEN ‘watch for’]
viôde lyre [VIONDOS]
vireh enemy (pl. viragi) [VIRAȞ]
virni loyal [VIRNIS]
vişe wine (pl. -çe) [VINOS + dim.]
vitre evening [VIETROS]
vizi cherry [VISIA]
viȥi pitchfork [VILLIS]
voil messenger [‘sent’]
voŕ send [VOHIR]
voşn invoke [VOCAN]
vŕase boar (male pig) [VERAŤOS]
vŕeȥe green [VEREDES]
Vŕeȥŕea Verduria [VEREDURIA]
vŕeȥŕên adj. Verdurian
vulŕ want [VOLIR]
vyçte elemental spirit [VIOCTA]
vyro sailor [Kebreni vyreu]
ycri eighth [IOCRIS]
yçi eight [IOCI]
yge mead [IUEȞOS]
yle knee [IAULO]
yli way, means [IULIS]
î ylin çeples in the way of a virgin, like a virgin
ylime testicle [Caď. dim. of IOHILA ‘jewel’]
ylu custom, tradition [‘ways’]
ylure customary, traditional
ymête mare [IUMENTA]
yne female (used only with animal names and professions) [IONES]
yneȥe female [yne + fem. suffix]
yŕi winter [HIBRERIS]
yve mane, crest [IUBA]
yzi mercy [IOSU]
yzŕ provide [IUSIR]
yȥeç eighty [IODECT]
plural reflexive pronoun [ZAHAM]
zadri meaning [ZADRIS]
zage wind [ĎAIKOS]
zame mistake, error [ĎAMOS]
zamŕ err, make a mistake [ĎAMIR]
zâne wool [ĎANNOS]
zaneme velvet [Ver. ďaneme]
zaşce purse (pl. zaçi) [ĎASCOS ‘small bag’]
zaşe omen [ĎAITOS]
zegn pinch [ZEȞEN]
zeleȥi therefore [zes lele ȥi ‘it is seen that...’]
zêne sign [ZENNOS]
zes singular reflexive pronoun [ZEŤ]
zetŕ tomorrow [ZEPTER]
zeȥige tangle [ZEDIGA]
zeȥigŕ tangle [ZEDIGER]
zi sea (pl. -ȥe) [ZIEIS]
ziec race [Ver. ďiec]
ziecnŕe racetrack [partial translation of Ver. ďiecnáe]
zige berry [ZIȞE]
zis wicked [ZUŤ]
zisŕi octopus [from SEORIS ‘octopus’, ‘sea’ added to diff. from ‘mouse’]
zil smooth [ĎUL]
zin two [ĎUN]
zitel highway; esp. the Valley Highway crossing Ismahi [Ver. ďitel ‘road’]
zize easy [ĎIESES ‘straight, smooth’]
zizeȥe ease, easiness
zl strong [ZOL]
zo frown (pl. zoi) [ĎUOS]
zoclisi priest [AIĎOCLIŤUS]
zomile stone [ĎOMILE]
zomize strong, determined [ĎOMISES]
zône year [ZONNOS]
zovâte sorcery [ZOBANTOS]
door [ĎER]
zŕe flatbread [ZEROS]
zule joy [ZULA]
zume gate [ZUEMOS]
zurn harm [ĎEBRAN]
ȥi conj that [DIA]
ȥiçene gums [DICENA]
ȥiçtone mustard [DICTONOS]
ȥide baby (pl. ȥişi) [DITOS]
ȥîge melon (pl. ȥiji) [DINGA]
ȥin three [DIN]
ȥise time (pl. ȥisa) [DIŤAS]
ȥitri idiot, moron [DITRIS ‘gentle, innocent’]
ȥitril idiotic, moronic
ȥizn hate [DISAN]
ȥŕ hard, difficult [DUR]
ȥŕi tooth [DURRIS]
ȥŕn play, have fun [child-talk for aȥurn]
ȥŕozy toy [‘plaything’]
ȥuge steam [DUȞE]
ȥujia desire, longing
ȥujŕ desire, long for [DUGER ‘desire, covet’]
ȥumec think [DUMEC]
ȥunalalde planet [DUNALALDOS]
ȥûnic page [DUNA ‘chapter’ + diminutive]
ȥuşc rudder (pl. ȥyçi) [DUSC]
ȥusni lace [Ver. žusni]
ȥyşŕ steer [DUCIR]
ȥyzi fragrant, sweet-smelling [DUSIES]
ȥyzŕ be fragrant, smell good [DUSIER]

Virtual Verduria