The Numbers List: Sources

This page gives the sources for each language on the Numbers from 1 to 10 page. Sometimes half the work in dealing with a new language is finding out what it is, so there is also information here about finding the languages in Ruhlen (R), Voegelin and Voegelin (V), the Ethnologue (Eth), and Campbell (L).

The three-letter code points to the Ethnologue, 14th edition. The link will allow you to find more recent editions.

Press List to generate the list of sources. Symbols and widely cited sources are explained below.

Press List already!

Symbols and abbreviations

» a language I don't have yet
needs a newer or more complete source
· a better source would be nice to have
~ the language name from the first column
lg language
d. dialect
sis. sister language of
rel. related to
fa family
gram grammar (and grammaire, etc.)
dict dictionary
ling linguistic
compar comparative
L n North American family n
M n Mesoamerican family n
K n South American family n

Common sources

Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Jazyki Narodov SSSR [Languages of the Peoples of the USSR], Izdat'el'stvo Nauka, Moscow, 1996 (49 sets) (SOV).
George L. Campbell, Compendium of the World's Languages, Routledge, 1991 (67 sets).
L. Couturat & L. Leau, Histoire de la Langue Universelle, Hachette, 1907 (36 sets). (CL)
Andrew Dalby, Dictionary of Languages, 1998 (22 sets).
Jakob Dempsey, A Reconsideration of Some Phonological Issues Involved in Reconstructing Sino-Tibetan Numerals, U. Washington dissertation, 1995(101 sets). (Dh)
G.A. Grierson, Linguistic Survey of India, Motilal Banarsidass, 1928 (104 sets) (A)
Harry H. Johnston, A Comparative Study of the Bantu and Semi-Bantu Languages, Clarendon Press, 1919 (85 sets). (HJ)
Charles H. Kraft, ed., Chadic Wordlists, Verlag von Dietrich Reimer, 1981 (42 sets).
Teodoro A. Llamzon, Handbook of Philippine Lg Groups, 1978.
Loukotka, Chestmir, Classification of South American Indian Languages, 1968. (Lk) (63 sets. These are always 1-3 only, and I've given the latest date among his sources.)
Mary E. Kropp Dakubu, ed., West African Language Data Sheets, West African Linguistic Society, 1977-80 (82 sets). (K)
Frederick W.H. Migeod, The Languages of West Africa, Books for Libraries Press, 1911 (47 sets) (M)
Nurse, D. and G. Phillipson, Tanzania Language Survey, 1975 (62 sets) (TLS)
D.T. Tryon, New Hebrides Languages: An Internal Classification, Pacific Linguistics, 1976 (47 sets).
Kay Williamson, ed., Benue-Congo Comparative Wordlist,W. African Linguistic Society, 1973 (165 sets)
Yoshiho Yasugi, Native Middle American Languages: An Areal-Typological Perspective, Verlag von Dietrich Reimer, 1995 (60 sets, plus ethnomathematical discussion).
Roger D. Woodard, ed., The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World’s Ancient Languages, Cambridge U. Press, 2004 (14 sets).


Many thanks to the following people who've sent me numbers!

(biggest contributors first; abbreviations in boldface):