Sources for the Numbers List

This file gives the sources I've used for the [Numbers Index].
Sources for the Numbers List

This page gives the sources for each language on the Numbers from 1 to 10 page. Sometimes half the work in dealing with a new language is finding out what it is, and relating it to the sometimes wildly varying classifications from Ruhlen , Voegelin, and the Ethnologue. There are notes relating to this, as well as information on dialects, and names of languages I don't have yet.

Totals:5020 entries
-238 conlangs
-444 dead langs
-386 dialect/variant = 3952 living languages
I have 83.2% of Ruhlen's 4750 languages.
Dialects I have but not in the list: 835, so the grand total is about 5612.

Thanks to the following people who've sent me numbers over the net
(biggest contributors first; abbreviations in boldface):
Jarel Deaton (JD),
Eugene S.L. Chan (Ch),
Nicolas Ossart (NO),
Pavel Petrov (PP),
Jess Tauber,
Carl Masthay (CM),
Rick Schellen (RS),
Claudio Salvucci (CS),
Ivan Derzhanski,
Reinhard Hahn,
Jennifer Runner (who has a
common expressions in many languages
Gábor Sándi,
Marnen Laibow-Koser,
Miguel Carrasquer Vidal,
Mikael Parkvall,
James Fidelholtz,
Ralph Sonnenschein,
B. Pellin,
Francisc Czobor,
Knut Felberg,
Jason Roberts,
Lameen Souag,
Esa Anttikoski,
Mike Wright,
Uldis Balodis,
Dirk Elzinga,
George Weber,
Patrick Chew,
Abdulrakhim Aitbayev,
Troy Sagrillo,
Jorge Díaz Alfonso,
Thorgeir Holm,
Stephen Carlson,
Bertil Tikkanen,
Herman Miller,
Matias van den Bossche,
Timothy Montler,
Mikael Thompson,
Paulo Bairos,
Eric Korn,
Corey Reid,
Johanna Laakso,
Hank Nater,
Ben den Butter,
G. Ambrose,
Norbert Kamenicky,
Andrew Howey,
Jacques Guy,
John E Koontz,
Eamonn McManus,
Chris (VikesFan34),
Benjamin Ao,
R.H. Mathews,
Debbie Young,
John Hyaduck,
Erik Kim Tjong Sam,
Frank Valoczy,
Yann-Ber Messager,
Bertilo Wennergren,
Steinar Midtskogen,
Paul (paulkav),
David E. Bell,
Scott DeLancey,
Allen Hall,
Amos Tallbear,
Wayne Leman,
Liland Brajant Ros',
Bruce Nevin,
George Aaron Broadwell,
Geraint Jennings,
Dick Grune,
Glen Gordon,
Jakob Dempsey,
Mike Cleven,
Martin Kuemmel,
Anip Sirait,
David Dynes,
Johannes Reese,
Mark Cogan,
Martin Gircys-Shetty,
Salik Hard,
R. Ben Madison,
Alex Leith,
Raymond Brown,
Jeremy Newton,
Boudewijn Rempt,
Phyllis Manus,
Elizabeth Pyatt,
Chris Straughn,
Bogdan Banu,
Emiliano Venturini,
Adolfo Zavaroni,
Daniel von Brighoff,
Remo Mangold,
Ricardo Distasi,
Wanjiku Ng'ang'a,
Henry Churchyard,
Seleman Sewangi,
Morgan Nyman,
Iacovos Koumi,
Denis Dujardin,
Síle Shigley,
Helmut Satzinger,
Joan Pau Merita,
Alan Sachs,
Stephen Cohen,
Antonio Tolosa,
Mike MacDonell,
Pablo Saratxaga,
Don Osborn,
Robert A. Blust,
Seán Ó Séaghdha,
Alexandre Akopyan,
Roby Littlefield,
Hendrik Chaltin,
Jens Persson,
Richard Crane .

Major printed sources:
-- for numbers
Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Jazyki Narodov SSSR [Languages of the Peoples of the USSR], Izdat'el'stvo Nauka, Moscow, 1996 (49 sets) (SOV).
George L. Campbell, Compendium of the World's Languages, Routledge, 1991 (67 sets).
L. Couturat & L. Leau, Histoire de la Langue Universelle, Hachette, 1907 (36 sets). (CL)
Andrew Dalby, Dictionary of Languages, 1998 (22 sets).
Jakob Dempsey, A Reconsideration of Some Phonological Issues Involved in Reconstructing Sino-Tibetan Numerals, U. Washington dissertation, 1995(101 sets). (Dh)
G.A. Grierson, Linguistic Survey of India, Motilal Banarsidass, 1928 (104 sets) (A)
Harry H. Johnston, A Comparative Study of the Bantu and Semi-Bantu Languages, Clarendon Press, 1919 (85 sets). (HJ)
Charles H. Kraft, ed., Chadic Wordlists, Verlag von Dietrich Reimer, 1981 (42 sets).
Teodoro A. Llamzon, Handbook of Philippine Lg Groups, 1978.
Loukotka, Chestmir, Classification of South American Indian Languages, 1968. (Lk) (63 sets. These are always 1-3 only, and I've given the latest date among his sources.)
Mary E. Kropp Dakubu, ed., West African Language Data Sheets, West African Linguistic Society, 1977-80 (82 sets). (K)
Frederick W.H. Migeod, The Languages of West Africa, Books for Libraries Press, 1911 (47 sets) (M)
Nurse, D. and G. Phillipson, Tanzania Language Survey, 1975 (62 sets) (TLS)
D.T. Tryon, New Hebrides Languages: An Internal Classification, Pacific Linguistics, 1976 (47 sets).
Kay Williamson, ed., Benue-Congo Comparative Wordlist,W. African Linguistic Society, 1973 (165 sets)
Yoshiho Yasugi, Native Middle American Languages: An Areal-Typological Perspective, Verlag von Dietrich Reimer, 1995 (60 sets, plus ethnomathematical discussion).

-- for classification or speaker counts
Lyle Campbell, American Indian Languages, Oxford, 1997. (L)
David Crystal, The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language, Cambridge, 1987 (C)
Barbara F. Grimes, ed., Ethnologue, Summer Institute of Linguistics, ongoing. (classification) (Eth) Note: all languages here have been checked against the Ethnologue; if there's no special note, there's an Eth entry with the same lg name as my headword.
Anatole V. Lyovin, An Introduction to the Languages of the World, Oxford, 1997
Merritt Ruhlen, A Guide to the World's Languages, Stanford, 1987 (R)
Voegelin & Voegelin, Classification and Index of the World's Languages, Elsevier, 1977 (V)

-- for ethnomathematics
Michael P. Closs, ed., Native American Mathematics, U. Texas Press, 1986. (just 15 languages, but lots of information on how number systems work-- e.g. how the Maya calendar or the Inca quipus worked)
Georges Ifrah, The Universal History ofNumbers, John Wiley, 2000. (Just a few number sets, but plenty of interest on numerical and arithmetical systems from the Sumerians to the Maya to the Indians.)
Claudia Zaslavsky, Africa Counts, Prindle, Weber & Schmidt, 1973. (a similar treatment of African languages).

Textual conventions and abbreviations
red A language or dialect recently added (since Sep. 2002) green A language now with a better source cyan Sources and notes blue Languages not yet found. d. dialect of rel. related to sis. sister language of lg language fa family iso isolate ling linguistic gram grammar dict dictionary compar comparative [name] Proposed family with little current support L n North American family n in L (Lyle Campbell) M n Mesoamerican family n in L K n South American family n in Terrence Kaufman (and L) language with more than 1 million speakers --> need a better source (more recent or more complete) . a better source would be nice to have ~ name of language (in a source title)

EURO Indo-European

Proto-Indo- European+ Calvert Watkins, American Heritage Dict 1976



Old Germanic+
Old English+ OED. RS has Old Northumbrian and Old Kentish.
Middle English+
English RS has 24 d.
Scots Troy Sagrillo, U. Toronto. RS has 7 d.
Old Frisian+ Bo Sjölin, Einführung in das Friesische 1969.
Frisian (West)
Frisian (Saterland) Andrew Howey. RS has 17 more Frisians.
Dutch. R. RS has 13 d.
W/S Flemish Denis Dujardin
Brabants Hendrik Chaltin (= Antwerp; Brussels has 10 = ti:n).
German RS has 23 more d.
Alsatian Elsa Laugel-Erny n.d. #4 (not in source) from Paulo Bairos.
Low Saxon Reinhard Hahn
Emsland (Low Saxon) Johannes Reese
Mennonite Plautdietsch Herman Rempel, Kjenn jie
noch Plautdietsch?
Cimbrian Olivier Gérard.
Rimella (Walserdeutsch), Piemonte Daniel von Brighoff
Central Bavarian Klaus Zimmer
Swabian Thomas Kemmer 1995, web.
Rheinfränkisch (Rhenanic Franconian). G. Ambrose.
Pennsylvania Robert Lüsch
Luxembourgeois (Lëtzebuergesch) Jean-Claude Berens (on web); corrections from G. Ambrose. R.
Swiss German (Zürich) Peter von Ballmoos (on web); #9 from Remo Mangold.
Yiddish Alan Sachs, Stephen Cohen. R, Eth E YDD, W YIH
Middle High German Joseph Wright 1955.
Old High German+ OED


Runic+ Peter Petterson 1997, web. R. RS has 7 various Northern d.
Old Norse+
Norwegian Peter Bergman 1968. Nynorsk information: Steinar Midtskogen, Odd Lund. Eth Nynorsk NRN, Bokmal NRR.
Danish Peter Bergman 1968
Swedish Peter Bergman 1968
Dalecarlian. Jens Persson
. Faroese
. Old Icelandic+
. Icelandic


. Gothic+


Oscan+ Rick Schellen. R.
Umbrian+ Rick Schellen. R.
Faliscan+ Rick Schellen. R.
Latin+ Humez & Humez 1976.


Mozarabic+ Rick Schellen. R.
Portuguese RS has 4 variants.
Galician X. Ramón Pena & Manuel Rosales, 1991. R.
Spanish RS has 16 d. other than those below.
Ladino (Judeo-Espanyol). Rick Schellen.
Asturian F. Ferrero, P. Manzano & U. Rodriguez,
Diccionariu Basicu de la Llingua Asturiana.
Aragonese Chusé Aragué, Dizionario Aragonés-Castellán.
Catalan Miguel Carrasquer Vidal
Valencian Joan Pau Merita
Old French+
French RS has 11 d. other than those below.
Walloon. Pablo Saratxaga.Jèrriais. Geraint Jennings
Poitevin Michel Gauthier,
Gr du poitevin-saintongeais 1996.
Old Picard+ B. Pellin.
Picard J. Guilieron & E. Edmont,
Atlas linguistique de la France 1902-1910.
Provençal (Occitan) Matias van den Bossche; also RS and Jarel. R. RS has 15 more.
Lengadocian Matias van den Bossche.
Gascon Michel Grosclaude 1977. V d. French; but look how close it is to Lengadocian.
Auvergnat Jarel Deaton, from
Dic Général Français-~ 1990.
Limosin Jarel Deaton (says source is old).
Franco-Provençal (Vaudois) Jules Reymond & Maurice Bossard 1982. R. RS has 14 more.
Rumantsch Grischun Pledari rumantsch grischun-tudestg and tudestg-rumantsch grischun e grammatica elementara dal rumantsch grischun 1985.
Sursilvan & Vallader Ricarda Liver, Manuel pratique de romanche : sursilvan-vallader 1982. RS has 13 more.
Friulian Maria Ilescu 1972. RS has 10 more.
Ladin Jarel Deaton R.
Dalmatian+ Jarel Deaton R.
Italian RS has 51 d. other than those below.
Piedmontese Rick Schellen.
Milanese Franco Nicoli,
Grammatica ~ 1983.
Genovese Fiorenzo Toso,
Grammatica del ~ 1997. Eth Ligurian.
Parmesan Emiliano Venturini.
Venetian Jarel Deaton.
Corsican Pascal Marchetti 1981.
Umbrian Rick Schellen.
Neapolitan Ricardo Distasi.
Sicilian Rick Schellen.
Sardinian Claudio Salvucci. RS has 11 more.
Romanian RS also has Old Rumanian and Moldovan.
Arumanian Achille G. Lazarou 1986.
Meglenite (Megleno-Rumanian) Rick Schellen. R.
Istro-Rumanian Bogdan Banu. R.


Proto-Celtic+ Oaritheias, from MacBain's etym. dict Gaelic.
Gaulish+ Pierre-Yves Lambert, La langue gauloise 1985. via B. Pellin. R.


Proto-Brythonic+ NO
Welsh T.J. Rhys Jones, Teach yourself ~ 1961. R.
Cardiganshire Jadranka Gvozdanovic, Indo-European Numerals 1992, via Michel Defayes.
Breton Yann-Ber Messager
Vannetais B. Pellin.
(Unified) Cornish+ P.A.S. Pool, ~ for beginners 1970. RS has 2 other varieties.
Common Cornish, Modern Cornish Ivan Derzhanski.
Devonian+ Joseph Biddulph, A Handbook of West Country Brythonic 1996. Via Elizabeth Pyatt.


Proto-Goidelic+ NO
Old Irish+ R.P.M. & W.P. Lehman, An Introduction to ~ 1975
Irish Eamonn McManus. RS has 5 d.
Scots Gaelic RS has 6 d.
Manx+ Campbell 1991
>Shelta Not in R, Eth STH


Classical Greek+
Greek R. RS has 17 d.
Cypriot Iacovos Koumi
Tsakonian Jarel Deaton. R.
Mycenaean Greek+ Ebbe Vilborg 1960.


Tocharian A+ Jarel Deaton. R.
Tocharian B+ Jarel Deaton; also in Campbell 1991. R.


Albanian Leonard Newmark, Standard ~ 1982. R, V.
Gheg (Qosaj) Jarel Deaton (he has 7 d. of Gheg).
Tosk (Mandritsa) Jarel Deaton (14 d. of Tosk).


Classical Armenian+ Miguel Carrasquer Vidal
Armenian Alexandre Akopyan. Jarel has E and W d.


Old Prussian+ Martin Gircys-Shetty.
Latgalian M. Bikssh & J. Placinskis, Latgalu volu:das gramatika un pareizraksteibas 1973 (JD).



Belarussian R.G.A. de Bray, Guide to the Slavonic Lgs 1980
Ukrainian R.G.A. de Bray 1980
>Rusyn Not in R, Eth RUE


Polish Peter Bergman 1968
Kashubian F.Lorentz 1971.
Polabian+ Kazimierz Polanski in Comrie & Corbett 1993.
Czech A Rough Guide Phrasebook 1995.
Slovak R.G.A. de Bray 1980
East, West Norbert Kamenicky
Upper Sorbian R.G.A. de Bray 1980
Lower Sorbian Reinhard Hann


Old Church Slavonic+ R.G.A. de Bray 1980
Bulgarian R.G.A. de Bray 1980
Macedonian R.G.A. de Bray 1980
Serbo-Croat Peter Bergman 1968
Slovene Andrea Albretti 1997; a phonetic version is in de Bray.


Hittite+ Campbell 1991 (#1 from Jarel). R.
>Palaic+ Eth PLQ
>Lydian+ Eth XLD
Luwian+ Jarel Deaton. R. Eth cuneiform XLU, hieroglyphic HLU.
Lycian+ Jarel Deaton. R.


Proto-Indo-Iranian+ Martin Kuemmel (Indo-Iranianist).

Iranian 325,183

Ossetian M.I. Isaev in SOV =Iron. V/R Ossetic.
Digor Jarel Deaton. V d. Ossetic.
>Scythian+ Eth XSC
Avestan+ Ronald Emmerick 1992 (cf. Saka). A, V, R.
Khwarezmian+ Jarel Deaton. R.
-->Sogdian+ Rick Schellen (#2, 3, 10 missing); #3 from Jarel. R.
Yoghnobi M. N. Bogolyubov in SOV (2 d., this is Eastern). Also Jarel. R Yaghnobi.
Bactrian+ Jarel Deaton. R.
Saka+ Ronald Emmerick in Jadranka Gvozdanovich, Indo-European Numerals 1992 =Khotanese. Also from Jarel =Khotanese Saka. R Saka.
Pashto Jakob Dempsey. A (Peshawar, Waziri, Kandahar), V, R.
Wakhi T.N. Pakhalina, Vakhanskij Yazyk 1975. Also Reinhard Hahn. A, V, R.
-->Munji A Munjani, V, R.
-->Yidhgha A Yüdgha:, R Yidgha, not in V.
Ishkashmi T.N. Pakhalina in SOV (u, i, are lowered; she had u-ring and a Cyr. char.). A, V d. Sanglechi, R. Eth w/ next.
-->Sanglechi Jarel Deaton. I also have a version from RS =Ze:baki:; but differs from Ishkashmi only with #10 = dos not do:s. V d. Sanglechi, R.
Shughn V.S. Sokolova in SOV. Also Campbell 1991 A Shighni, V/R Shughni.
Rushani V.S. Sokolova in SOV =Rushanskij (also has Bartangi, Oroshor d.).
Yazgulami D.I. Edelman in SOV. Also Jarel. R.
Sarikoli V.S. Sokolova in SOV. Also Reinhard Hahn. Also (as Tashkorghani) from Allen Hoffman (who has it from Lonely Planet guide to Central Asia). A d.Shighni, V d. Shughni, not in R. Eth confirms in Shughni-Yazgulami group.
Parachi Tetsuo Nawata 1983. R.
-->Ormuri A, V, R.

>Median+ Eth XME
-->Parthian+ Rick Schellen (#3, 8-10 missing). R.
-->Yazdi Jarel Deaton (1-8 only). R.
-->Nayini Manuchihr Sutudah, Farhang-i Na'ini 1986 (JD). R.
Natanzi Arthur Christensen, Contributions à la Dialectologie Iranienne 1930 (JD). R.
>Soi Eth SOJ
Khunsari Wilhelm Eilers, Die Mundart Von Chunsar 1976 (JD). R.
Gazi Wilhelm Eilers, Die Mundart Von Gaz 1979 (JD). R.
Sivandi Wilhelm Eilers, Die Mundart Von Sivand 1988 (JD). R.
Vafsi Donald Leonard Stilo, A gram of ~-Tati 1977 (JD). R.
Semnani Jarel Deaton. R.
Sangisari Arthur Christensen, Contributions à la Dialectologie Iranienne II 1935 (JD). R.
Gilaki Jarel Deaton. R.
Mazanderani Tetsuo Nawata 1984. R.
Talysh L.A. Pireyko in SOV. Also Jarel. R.
-->Harzani Pierre Lecoq in Rudiger Schmitt, Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum 1989 (missing #7-9; JD). R.
Zaza Ludwig Paul, Zazaki: Grammatik und Versuch einer Dialektologie 1998 (JD). R.
Gorani Jarel Deaton. R.
Baluchi Mumtaz Ahmad, ~ Glossary 1985 =Rakhshani, major d. A (Makrani, Eastern), V Balochi, R.
(Turkmenistan) V.S. Rastorgueva in SOV.
Eastern Hill Major George Waters Gilbertson,
English-Balochi Colloquial Dict 1925 (JD).
Western Baluchi (Rakhshani) Muhammad Abd-al-Rahman Barker and Aqil Khan Mengal, A Course in Baluchi 1969 (JD).
>Bashkardi Eth BSG
Kermanji Kurdish D.N. MacKenzie, Kurdish dialect studies 1961 (Suleimaniye d.). V, R Kirmanji, Eth Kurmanji.
Zaza Kurdish D.N. MacKenzie 1961 =Akre d. V, R =? Kurdi.
Bajalani D. N. MacKenzie 1956.
Kermanshahi Jarel Deaton. R.

-->Old Persian+ Jarel Deaton, who sez other #s not attested; but Rick has a set!? A, V, R.
Pahlavi+ A, V. Rick's numbers same except A has #3 = si not si:.
Farsi (Persian) John Andrew Boyle, Grammar of modern Persian 1966. A, V, R.
Dari Jarel Deaton. V Khorasani d. Farsi.
Isfahani Jarel Deaton.
Tajik A.A. Kerimova in SOV. V d.Persian, R Tajiki.
Tati A.L. Gryuberg in SOV. Also Jarel. R.
Cha:li, Eshteha:rdi, Xia:raji. Ehsan Yar-Shater, A Gram of Southern ~ Dialects 1969. Eshtehard is near Tehran; I assume these are all Iranian dd while SOV's is Azeri.
Fars Jarel Deaton. R.
Lari Jarel Deaton. R.
Luri Pierre Lecoq in Rudiger Schmitt, Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum 1989 (JD). R.
Kumzari Bertram Thomas, The ~ Dialect of the Shihuh Tribe 1930 (JD). R.

Nuristani 325, 265

Ashkun D.I. Edelman 1983, V, R.
Wasi-weri D.I. Edelman 1983 =Prasun, A Wasi-veri, V, R, Eth Prasuni.
Kati D.I. Edelman 1983, A Bashgali, V, R.
Kamviri Richard F. Strand, V d. Kati, e QMV.
Kalasha-ala D.I. Edelman 1983 =Waigali, A Wai-ala:, V Kalas.a-ala:, R, e WBK, Eth Waigali.
>Tregami Eth TRM

Indic 325, 164

Sanskrit+ Whitney. A, V, R.
-->Prakrit+ A, V: there are several. I have a version from Hermann Berger, in Gvozdanovich, Indo-European Numerals 1992, but I'm not sure about it.
Ardhamagadhi Dalby. V.

Romany V Romany, R Romany; better known today as Romani
Armenian Jarel Deaton (also has Vlach (v. close to Kalderash), Lovari, Agia Varvara (Athens), Sepechides, Sinte, Bugurdzhi).
Kalderash Ivan Derzhanski.
Syrian. A.
Iranian (Tehran). Jarel Deaton.

Sinhalese C.H.B. Reynolds 1980. V, R, A Singhalese.
Vedda Jarel Deaton. R.
Maldivian Jarel Deaton. R.

Northern India
Kashmiri D.I. Edelman 1983, A (5 d.), V Kashmi:ri:, R.
Shina D.I. Edelman 1983, A (4 d.), V, R.
Brokstat (Brokpa) 2K: Ramaswani N. 1982
Phalura D.I. Edelman 1983, V, R.
Dumaki Bertil Tikkanen, who also says it's closer to Hindi/Rajasthani than to Dardic. (Jarel sent a similar set.) R.
Bashkarik D.I. Edelman 1983, A (Ga:rwi d.Kohistani), V Bashkari:k, R, Eth d. Kalami GWC.
Tirahi D.I. Edelman 1983, V, R.
Torwali D.I. Edelman 1983, A d.Kohistani, V, R.
Wotapuri D.I. Edelman 1983 =Katarkalai, V Wotapu:ri:-Kata:rqala:i:, R.
Maiya D.I. Edelman 1983 =Mayan (also has Kanyawali d.), A d.Kohistani, V, R, Eth Kohistani.
Kalasha D.I. Edelman 1983, A, V Kalas.a, R.
Khowar Mohammad Ismail Sloan, web. Edelman, A, V, R.
Dameli D.I. Edelman 1983, V, R.
Gawar-bati D.I. Edelman 1983, A, V, R.
Pashai D.I. Edelman 1983, A, V, R.
Shumashti D.I. Edelman 1983, V Shuma:shti:, R.
Nangalami Georg Morgenstierne, Notes on Gawar-Bati 1950 =Ningalami. R.

Marathi Naresh B. Kavadi & Franklin C. Southworth, Spoken ~ 1965. A, R, V.
A d.De:shi: (V Desi), Na:gpuri: (V Varhadi-Nagpuri), Ko:nkani: (V Konkan).
Konkani Mariano Saldanha, Iniciação na Língua Concani 1950. R, A Ko:nkani: d.Marathi, V Konkan d.Marathi. Eth KNK but may be GOM Goanese.
. Sindhi Dalby. R, V, A.
A d.Vicho:li, La:ri:, Kachch'i:, all 3 listed in V as d.
Khatri. Paulo Bairos. Not in V or R.
-->Lahnda R, V, A. Also have an almost complete set from Hermann Berger, in Gvozdanovich 1992.
A d.Shahpur, Mu:lta:ni, Hindki:, T`ali:, D`anni:, Tina:uli:, Salt Range, Po:t'wa:ri:, Chib'a:li:, Punch`i:. V has d.names like Northeastern-- no help.
(K`e:tra:ni:) A. Not in R or V. Actually this seems to have disappeared from the list. Eth has it in `Lahnda' group.

Hindi/ Urdu R.S. McGregor 1972, corrected from Richard Delacy 1998 (checked against Devanagari, yes indeed). R (2 langs), V, A Western Hindi.
A also d.Vernacular, Dak'ini: (V Dakhini), Ba:ngaru: (V Bangaru), Braj B'a:k'a: (V Braj Bhakha; also RS), Kanauji (also V), Bunde:li: (V Bundeli; also RS), Bana:p'ari:..
Parya Jarel Deaton. R.
Punjabi C. Shackle, Teach Yourself ~ 1972. R, V Panjabi, A Pañja:bi:.
A also d.Po:wa:d'i:, Do:gri: (V Dogri-Kongri), Ka:ngra:.
Siraiki Dalby. Eth Saraiki.
Gujarati Textbook from UIC library. A, R, V.
A also d.Charo:tari: (V Charotari; also RS), Ka:t'iya:wa:di: (V Kathiyawadi), K'a:rwa: (V Kharwa), G`isa:di: (V Tarimuki).
-->Rajasthani (Marwari) R Marwari, V (calls Marwari as a d.), A.
A also d.Jaipuri: (V Central-eastern), Me:wa:ti (V Mewati), Gujuri: of Hazara (V Gujuri), Ma:lvi (V Mal(a)vi, also RS), Ni:ma:di: (V Nimadi), Lab'ani: of Berar.
Banjari (Lamani) Ronald L. Trail 1968 =Lamani. R, Eth Lambadi.
-->Malvi R, A/V d.Rajasthani.
>Gade Lohar Eth GDA
-->Bhili R, V, A.
-->Dogri R, A/R d.Punjabi; same numbers in Dalby (exc. transcript. diffs.). Eth ~-Kangri.
-->Kumauni In html listed as C Pahari since there's only one difference (a lengthened vowel on '6') from Garhwali A d.Central Paha:ri, R, V. Dalby's v. is the same.
-->Garhwali A d.Central Paha:ri, R, V.
W Pahari Hans Hendriksen 1986 =Himachali. A, R, V.
A d.Jaunsa:ri: (V Jaunsari), Sirmauri: (V Sirmauri; also RS), Bag`a:ti: (V Baghati), Kiu:t`ali: (V Kiuthali; also RS), Shodo:chi: (also RS), Kului: (V Kului), Mandea:li: (V Mandeali), Chamea:li: (V Chameali), Ga:di:, Pangwa:li:, B`adrawa:hi: (V Bradrawah; also RS), Pa:dari:.
-->Khandeshi V Khandesi, R, A K`a:nde:shi:.

Nepali Alice Irene Davis 1984 . R,V, A Eastern Paha:ri: or K'as-kura:.
Eastern Hindi A's d. are Awadhi, Bagheli, Chattisgarhi. C Kosali. V says dialects are Awadhi-Bagheli and Chhattisgarhi.
Awadhi Baburam Saksena, Evolution of ~ 1937 (= Lakhi:mpuri: d.). R, V d.Eastern Hindi, A d.Eastern Hindi.
. Chattisgarhi Dalby = A except for transcription diffs. C, A d.Eastern Hindi; not in R, V d.Eastern Hindi.
Bihari. V, R group (Maithili, Magahi, Bhojpuri). (Note: I had an entry for this, since C has it
and the following 3 as sep.languages. But my entry was just from A, which was an earlier form of Maithili.)
Nagpuria: A d.Bihari, V Nagpuri d.Bihari, not in R.
Maithili Alice Irene Davis 1984 . R, A Mait'ili: d.Bihari, V d.Bihari.
Magahi Dalby. R, A/V d.Bihari.
Bhojpuri Shaligram Shukla 1981. R, A 2 d.Bihari, V d.Bihari.
Sadani. Monika Jordan-Horstmann, ~ 1969. Eth SCK Sadri.

Oriya N.S.R. Ganathe 1976. R, V, A.
Bengali William Radice 1994. R, V, A.
A also d. Southwestern, Siripuria:, Eastern, Cachar, Chittagong, Cha:kma:. Can't find a few of these in V but no langs. in V or R are missing.
Assamese Upendranath Goswami, An Intro to ~ 1978. R, A, V d.Bengali.
Mayang Dalby (=Bishnupriya Manipuri); rel. Bengali. Not in V or R.

Elamite 330

Elamite+ Jarel Deaton. R in Dravidian; V says unaffiliated.

EURO Dravidian 330

Proto-Dravidian+ Kamil Zvelebil, Sketch of compar Dravidian morphology 1977.


Brahui Josef Elfenbein in Sanford Steever, The Dravidian lgs 1998. A, R, V.


. Kurukh Dalby. A, R, V.
Malto Sanford Steever 1998. A, R, V, Eth Sauria Paharia.



-->Kolami P.S. Subrahmanyam in Sanford Steever 1998 (1-6 only. These are f. forms-- m. and n. have Telugu borrowings). A, R, V. Also Jarel (#7-10). Eth E KFB, S NIT.
-->Naiki S. Bhattacharya 1961 (1-4 only-- rest from Marathi) R, Eth SE Kolami.
-->Parji Jarel Deaton (1-6 only) R, Eth Duruwa.
-->Gadaba Jarel Deaton (1-6, 10 only) R.


Telugu P.S. Subrahmanyam 1974. A, R, V.
>Savara Eth SVR


. Gondi Dalby. A, R, V, Eth N GON, S SGO.
Koya Jarel Deaton. R.
-->Konda Bh. Krishnamurti & Brett A. Benham in Sanford Steever 1998 (1-7 only; others Indic). R.
-->Manda T. Burrow & M.B. Emeneau, A Dravidian Etym Dict Supplement 1968 (JD: 1,2,4,5 only). R.
Pengo Jarel Deaton. R.
-->Kui A, R, V.
Kuvi Jarel Deaton. R.



. Tulu Dalby. A, R, V.
>Bellari Eth BRW
-->Koraga Jarel Deaton (missing #8,9). R, Eth Korra KFD, Mudu VMD.


Kannada Harold F. Schiffman. A, R, V.
Badaga Paul Hockings, Christiane Pilot-Raichoor 1992. A/V d.Kannada, R.
-->Kodagu A, R, V.
Kurumba Jarel Deaton. R.
Toda Murray Emeneau, ~ gram and texts 1984 A, R, V 800.
-->Kota A, R, V 900.
Malayalam Vidvan C.L. Meenakshi Amma 1976. A, R, V.
Tamil N. Jegtheesh 1967. A 3 d., R, V.
Vernacular Richard Crane (notes that above are from literary lg).
-->Irula A/V d.Tamil, R.


Nahali Franciscus Bernardus Jacobus Kuiper, ~: a compar study 1962. R, V.


Hunza Bertil Tikkanen. Eth Burushaski.
Tasin Dick Grune

MIDE Afro-Asiatic 320



Akkadian+ Campbell 1991


-->Kashka-Darya (Central Asia) Ivan Derzhanski (1-4 only).
Saudi Margaret K. Omar 1975
Yemeni Jarel Deaton
Syrian Mark W. Cowell 1964
Palestinian (not in list). Jarel Deaton. V. close to Syrian.
JD also has Gulf and Bahrain.
Lebanese Jarel Deaton. He also has a `Levantine' that's closer to Egyptian.
Cypriot Maronite Jarel Deaton
Iraqi Merrill Y Van Wagoner 1949
Egyptian Hilmi M. Aboul-Fetouh, A morphological study of ~ Colloquial Arabic 1969.
E Libyan Jarel Deaton.
Algerian (Darja) Lameen Souag, web.
Sudanese Jarel Deaton.
Moroccan Richard S. Hamell 1962
Zanzibari/Ormani Jarel Deaton
Nigerian Alan S. Kaye, A Dict of ~ Arabic 1982.
Phoenecian+ Campbell 1991
Ugaritic+ Jarel Deaton. R.
-->Moabite+ Jarel Deaton (some missing). R.
Classical Hebrew+ Henry Churchyard.
Modern Hebrew Campbell 1991
Aramaic+ William B. Stevenson 1924. R.
Modern Aramaic Jarel Deaton (note: u in 7 is really an u-ring; diacritic on tt in 6 is a little < under the letter). R.
Classical Syriac+ Campbell 1991
Syriac (Assyrian) R. Hart 1926. Also, G. V. Arsanis in SOV! (matches well). Eth AII Assyrian Neo-Aramaic.
-->Van Ivan Derzhanski (missing #8,9)


Old South Arabian+ Jarel Deaton =Sabaean. R.
South Arabian R.
Harsusi Jarel Deaton =Harsusi. Also have the very similar Mehri.
Sheri Jarel Deaton.
Socotri Jarel Deaton.

N Ethiopic
Geez+ Bender, Fulass, Cowley 1976. R, V.
Tigre Campbell 1991. R, V.
Beni Amer C.M.Watson 1888; d. spoken by the Beja.
Tigrinya Campbell 1991. R, V, Eth Tigrigna.

S Ethiopic
Amharic Grover Hudson 1989. R, V.
Argobba Jarel Deaton. R, V d. Amharic.
Harari Jarel Deaton. R, V d. East Gurage.
East Gurage Jarel Deaton (3 d.: Selti (shown), Wolane, Zway). R, V.
Gafat+ Jarel Deaton. R, V.
Soddo Robert Hetzron, The Gunnän-Gurage lgs 1977. V, R.
Goggot Robert Hetzron 1977. V Gogot, R.
Muher Jarel Deaton. R, V. Eth d. GUY West Gurage.
Masqan Jarel Deaton. R, V d. Peripheral West Gurage, Eth d. GUY.
Central West Gurage Wolf Leslau, Ethiopic documents: Gurage 1950; Chaha d. V, R, Eth d. GUY. Jarel has Chaha and Ezha d., differing only in #10 and #7 (Leslau's #7 is closer to Jarel's Ezha!)
Ennemor Robert Hetzron 1977. V and R as Peripheral West Gurage, Eth d. GUY.
Ezha. Jarel Deaton. V d. Peripheral West Gurage. Not interestingly diff. fr. others.


Egyptian+ Troy Sagrillo, U.Toronto; reconstructed form: Jarel Deaton.
Coptic+ Campbell 1991


Proto-Berber+ F.A. & B.W.W. Dombrowski in Alan S. Kaye 1991. I have another version, with more vowels, from Karl-G. Prase 1974.
For locations of Berber languages, see the map I added to Voegelin.


Guanche+ R, V.
Gran Canaria. Jarel Deaton.
Tenerife. Jarel Deaton.

East Numidian

>East Numidian (Old Libyan)


Tamahaq (Ahaggar). Jean-Marie Cortade, Lexique français-touareg; dialecte de l'Ahaggar 1967 =Ahaggar d. Jarel has this too, as Hoggar d. Tamahaq; but his #2 = sin. V Ahaggar d. Tuareg, R Tamahaq. Prase 1974 confirms that Ahaggar and Ghat speak Tamahaq and provides another Ahaggar.
Ghat Jarel Deaton. (Libya on S border w Algeria).
Tamazheq Jarel Deaton = Ioullemmeden d. V d. Tuareg, R Tamazheg. Prasse confirms that these dudes speak Tamazheq & mentions l'Ayvr-- prob. Aïr in Niger.
. Tamasheq Dalby: = ~ of Tayart (Aïr). Prasse's Tamasheq. JD also has 3 #'s from ~ of Adrar.
Jarel also has Kel-Ouï and Sergou, which we can't identify. [mail 11-18-98]


. Zenaga Jarel Deaton. R, V.


Chenoua Lameen Souag. Eth, not in R.

Tashelhit (Shilha) Robert Aspinion, Apprenons le berbère 1953. R, V, C Shluh, Eth Tachelhit.
Baamarani (Ifni) Esteban Ibañez, Dicc Esp-~ 1954.
Tamazight Paul Bisson, Leçons de berbère tamazight, dialecte des Aït Ndhir (Aït Nâaman) 1940. V one language, R has 3.
Figuig F. Maarten & G. Kossmann, Grammaire du parler berbère de ~ 1997. Geographically seems to fit here.
Ait Mgild. Have this from Jeanette Harries 1974.

Kabyle J.-M.Dallet, Dictionnaire kabyle-français : parler des At Mangellat, Algérie 1985. R, V. Non-Arabic 1-2 are from JD.

Ait Seghrushen Fernand Bentolila, Grammaire fonctionnelle d'un parler berbère 1981. It's just a guess where to put this.
Shawiya Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Chaouia.
>Tidikelt Eth TIA
-->Tuat Basset, "Notes de Lexicographie Berbère", J Asiatique 1887 (1-2 only; rest are Arabic; via Lameen Souag). R, Eth d. Taznatit GRR.
Tarifit (Riff) Ramón Menéndez Pidal 1944. R, V
Senhayi Esteban Ibañez, Diccionario español-senhayi (dialecto beraber de Senhaya de Srair) 1959 =Senhayi.
-->Ghmara Jarel Deaton (1-2, 7 only). R, Eth Ghomara.
>Tlemcen Not in Eth
>Sheliff Basin Not in Eth

-->Gurara Basset, "Notes de Lexicographie Berbère", J Asiatique 1887 (1-3 only; rest are Arabic; via Lameen Souag). R, Eth d. Taznatit.
Mzab René Basset 1893. R, V, Eth Tumzabt.
Wargla S.Biarnay 1908 =Ouargla. R, V Ouargla, Eth Tagargrent.
Ghardaia Jarel Deaton. R, Eth alt. or d. Mzab
>Tugurt Eth TJO Temacine Tamazight

East Zenati
>Tmagurt Eth d. next
Jerba Jarel Deaton. R, Eth JBN
>Tamezret Eth d. prev.
Not in Eth
Eth d. Jerba
-->Nefusi Jarel Deaton (missing #8,9). R, Eth Nafusi


-->Siwa W.Seymour Walker, Siwi language 1921. R, V.
Ghadames J.Lanfry, Ghadamès : étude linguistique et ethnographique 1968. R, V.
>Awjila Eth AUJ

Omotic 322


. Hamar Jarel Deaton. R.
Also a set from Ch which Jarel says is Banna d.
Ari Richard J. Hayward in Hayward, Omotic Lg Studies 1990. R.
Dime Harold Fleming in Hayward 1990. R.


Dizi Edward J.Allan in Bender, The Non-Semitic Lgs of Ethiopia 1976. R.
>Dorsha Eth d. next.
Shako Jarel Deaton. R.
Nao Jarel Deaton. R.

. Hozo M. Lionel Bender 1983 (#1-5 only); others from Ralph Siebert, Klaus & Charlotte Wedekind, Third SLLE Survey on Lgs of the Begi/Asosa Area SIL 2002. R.
Sezo M. Lionel Bender 1983 (#1-5 only); others from Siebert & Wedekind 2002 . R, Eth Seze
-->Bambeshi M. Lionel Bender 1983 (#1-5 only). R, Eth Bambassi
>Ganza Eth GZA

Kafa Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Kaficho
Mocha Wolf Leslau, A Dict of Mocha 1959 (prime for stress --> accent). R, Eth Shakacho
>Bosha eth d. Kafa
Anfillo Jarel Deaton. R.
>Naga Not in Eth
Eth d. next.
Shinasha (Boro) Franz Rottland in Hayward 1990. R.
Amuru K. Wedekind, Socioling survey report on the Amaru area of Ethiopia SIL 2002 (1-3, 5 only). R, Eth d. prev.

Janjero (Yemsa) Klaus Wedekind in Hayward 1990. R.
>Fuga Eth d. prev.
Bencho (Gimira) Mary J. Breeze in Hayward 1990. R.
She Jarel Deaton. R.
Chara Jarel Deaton. R.
Basketo Eugene S.L. Chan. R.
Makle Jarel Deaton. R.
-->Oyda Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R.
Walamo (Ometo) Grover Hudson in Bender 1976 =Welamo; #9-10 from Jarel. R Ometo; V.
Kullo Edward J.Allan in Bender 1976. V d.Walamo.
numbers.html has Kullo since Hudson only has eight numbers.
Zayse Richard J. Hayward in Hayward 1990. R, Eth ~-Zergulla
Zergulla Ralph Siebert & Lydia Hoeft, Socioling Survey Report of the Lgs of the Abbaya/Chamo Area of Ethiopia Part I SIL 2002. R, Eth d. prev.
Ganjule Siebert & Hoeft 2002. R, Eth d. Kachama-~.
-->Gidiccho Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, Eth could be BSW or KCX or KQY
Gatsame Jarel Deaton. R.
Koyra Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Koorete.

Cushitic 322


Beja Richard Hudson in Bender 1976. V, R, Eth Bedawi.
(Beja Leo Reinisch 1895.)
C.M.Watson 1888. V Handendowa (main) d.Beja.

Cushitic Proper

Central Cushitic
Awngi Jarel Deaton. R.
Xamir Jarel Deaton (also has Xamtanga wh. V sez = Xamir!). R, Eth Xamtanga.
Kemant (Falasha) Jarel Deaton (also has different sets Kemant, Falasha, Quara, Kaïliña... V sez some of these are the same!). R, Eth W Agaw.
Bilin Kifle Hamde on web =Blin. V, R, Eth Bilen.
Xamta Jarel Deaton. R, V d. Khamir, Eth alt. Xamir.

Eastern Cushitic
Proto-Highland East Cushitic+ Grover Hudson, Highland East Cushitic dictionary 1989.
Burji Grover Hudson 1989. R.
Gedeo Grover Hudson 1989. R.
Hadiyya Grover Hudson 1989. R.
Kambata Grover Hudson 1989. R.
Sidamo Grover Hudson 1989. R.

Yaaku Jarel Deaton. R.
>Harso Eth d. next.
Birale Harold Fleming et al., Jnl of Afro-Asiatic Lgs 1992. R.
Tsamay R.J. Hayward in Jnl of Afro-Asiatic Lgs 1989 =S'aamakko. Described as a new Dullay lg; but Tsamako is an old name for Tsamay. I also have Tsamay from M. Lionel Bender 1983 (#1-5 only); it's v. similar. R, V.

Afar Loren F. Bliese 1981. His ' turned into accents. R.
Saho Jarel Deaton. R.
Dasenech Hans-Jürgen Sasse in Bender 1976. R, Eth Daasanach.
Elmolo+ Jarel Deaton. R.
Arbore Dick Hayward, The ~ Lg 1984. R.
Bayso Ralph Siebert & Lydia Hoeft, Socioling Survey Report of the Lgs of the Abbaya/Chamo Area of Ethiopia Part I SIL 2002. R.
Rendille Jarel Deaton. R.
Somali Campbell 1991 . R.
Tunni Mauro Tosco, Af ~ 1997 (JD). V d. Somali.
Aweer Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Boni.
Oromo (Galla) Grover Hudson 1989. R, V Galla, Eth W-C. Oromo
Borana Bartolomeo Venturino 1976. V d.Galla, Eth GAX ~-Arsi-Guji
-->Bussa Klaus Wedekin, "Socioling survey report of the lgs of the Swawada (Dullay), Diraasha (Gidole), Muusiye (Buusa) Areas", SIL Electr Survey Reports 2002 (no #9). Eth DOX (w Dullay).
-->Gidole Wedekin 2002 (no #9). R, Eth GDL Dirasha.
Konso Eugene S.L. Chan. R, Eth Komso.

Southern Cushitic
. Dahalo NU libes (5-10 from JD). R.
Ma'a Derek Elderkin in Bender 1976. R, Eth Mbugu.
-->Asa Jarel Deaton (#1-5). R, Eth Aasáx.
-->Kw'adza Jarel Deaton (#1, 3-5, 9-10). R.
Iraqw Maarten Mous 1993. R.
-->Alagwa Jarel Deaton (missing 7, 8). R, Eth Wasi.
-->Burunge Jarel Deaton (missing 7, 8). R.

Chadic 320


Masa Kraft 1981 =Massa. R, V, Eth Masana.
-->Zime Jarel Deaton (1-5,10 only). R, Eth alt. LME Pevé or HED Herdé or NNN Ngeté!
Lame Kraft 1981. V sis. Masa, not in R, Eth d. Pevé
Mesme Kraft 1981 =Misme. R, not in V.
>Marba Eth MPG


Group A
Somrai Jarel Deaton. R.
Tumak Jarel Deaton (j's have hacheks). R.
Ndam Jarel Deaton. R.
Sarwa Jarel Deaton (j's have hacheks). R.
>Gadang Eth GDK
Eth d. Tumak
Miltu Jarel Deaton. R.
Nancere Carl Hoffman, J W Afr Lgs 1971. R.
Lele Carl Hoffman, J W Afr Lgs 1971. R.
Gabri Jarel Deaton =Tshire. R, V = Gabri
Kabalai Jarel Deaton. R.
Kera Jarel Deaton. R.

Group B
Mokulu (Mokilko) Hermann Jungraithmayr 1990 =Mokilko. R; Eth Mukulu.
-->Dangla Jarel Deaton (1-5,10 only). R, Eth Dangaléat
Migama Hermann Jungraithmayr & Abakar Adams 1992. R, Eth Migaama.
>Mahwa Eth MCW Mawa
-->Jegu Jarel Deaton (1-5,10 only). R, Eth JEU Jonkar Bourmataguil (or maybe d. next)
Mogum Eric Johnson & Cameron Hamson, "Mabire: a dying lg of Chad", SIL Electr Survey Reports 2002. Eth MOU
Bidiyo Khalil Alio & Hermann Jungraithmayr 1989 =Bidiya. R, V 'Bidyo.
Mubi Jarel Deaton. R.
>Masmaje Eth MES
Sokoro Jarel Deaton =Bendaga d. R.
Barain Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Barein
>Saba Eth SAA


Group A
Tera K Paul Newman 1967. R.
Jara C.K. Meek, Tribal Studies in Northern Nigeria 1931 (JD). R.
Ga'anda Kraft 1981 =Ga?anda. R, V.
Gabin Kraft 1981 =Ga?anda. V =Ga'anda.
Pidhimdi Kraft 1981. V prob.= Pilimdi =Hina, not in R.
Hona Kraft 1981 =Hwona. R, V d.Tera, Eth Hwana

Bura Kraft 1981. R.
Chibak Kraft 1981. R.
Putai Kraft 1981 (JD). R.
Margi Carl Hoffman 1963. R.
Kilba K Jerry A. Grieve 1973. R, Eth Huba.
Higi Kraft 1981 (5 d.). R, Eth Kamwe.
Bana Jarel Deaton. R.
Fali Kiria Kraft 1981 =Fali Kiria. V Fali of Kiria w Higi; not in R, Eth d. Higi
Fali Jilbu Kraft 1981 =Fali Jilbu. V Fali of Yilbu w Higi; not in R, Eth Zizilivakan

. Sukur Jarel Deaton (6-9 are from Meek 1976). R.
Lamang Ekkehard Wolff, A Gram of the ~ Lg 1983. R.
Hidé Paul Kazuhisa Eguchi, Matériaux pour servir à l'[ascii 163]étude de la lg ~ 1971. Not in R; Eth TUR sis. prev.
Mandara Kraft 1981. R, V. Also have this as Wandala, from Barth 1862. Eth Wandala
Paduko Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Parkwa
Glavda Kraft 1981 =Gelevda. R, not in V.
-->Guduf Jarel Deaton (1-5, 10 only). R.
Dghwede Kraft 1981 =Zeghvana (Duxwide). R, not in V.
Gvoko Jarel Deaton. R.
-->Mafa Jarel Deaton (1-5, 10 only). R.
Matakam (Mofu) Kraft 1981 =Matakam. R Mofu, V Matakam, Eth alt. Mafa.
Gisiga Jarel Deaton. R, Eth S GIZ, N GIS
Mada Jarel Deaton. R.
Hurza Jarel Deaton. R, Eth d. MLR Pelasla.
Muktele Jarel Deaton. R.

Daba K Kraft 1981. R.
Gawar Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Gavar.
Hina Jarel Deaton. R. Eth Mina.

Gudu Kraft 1981. R, V.
Bata Jarel Deaton. R.
Gude Kraft 1981. R.
Nzangi Kraft 1981 =Njanye. R, V Njai, Eth Nyanyi
Bacama Kraft 1981 =Bacama. Not in R, V Bachama w Bata

Group B
Musgu Jarel Deaton. R.
Mbara Henry Tourneux, Christian Seignobos, Francine Laforge 1986. Not in V or R.
Gidar Jarel Deaton. R.
Buduma Jarel Deaton. R.
-->Logone Bartg 1862. R, V d.Kotoko, Eth Lagwan d. prev.
Kotoko Jarel Deaton: 3 d.: Affade, Mackeri, Nghala. R, V Afade, Makari, Ngala


Group A
Hausa Roxana Ma Newman 1990. R, V.
Gwandara Shuji Matsushita (Karshi d.-- he has all d.s). R, V.
Nimbia Shuji Matsushita d. Gwandara. Duodecimal.

Karekare Kraft 1981. R.
Bole Kraft 1981. R.
Bele Russell G. Schuh, Marburger Studien Zur Afrika und Asienkunde 13, 1978 (JD). R, Eth Beele.
Ngamo Kraft 1981. R.
Maha Paul Newman, J W Afr Lgs 1965. R, Eth Maaka.
Kirfi Schuh 1978 (JD). R, Eth Giiwo.
>Deno Eth DBB
Galambu Schuh 1978 (JD). R.
Gera Kraft 1981. R.
Kanakuru Kraft 1981 =Dera. R, V, Eth Dera.
Tangale Kraft 1981. R.
Pero Kraft 1981. R.
>Kupto Eth KPA Kutto

-->Gerka JFJL Fitzpatrick in M =Gurka. R, Eth Yiwom.
Angas K D.A. Burquest 1973. R, Eth Ngas.
Sura Kraft 1981. R, Eth Mwaghavul
Kofyar Jarel Deaton. R.
Chip Kraft 1981. R, Eth Miship
Ankwe (Goemai) Kraft 1981. V, R Goemai.
-->Montol JFJL Fitzpatrick in M. R.
-->Tal Jarel Deaton (1-5, 10 only). R.
>Pyapun Eth PCW

Fyer Hermann Jungraithmayr, Die Ron Sprachen 1970 (JD). R, not in V.
Tambas Jungraithmayr 1970 (JD). Not in R or V, but Eth says sis. Fyer.
Ron (Bokkos & Daffo d.) Jungraithmayr 1970 (JD) (also has Butura, v. close to Daffo). R, V.
Sha Jungraithmayr 1970 (JD). R, not in V.
Mundat Jarel Deaton. Not in R or V; Eth has in "Ron Proper" group.
Kulere Jungraithmayr 1970 (JD). R, not in V.
>Karfa Eth KBZ Duhwa
Eth d. Ron

Group B
-->Duwai Koelle 1854 in M =Gurka. R.
Bade Kraft 1981. R.
Ngizim Kraft 1981. R.
-->Warji Jarel Deaton (1-5, 10 only). R.
Pa'a Jarel Deaton. R.
-->Siri Jarel Deaton (1-5, 10 only; underlines are under vertical marks). R.
Diri Kraft 1981 =Dira. R.
-->Jimbin Jarel Deaton (1-5, 10 only). R, Eth Zumbun.
Miya Kraft 1981. R.
-->Mburku Jarel Deaton (1-5, 10 only). R.
-->Kariya Jarel Deaton (1-5, 10 only). R.
-->Tsagu Jarel Deaton (1-5, 10 only). R.

Boghom (Burma) Kraft 1981 =Burma. R (& Eth) Boghom.
Mangas Jarel Deaton. R.
Guruntum Jarel Deaton. R.
Ju Jarel Deaton. R.
Geji Kraft 1981. R.
Dwot Kraft 1981. Not in R or V, Eth Dass.
Polchi Kraft 1981 =Pelci. R, Eth Polci.
Buli Kraft 1981. Eth d. prev. Not in R.
Seya (Zaar) Kraft 1981 =Seya. Eth Saya.
Zeem Jarel Deaton. R.
>Barawa Eth alt. Dwot


Sumerian Campbell 1991


Ancient Basque+ Antonio Tolosa
Basque Miguel Carrasquer Vidal. JD sez this is Guipuzcoa.
Navarro-Labourdin. Jarel-- just #2-4 differ.


Etruscan+ Adolfo Zavaroni.


Hurrian+ E. Benveniste in Meillet & Cohen, Les Langues du Monde 1952. R.


Meroitic+ Jarel Deaton (sez #2 is only one attested). R.

MIDE Caucasian 324


Ubykh Georges Charachidze in B. George Hewitt 1989. R Ubyx.
Abkhaz B. George Hewitt in B. George Hewitt 1989. R Abxaz.
Abaza Ketevan Lomtatidze & Rauf Klychev in B. George Hewitt 1989; #5 which I stupidly forgot to copy is from Jarel Deaton. R.
Kabard-Cherkes Ketevan Lomtatidze & Rauf Klychev in B. George Hewitt 1989. R Kabardian.
Adygh Catherine Paris in B. George Hewitt 1989. R, Eth Adyghe.



Proto-Nakh+ Sergei Starostin. R.
Chechen Campbell. R.
Ingush Johanna Nichols 1996, web. R.
Bats Sergei Starostin. R.


Avar Sergei Starostin. R.
Andi Sergei Starostin. R.
Botlix Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Botlikh.
Godoberi Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Ghodoberi.
Chamalal Sergei Starostin; = Jarel's Gakvari d.; Jarel also has Gigatl d. R, V, Eth Chamalal
Bagulal Sergei Starostin. R, Eth Bagvalal.
Tindi Sergei Starostin. R.
Karata Sergei Starostin. R.
Axvax Sergei Starostin. R, Eth Akhvakh.
Xvarshi Sergei Starostin (2 d.). R, Eth Khvarshi.
Dido (Tsezi) Jarel Deaton; spelling corrected to match Starostin. R.
Hinux Jarel Deaton; spelling corrected to match Starostin. R, Eth Hinukh
Bezhta Sergei Starostin. R.
Hunzib Jarel Deaton; spelling corrected to match Starostin. R.

Lak Campbell 1991; also L.I. Zhirkov 1955 (matches, but it's in Cyrillic). R.
Dargwa Sergei Starostin (2 d.). R.

Archi Sergei Starostin. R.
Xinalug Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Khinalugh
Lezgian Martin Haspelmath 1993; ' --> ., sad --> sa, p --> p: to match Starostin. R/Eth Lezgi.
Tabasaran Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Tabassaran.
Agul Sergei Starostin. R, Eth Aghul.
Rutul Sergei Starostin. R.
Tsaxur Sergei Starostin. R, Eth Tsakhur.
Kryts Sergei Starostin. R.
Budux Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Budukh.
Udi sci.lang; spelling corrected to match Starostin. R.

MIDE Kartvelian

Georgian Howard I. Aronson in Alice C. Harris 1991. R. The Harris volume (The Indigenous Lgs of the Caucasus) also has Old Georgian but only #6, 8, 9 are different. R.
Mingrelian Campbell 1991. R.
Svan Karl Horst Schmidt in Alice C. Harris 1991, with v for his w and o: for o: in the manner of Campbell 1991. R.
Laz Dee Ann Holisky in Alice C. Harris 1991. R.

NILO Nilo-Saharan 317,264

East Sudanic


Old Nubian+ Gerald M. Browne 1989 (#9 from Helmut Satzinger). Not in R or V.
Meidob Robin Thelwall in M.L. Bender 1983. R, Eth Midob.
. Birgid Jarel Deaton (looks old). R, Eth Birked.
Debri Robin E.W. Thelwall, "Lexicostatistical Relations between Nubian, Daju, and Dinka", in Etudes Nubiennes 1978 (JD). R, Eth d. Dilling.
Dongolawi Jarel Deaton. R. JD also has a Kenzi-Doungoulawi; Eth Kenzi-Dongola.
Mahas Yusuf Simbaj, al-Qamus al-Nubi 1998 (JD) =Fadiga-Meahus. Campbell's "Nubian" is Mahas. Eth Fiyadikka d. Nobiin.

Mursi David Turton & M.L.Bender in Bender 1976. V Murzu, not in R.
Murle R.E. Lyth 1971. V, R.
Bale Moges Yigezu and Gerrit J. Dimmendaal in Dimmendaal and Marco Last, Surmic Lgs and Cultures 1998 (JD). R, Eth d. KOE Kacipo-Balesi.
>Zilmamu Eth d. prev.
Majang Jarel Deaton. R.
Shabo Jarel Deaton. R. R has Mikeyir in index but not list, and Peter Unseth of SIL says they're the same thing.
Kwegu Osamu Hieda in Dimmendaal and Last 1998 (JD; see Bale). R.
Suri Deborah Lucassen in Dimmendaal and Last 1998 (JD). R.
Me'en Jarel Deaton. R.

Nera E. David Thompson in Bender 1976. R, Eth Nara.

Gaam Malik Agaar Ayre & M. Lionel Bender 1980. R.
Aka E.E. Evans-Pritchard, "Ethnological Observations in Dar Fung", in Sudan Notes and Records vol XV P.I. 1932 (JD). R.
Kelo Evans-Pritchard 1932 (JD). R.
Molo Evans-Pritchard 1932 (JD). R.


-->Nyimang Jarel Deaton (missing 9,10). R, Eth Ama.
>Dinik Eth AFT Afitti
Eth Temein
not in Eth
not in Eth
Merarit Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Mararit.
Tama John T. Edgar 1989. R, V.
Erenga John T. Edgar 1989. V d. Tama.
>Sungor Eth d. SUN Assangori
Miisiirii John T. Edgar 1989. Not in V or R; sim. to Tama and Erenga; Eth Jabaal d. Tama
Shatt Jarel Deaton. R.
Liguri Jarel Deaton. R Eth Logorik.
>Mongo Eth d. next.
Sila Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Sila Daju.
Nyala Jarel Deaton. R Eth this and next dd. Dar Fur Daju.
Lagawa Jarel Deaton. R.
>Nyalgulgule Eth NJL Njalgulgule


Shilluk Diedrich Westermann, A Short Gram of the ~ Lg 1910. R.
Anuak Marie Lusted in Bender 1976 =Anywa. V, R.
>Jur Eth LWO Luwo
Eth BXB Belanda ~
Maban Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Mabaan.
Burun Jarel Deaton. R.
>Labwor Eth d. Acholi below.
Eth one of Luo, Luwo, Acholi, ...
Luo R.L.Stafford 1967
Alur Joseph Ukoko, Jan Knappert, Marcel van Spaandonck, Essai de Dict Dho Alur 1964. R.
Lango Michael Noonan 1992. R.
Akoli P. Carlo Muratori, Grammática Lotuxo 1938 =Acoli. R/Eth Acholi, V.

Nuer Jarel Deaton. R.
>Atuot Eth ATU Reel
-->Dinka Campbell 1991. V d. Padang. R fa (consisting of following 5); Eth fa.
-->Agar Jarel Deaton (1-3, 8 only). R Eth S Central Dinka.
>Bor Eth DIN SE Dinka
Eth DIP NE Dinka
Rek Jarel Deaton. R Eth SW Dinka.
>Kumam Eth KDI

Bari P. Carlo Muratori 1938. R, V.
-->Kakwa Jarel Deaton (#1-5 only). R.
Lotuxo P. Carlo Muratori 1938. R, V Lotuho, Eth Otuho.
Ongamo Jarel Deaton. R, Eth d. NSG Ngasa.
Maasai Campbell 1991. R.
Turkana Gerrit Jan Dimmendaal, The ~ Lg 1983 (JD). R.
Teso Dalby. R.
>Topotha Eth TOQ Toposa
Karamojong P. Carlo Muratori 1938 =Karimojong. R, V.

Nandi A.C. Hollis 1909. R, Eth fa.
Kipsikiis Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Kipsigis d. KLN Kalenjin.
Keiyo Jarel Deaton. R Eth d. prev.
Tuken Jarel Deaton. R, Eth N Tugen.
Markweta Jarel Deaton. R Eth ENB Endo or TLE Talai.
Sapiny Jarel Deaton. R Eth d. KPZ Kupsabiny.
Kony Jarel Deaton. R Eth Koony d. next.
Pok Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Book d. SPY Sabaot.
Ng'oma Jarel Deaton. R, not in Eth.
Terik Jarel Deaton. R Eth d. KLN Kalenjin.
-->Okiek Jarel Deaton (missing #9). R.
Pokot P. José Flores 1982. V, R Pakot, Eth Pokoot.
-->Omotik Jarel Deaton (missing 7, 9). R.
Datooga Jarel Deaton. R.


Ik Jarel Deaton. R.
So Eithne Carlin 1993. R, Eth Soo.
-->Ngangea Jarel Deaton (missing #7-9). R, Eth Nyang'i.

Central Sudanic


Kresh Jarel Deaton (Also has Dongo d.). R, Also has Dongo d.Obaya.
Aja Jarel Deaton. R.
Baka Stefano Santandrea 1970. R, V.
-->Beli Jarel Deaton (missing 6-9). R.
Bongo Stefano Santandrea 1970. R, V.
-->Morokodo Jarel Deaton (missing 6-9). R.
>Sinyar Eth SYS
-->Vale Jarel Deaton (missing #6-9). R.
Gambai Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Ngambay.
Kaba Jarel Deaton (j's have hachek). R, Eth KSP or another Kaba.
Kaba Dunjo Jarel Deaton (j's have hachek). R, Eth Sara Dunjo.
Mbai Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Mbay.
Sara Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Sar if it's not a d. Gula.
>Babalia Eth BXV Berakou
Babahi Jarel Deaton (j's have hachek). Not in R or V, unless it's Babalia which both have.
Bagirmi Jarel Deaton. R.
>Fongoro Eth FGR
Eth alt. Fongoro
Gula Jarel Deaton. R.
Kenga Jarel Deaton. R.
Kuka Jarel Deaton. R, Eth d. MNE Naba.
>Furu Eth FUU
Yulu Stefano Santandrea 1970. R, V Yulu-Binga.
Kara Stefano Santandrea 1970. R, V, Eth alt. Gula.


Moru A.N. Tucker, The Eastern Sudanic Lgs 1940 (Miza d.; 4 others). R, V.
Avukaya A.N. Tucker 1940 (Ojila d.; also Ojiga). R, V, Eth Avokaya.
Logo A.N. Tucker 1940. R, V.
Kaliko A.N. Tucker 1940 =Keliko. R, V Käliko, Eth Keliko.
Logbara Jarel Deaton. R, V High Lugbara, Eth Logbara.
Madi A.N. Tucker 1940 (Lokai d.; 2 others). R, V Ma'di.
Lendu Constance Kutsch Lojenga 1994 =Ngiti d. Lendu. R Balendru, V.
Mangbetu Jarel Deaton. R.
>Asua Eth ASV Asoa
Mamvu Jarel Deaton. R.
Lese Jarel Deaton (a pygmy d.). V d. Mamvu-Efe.
>Mangbutu Eth MDK


Berta Jarel Deaton (4 d.; I'm skipping one). R, Eth WTI.


Kunama Jarel Deaton. R.


Gumuz (Bega) Jarel Deaton (4 d.). R Bega, V Gumuz.
-->Anej Jarel Deaton (old source). R, Eth Gule.
Kwama Klaus & Charlotte Wedekind, Socioling survey report on lgs of the Asosa - Begi - Komosha area part 2 SIL 2002. R, V Koma.
Madin Corfield 1938 (see below; JD). V d. Kwama, Eth alt. Komo.
. Opo F.D. Corfield, "The Koma", in Sudan Notes and Records vol XXI, 1938 (JD: this is Kusgilo; also has Buldiit). R, Eth Opuuo.
Komo Wedekind 2002. R, V Central Koma.
-->Twampa Jarel Deaton (1-6, 10 only). R, Eth Uduk.


Kanuri Centre for the Study of Nigerian Languages, The standard ~ orthography, 1979; numbers 2, 6, 7 are from P.A.Benton 1917. R, Eth C ~.
Kanembu Jarel Deaton. R.
Teda Barth 1862. V, not in R, Eth Tedaga.
Zagawa Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Zaghawa.
Berti Jarel Deaton. R.


Maba John T. Edgar 1991. R Mabang, V.
Masalit John T. Edgar 1989. R Mesalit, V.
Aika John T. Edgar 1991. Not in V or R or Eth.
Runga Jarel Deaton. R.
Kibet John T. Edgar 1991. R, V w E Sudanic.
Mimi (Gaudefroy) John T. Edgar 1991. R (has 2 of them), V.
Mimi (Nachtigal) Jarel Deaton. R.


Songhai (Saharan) Mamadou Konare 1971. M (also gives Zaberma d.), V, Eth prob. Kayruboro Senni Songhay.
Zarma David Bellama 1976. V d. Songhai.
Dendi Petr Zima 1994. V d. Songhai.


-->Fur V.
>Biltine Eth AMJ Amdang

NILO Khoisan 301

Hadza Jarel Deaton. R.
Sandawe Ryohei Kagaya 1993. R.

Southern Africa


. !Kung Campbell 1991. R Qxû, V Kung, often sp. !xu~, Eth Kung-Ekoka.
Zhu|'hõasi J.W. Snyman 1980. #4 from Patrick Dickens Dict 1994. V Dz,u/'oãsi d. !Kung, Eth Ju/'hoan
tAu.//eî Jarel Deaton. R, Eth /Kx'au//'ein.
>Maligo R, Eth MJW.
>Ekoka R, Eth alt Kung.


Proto-Central Khoisan+ K.L. Baucom 1972.
Hietso K.L. Baucom 1972. Not in V or R.
t'oxoku K.L. Baucom 1972. Not in V or R.

Nama Campbell 1991; also Damara d. (diff. orthog.) in Oxford U Press 1991.
Korana (!Ora) J.A. Low in Vossen and Keuthmann, eds., Contemporary Studies on Khoisan 1986 (JD); also C. Meinhof 1930. V, R !Ora.
Dama Jarel Deaton. R, Eth alt. Nama.
-->Xiri+ Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R.

Hai.n//um Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Hai//om.

>Kwadi R, Eth KWZ.

G//abake Jarel Deaton. R, Eth alt. next.
>Kwee Eth Hietshwane
Eth GNE Ganádi
Eth d. prev.
Eth HNH /Anda
Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Kxoe.
G//ana Jiro Tanaka 1978. R, Eth //Gana
Nharo Alan Bernard 1985. V Naron, R Naron, Eth Nar.
G/wi Jiro Tanaka 1978
>G//ani not in Eth
Eth d. Naro


!Xóõ (tHua) Anthony Traill 1984
>!Ô Eth poss. HUC /Hua
Eth alt. Ng/amai d. !xóõ
//Ng.!'e Dorothea F. Bleek, A Bushman Dict 1956 (JD). R.
N/huki Bleek 1956 (JD). R, Eth N/u.
//Xekwi Bleek 1956 (JD). R, Eth //Xegwi.
//Xam+ Bleek 1956 (JD). R, Eth /Xam.

NILO Kordofanian 302


>Tulishi Eth TEY
-->Miri Jarel Deaton (old source). R, Eth d. next. For this and next I write o e for o e.
-->Kadugli Jarel Deaton (old source). R, Eth d. KAT Katcha-~-Miri.
Katcha Roland Stevenson, on web. R, Eth d. prev.
>Tumma Eth TBQ
Krongo Mechthild Reh 1985. R.
Tumtum Jarel Deaton. R.

Kordofanian proper


Katla Jarel Deaton. R.
Tima Meinhof 1915 (JD; see Tegali). R.


Ko Thilo C. Schadeberg, A Survey of Kordofanian 1981. R.
Warnang Thilo C. Schadeberg 1981. R.
Rere Thilo C. Schadeberg 1981. R, Eth Koalib.
Utoro Thilo C. Schadeberg 1981. R, Eth Otoro.
Logol Thilo C. Schadeberg 1981. R.
Ebang Thilo C. Schadeberg 1981. R, Eth Heiban.
Laru Thilo C. Schadeberg 1981. R, Eth Laro.
Shirumba Thilo C. Schadeberg 1981. R, Eth Shwai.
Tiro Thilo C. Schadeberg 1981. R, Eth Tira.
Moro Thilo C. Schadeberg 1981. R.


Tegem Thilo C. Schadeberg 1981 (v2). R, Eth d. next.
Lafofa Thilo C. Schadeberg 1981 (v2). V; not in R.
Nding Thilo C. Schadeberg 1981 (v2). R.
-->Jomang Thilo C. Schadeberg 1981 (v2) (1-3 only). R, Eth Talodi.
Tocho Thilo C. Schadeberg 1981 (v2). R.
Ngile Thilo C. Schadeberg 1981 (v2). R.
-->Dengebu Thilo C. Schadeberg 1981 (v2) (1-5 only). R, Eth Dagik.


Tegali Carl Meinhof, "Sprachstudien im egyptischen Sudan", in Zeitschift für Kolonialsprachen vol. 5-6, 1915-6 (JD). R.
Tagoi Meinhof 1915 (JD). R.
>Tingal Eth TIG
Eth d. Tagoi
Eth d. Tagoi

NIGER Niger-Congo

Mande 302, 219


-->Sya Frederick W.H.Migeod 1911. V, R Bobo-Fing, Eth BBO N Bobo Mandaré, BWQ S Bobo Mandaré-- Sya is given as a d. both!


Soninke Christian Girier, Enseignement du ~, n.d. (1970s). M, V, R.
-->Bozo Frederick W.H.Migeod 1911 . M, V d.Soninke, R. Eth one of BZE Sorogama ~, BOO Tièma Cièwè ~, BOZ Tiéyaxo ~, BZX Hainyaxo ~.
-->Susu Frederick W.H.Migeod 1911 . M, V, R.
-->Yalunka Jarel Deaton (#1-5 only; #6-10 from M). R.
-->Ligbi Frederick W.H.Migeod 1911 . M, V, R.
Numu (Huela) K Andrew & Janet Persson =Ligbi Brawhani d. M Numu, V Numu d.Huela, R Numu. The Perssons say Ligbi, Wela, Numu are a single lg. Eth saya Huela is a d. Ligbi and Numu is a lg of blacksmiths.
-->Kono Frederick W.H.Migeod 1911 . M Konno, V, R.
Vai William E. Welmers 1976. M, V, R.
Mandinka Denis Creissels, Élements de Gram de la Lg ~ 1983. R.
Xasonke Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Xaasongaxango.
Malinke Jarel Deaton (2 d). M, V Malinka, R Maninka or Mandinka, Eth W Maninkankan. I also have this from Ebrima S.Y. Colley 1995, but without tones.
Bambara Campbell 1991 . M, V, Eth Bamanankan.
Dyula C. Braconnier, M.J. Derive, Petit Dict Dioula 1978. M, V, R, Eth Jula.


Loko Gordon Innes, Afr Lg studies 1961. M Lokko, V, R.
Loma M Buzi, V, R.
Kpelle Campbell 1991 (#8-9 from JD). M =? Kpwesi, V, R. Eth KPE Liberia ~ (bigger), GKP Guinea ~.
Mende Richard A. Spears 1967. M, R, V.
-->Bandi Frederick W.H.Migeod 1911 . M Gbandi, V d.Mende, R.


-->Mano V, M Gbele, R.
Dan K Eva Flik & Margrit Bolli 1973 =Yakouba. R.
Gwio. M; prob. = Gio d. Dan in K and V. Almost identical to Gbele. Eth alt. Dan.
Kweni Jean-Paul Benoist 1968 =Gouro. M, V, R, Eth Guro.
-->Gbin M; V Gban d.Kweni. Eth Gagu.
Beng Alma Gottlieb & M. Lynne Murphy, ~-Engl Dict 1995. Also M Ngan.
-->Mwa Frederick W.H.Migeod 1911 =Mwin, V, R, Eth Mwan.
Nwa K Philip L. Ravenhill 1974 =Wan. R, Eth Wan.
Tura K Thomas Bearth 1973 =Toura. R, V d. Kweni, Eth Toura.


Bisa K A.J. Naden 1973. R, Eth Bissa.
Busa Jarel Deaton. R.
Samo (Toma) Jarel Deaton (also has similar Kouy d.). V, R one of San or Sane, Eth S Samo.
Sembla André Prost 1971. V d. Samo wh. in R is divided into San and Sane, Eth Seeku.
>San, Sane R, Eth both alt. Samo.

West Atlantic 303, 28


-->Bijago Frederick W.H.Migeod 1911. = Bisogo (Ankaras, Wun), V, R, Eth Bidyogo.


Fulani K D.W. Arnott 1968 =Fula. M Fula (Western), V Ful, R Fula. Eth Pulaar.
Maasani Don Osborn. V Macina d. Fula. Eth Maasina d. Fulfulde.
Serer K Walter J. Pichl 1973. M Sorer-si:n, V Sin d.Serer. R Serer, Eth ~-Sine.
Wolof Sierra Dem 1995. M, V.

Falor K Walter J. Pichl 1973. R, Eth Palor.
Lehar K Walter J. Pichl 1973. R.
Ndut K Walter J. Pichl 1973. R.
Non K Walter J. Pichl 1973. R, Eth Noon.
Safan K Walter J. Pichl 1973 =Safen. R, Eth Saafi-Saafi.

Balant W.A.A. Wilson, Afr Lg Studies 1961. R.
Ganja Geneviève N'Diaye-Correard, Études Fca ou Balante 1970. R.
Mankanya Mirjana Trifkovich, Le Mancagne 1969. My dj and ñ are her d n. V, R Mankan.
Manjaku António Carreira & João Basso Marques 1947. R, V, Eth Mandjak.
-->Papel Koelle 1854 in M =Pepel. R.
-->Bayot Jarel Deaton (missing 6-10). R.
-->Karon Cowan 1953 (see Mantion). (missing 6-10). R.
-->Kwatay Jarel Deaton (missing 6-8,10). R, Eth Kuwaataay.
Diola K J. David Sapir 1973. V, R, Eth Jola-Foguy.
-->Gusilay Jarel Deaton (missing 6-8,10). R.

E Senegal-Guinea-Bissau
Badyara K Gisèle Ducos 1974 =Pajade. R, V.
-->Banyun Koelle 1854 in M. R, Eth BAB is biggest of three lgs.
Bassari Marie-Paule Ferry 1991. R.
Bedik Marie-Paule Ferry 1991. R, Eth Budik.
Biafada W.A.A. Wilson, J of W Afr Lgs XXIII.2 1993. V, R.
-->Kasanga W.A.A. Wilson, "Numeration in the lgs of Guiné," Africa 31, 1961 (PP; incomplete). R.
-->Kobiana Wilson 1961 (PP; incomplete). R.
Konyagi Marie-Paule Ferry 1991. R, Eth Wamei.

>Baga Mboteni R, Eth BGM
-->Mbulungish M =Baga-Fore. R, V.
-->Nalu HJ. V, R.


>Sua R, Eth Mansoanka
-->Limba Frederick W.H.Migeod 1911 M, R, V.
-->Gola Frederick W.H.Migeod 1911 M Gora, R, V.
Baga Binari Jarel Deaton (I used e o for his e/o with under dot). R.
>Baga Koga R, Eth BGO
>Baga Maduri
R, Eth BMD
>Baga Sitemu
R, Eth BSP
>Baga Sobane
R, Eth BSV
R, Eth d. Themne
Landuma M =Landuman. R.
Temne David Dalby, J W Afr Lgs 1966. M, R, V Temen (prob.a typo), Eth Themne
Bom Melinda Lamberty, A Sociololing survey of Bum 2002. R, Eth BMF
N Bullom K Walter J. Pichl 1973 =Mmani. Frederick W.H.Migeod 1911. M Bullom, V, R, Eth Bullom So
S Bullom K Walter J. Pichl 1973 =Sherbro. M Bullom (Sherbro), V, R, Eth Sherbro.
Kisi K Walter J. Pichl 1973 =Kissi. M, V, R. Eth one of KQS N (Guinea), KSS S (Liberia)
Krim K Walter J. Pichl 1973. R.

North Central

Kru 304, 207

Aizi Lynell Marchese, Atlas linguistique kru 1983. R, Eth AHI (biggest of 3).
Kuwaa Marchese 1983. R, Eth BLH
Seme André Prost 1964. R, Eth SIF Siamou.

-->Bakwe Frederick W.H.Migeod 1911 . M (Obwa, Obli, N.Kwati, Ba(nyua)), V.
Hwane. M, V d.Bakwe, Eth HWA Wané.
(Bereby M, V Abriwi d.Bakwe, Eth region for PYE Pye Krumen)
(Sikon M, not in V or R, Eth prob. Sinkon d. KRN Sapo)
(Padebu M, not in V or R or Eth.)
Bete V, R 1 lg, Eth four as Bété. M has Bete of Gozrobwe plus Gibo. Banya (dd. of ~ in V)
>Gagnoa Eth BTG
>Kouya Eth KYF
Guiberoua Marchese 1983. Eth BET
Daloa Marchese 1983. Eth BEV
Godie K Lynell Marchese & Carol Gratrix, 1974. R, M Godye (4 d.), V Godye d. Bete, Eth GOD
Dida Pierre Vogler, Le parler Vata 1987. R, V d. Bete, Eth DIC
Yocoboué Marchese 1983 = Dida of Lozoua. Not in R, Eth GUD
Neyo Marchese 1983. M, V d.Bete, Eth NEY
Kwadya M Kwadre or Kwadya, 3 d.; V d.Bete, Eth KWP Kodia

-->Basa Marchese 1983 (#1-5); rest M (2 unnamed dd.), V, Eth BAS
Dewoin Marchese 1983. R, M De, V De.
Gbe M, not in V or R, Eth GGB Gbii.

Oubi Marchese 1983. Not in R, Eth Glio-Oubi OUB
Plapo M, V Plawi d. Bakwe, Eth ~ Krumen KTJ
>Krumen Pye Not in R, Eth PYE
Tepo K Keith Dawson 1973 =Kruman. M, V Tewi d. Grebo, Eth Krumen Tepo TED
Grebo Gordon Innes 1996; #8-10 from Marchese. M (3 unnamed d.), V, Eth has five: Gboloo GEC, N GRB biggest, S GRJ, C GRV, Barclayville GRY

Kru Marchese 1983. V Kru-Krawi, M Krao (3 unnamed d.), Eth Klao KLU; R has Kru (= Eth alt. Klao), Klau, and Peripheral Klau (not in Eth or V).
>Tajuason R, Eth Tajuasohn KRU

>Daho-Doo DAS, Glaro-Twabo GLR, Sapo KRN, W Wè WEC-- none in R
-->Konobo Marchese 1983 (no #2,7,9). R, Eth KQO E Krahn
>W Krahn Not in R, Eth KRW
Guere Marchese 1983. R, Eth GXX S Wè
Nyabwa Marchese 1983. R, Eth NIA
Wobé K Verena Hofer & Christa Link 1973. R, Eth WOB N Wè


Dogon Geneviève Calame-Griaule 1968

Gur (Voltaic) 304,150

Bariba André Prost 1979 =Baatonum. R, V Bargu.

-->Kulango Frederick W.H.Migeod 1911 . M, V, R. Eth KZC Bondoukou ~ (bigger), NKU Bouna ~
(Western Brong. M. V has a Brong that's w Twi, but it's quite different-- M's W.Brong (he also has a Brong w Twi) is very close to Kulango. Not in Eth.)
Lorhon K Ingrid Person 1973. R, Eth Tèèn.

Tusya André Prost 1964 (Toussiana d.). R, Eth WIB S Toussian; also has N TSP.
Senari André Prost 1964 (JD). R.
-->Palaka Frederick W.H.Migeod 1911. V Palara, M Kpalakha, R.
Nafana K Dean & Carol Jordan 1975 =Nafaara. M, R, V Pantera, Eth Nafaanra
>Tyeliri R, Eth d. SEF Cebaara
R, Eth TIQ
R, Eth d. SEF
Karaboro André Prost 1964 (Tenyer d.). R, Eth W KZA; it also has E KAR.
Viemo André Prost 1979. R.
Wara André Prost 1968. R.
Natioro André Prost 1968. R.
Suppire Robert Carlson 1994 =Supyire. R, Eth Supyire.
Mianka Jarel Deaton. R, Eth d. MYK Mamara
-->Dyimini Frederick W.H.Migeod 1911. =Gwimini, V, R, Eth Djimini
Foro. M, V Folo d.Dyimini, which is also R's name. Eth poss. Foolo d. prev.
Bamana. M, not in V or R. Similar to Foro. Eth Mamara (see Mianka).
-->Tagbana Frederick W.H.Migeod 1911.=Takponin, V, R, Eth Tagwana.
Tafile. M, V/Eth Tafire d.Tagbana.

Kurumfe Jarel? R, Eth Koromfé.
Bwamu John & Carol Berthelette, Socioling Survey Report for the ~ Lg 2001. R, Eth BOX.

Buli-Koma(Jelanga, Guresa. In M; definitely in K-O-V. 2nd is like M's Kanjargo. Not in V, R, Eth.)
Buli Franz Kroeger 1992 R.
(Kanjarga. M, V Kanjago = Buli, Eth alt. prev.)
>Koma R, Eth KMA Konni

E Oti-Volta-->Bieri Gabriel Manessy, Les Langues Oti-Volta 1975 (JD; missing several). R.
Wama Listes Lexicales Gur 1983. R, Eth Waama
-->Tayari Manessy 1975 (JD: missing #2, 8). R, Eth Nateni
Tamari André Prost 1962 =Li Tãmari. R, V, Eth SOF Tamberma or TBZ Ditammari.
>Nyende R, Eth MBL Mbelime

W Oti-Volta-->Notre Manessy 1975 (JD: missing #2, 7). R, Eth Boulba.
. Gurenne Campbell 1991 R, V Nankanse, Eth alt. Frafra.
Frafra K Robert Schaefer 1975. M, V. Not in R, but V suggests that it's a d.Gurenne.
Mossi Gaston Canu 1976 . C, V More, R More, M Moshi, Eth. Mòoré
Gbanyã. M d.Mossi, not in Eth.
>Safalaba R, Eth SAF Safaliba
Dagara K E. Hall 1973 =Dagaare. V, M Dagarti (2 versions). Not in R, but V suggests it's a d.Dagara in R; Eth DGA S. Dagaare
Wala. V d.Dagari, M.
Birifo. M; not in R; V d.Dagara; Eth BIV S. Birifor or BFO Malba Birifor
Kusal K David & Nancy Spratt 1973. R/Et Kusaal.
>Kamara R, Eth JMR
-->Talne Manessy 1975 (JD: missing several). R; Eth Talni d. Frafra.
-->Nabte Manessy 1975 (JD: missing several). R; Eth d. Frafra.
Mampruli Evangelina Arana Swadesh & Morris Swadesh 1967. M Mamprusi (2 ver.), V d. Dagbani, R Mampelle.
Dagbani K W.A.A. Wilson 1968. M Dagomba (2 ver.), C, R, V.
Hanga K Geoffrey & Rosemary Hunt 1975. R, V.

Gurma-Yom Kasele Togo Akaselem. (Also have from JD =Chamba.) V Tobote, R; Eth Akaselem.
Basari K Monica Cox 1973 =Bassari. Togo 3 var Bassar. V Tobote, R, Eth BUD Ntcham.
Konkomba Togo, Listes Lexicales du Togo 1983. 3 var. V, R.
>Soruba R, Eth SOY Sola
-->Dye Manessy 1975 (JD: missing several). R, Eth alt. next.
Gangam Togo 4 var. V Dye, R (; Eth Ngangam.
Gando, Kumongo André Prost n.d. Eth d. prev.
Gurma Alphonse Chantoux, Alexandre Gontier, André Prost, Grammaire Gourmantché 1968. R, V, M (2 versions); Eth Gourmancéma.
Moba Togo. V, R.
Yom Comm. Nat. de Ling. Bénin 1983. R; Eth Pila.
Naudem Jacques Nicole, Phonol. et Morphophonol. du Nawdm 1980. R; Eth Nawdm.

Doghose André Prost 1970 =Dogose. R, V Dorhosye, Eth Dogosé
Gan André Prost 1970. R, V, M, Eth Kaansa.

GurunsiKasem K J. Callow 1973. R.
-->Nuni Jarel Deaton (v. old source). R. Eth S (bigger) NNW or N NUV
Lyele Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Lyélé
>Pana R, Eth PNQ
-->Siti Frederick W.H.Migeod 1911. M, V Vagala, R, Eth alt. Vagala below.
Winye Jarel Deaton. Initial i is a "cedilla with a grave over it as a sep. letter". R, Eth Winyé
>Pyo R, Eth if Pw~i~e, PUG
Sisala Regina Blass, Sisaala-Eng Eng-~ Dict 1975. M Grunshi (Isala), V; Eth Pasaale Sisaala SIG or (bigger) Tumulung Sisaala SIL
>Chakali R, Eth CLI
-->Tampulma Richard Bergman, Ian & Claire Gray 1969 (just #1-5). R.
Vagala K B. Popham 1968. R, Eth Vagla.
-->Degha (Mo) Frederick W.H.Migeod 1911. V, R Mo, Eth Deg
Kabre J. Delord 1976 (Piya d.). R, V, Eth Kabiyé
Lamba J. Delord 1976 (Yaka d.). R, V; Eth Lama
Tem Der-Houssikian 1980. V, R.
>Chala R, Eth CHA
>Delo R, Eth NTR
R, Eth BQG
(Ajolo. M Grunshi (Ajolo). Not in V or R or Eth.)
(Koama, Bagbalang. In M; sim. to Tem or Kasem. Not in V or R or Eth.)

Kirma-Lobi Kirma André Prost, Contribution à l'Étude des lgs Voltaïques 1964. R, Eth Cerma.
Tyurama Prost 1964. R, Eth Turka.
Lobi M. Vaillant n.d. R, V, M.
-->Dyan Frederick W.H.Migeod 1911., V, R =? Dan.


Adamawa 305, 9
. Kam Carl Masthay. R.
Longuda Kay Williamson, Benue-Congo Compar Wordlist 1973. R, V.
Fali K Juergen Ennulat 1973. R, Eth S Fali.
>Nimbari R, Eth NMR
R, Eth KIA

Awak Jarel Deaton. R.
Dadia Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Dadiya
>Kamu R, Eth KCQ Kamo
Tula Jarel Deaton. R.
-->Waja A.C.G. Hastings in M. R.
Cham Jarel Deaton. R, Eth d. Dijim-Bwilim.
>Mona R, Eth d. prev.

Chamba Jarel Deaton. R. Eth apparently CCG Samba Daka under Bantoid (seems odd, but too many resemblances in this and next fa.)
Donga C.K. Meek, Tribal Studies in Northern Nigeria 1931 (JD). R. Eth could be DOD of Ubangian or DOH Dong under Bantoid.
. Wom Carl Masthay. R.

>Daka R, Eth alt. next or else CCG Samba Daka.
. Dirrim Carl Masthay. R, Eth DIR Dirrim or d. CCG!
. Gandole Carl Masthay. R, not in Eth.
. Taram Carl Masthay. R, Eth d. CCG.

Doyãyo K Marinus & Elisabeth Wiering 1973 =Doohwaayããyo. R, V, both as Doyãyo; K gives Namshi as an alternative, which V says = Doyãyo and R says is a sep. lang, Et Doyayo.
>Dupa R, Eth DAE Duupa
-->Duru Raymond Boyd, Étude compar dans le groupe Adamawa 1974 (2 d.; # 7, 8 from JD). R, Eth Dii.
>Goom R, Eth d. prev.
. Kolbila Carl Masthay. R.
Kutin Raymond Boyd 1974 (=Koutine; # 6-8 from JD). R, Eth Peere.
-->Kotopo Kay Williamson 1973 =Patapori (#1 from Carl Masthay). V; not in R but V says it may be a d. Kutin which V has; Eth d. prev.
-->Sari Jarel Deaton (1-8 only). R, Eth Saa.
Sewe Jarel Deaton. R, Eth d. Doyayo.
. Vere Carl Masthay. R, Eth Mom Jango.

Mumuye Kiyoshi Shimizu 1983 = Zing d; also Williamson minus #1,9. R, V.
. Gengle Carl Masthay. R.
. Kumba Carl Masthay. R.
. Teme Carl Masthay. R.
. Waka Carl Masthay. R.
. Yendang Carl Masthay. R.
>Kugama R, Eth KOW
>Passam R, Eth PBN Kpasam

. Galke Raymond Boyd 1974 (# 7, 8 from Carl Masthay). R, Eth Ndai.
Mangbai Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Mambai.
. Pam Raymond Boyd 1974 (# 7, 8 from JD). R.
-->Tupuri Raymond Boyd 1974 (=Touboro; missing # 7, 8). R.
(r) Mbum NU libes (oops). R, V.
>Dek R, Eth DEK
. Kali Raymond Boyd 1974 (# 2, 7, 8 from JD). R, Eth Kare.
Lakka Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Laka.
-->Mundang Raymond Boyd 1974 (# 2, 7, 8 from JD). R.
>Gelama R, Eth d. prev.
-->Dama Raymond Boyd 1974 (#7, 8 from JD). R.
-->Mono Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R.

. Libo Carl Masthay. R, Eth Kaan.
. Mboi Carl Masthay. R.
. Yungur Carl Masthay. R, Eth Bena.
. Roba Carl Masthay. R, Eth Lala-Roba.

>Bambuka R, Eth BKA Kyak
. Jen Carl Masthay. R, Eth Dza.
>Kanawa R, not in Eth unless it's THY Tha wh. has a Kapawa d.
. Munga Carl Masthay. R, Eth Leelau.

Bolgo Jarel Deaton. R.
Bua Jarel Deaton. R.
>Buso R, Eth BSO says it's Chadic, not Bua!
Day Pierre Nougayrol 1979 (Bouna d.; missing #10). R, V.
Fanya Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Fania.
Gula Jarel Deaton. R, Eth GLC Bon ~ or ZNA Zan Gula
Kulaal Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Gula Iro.
Koke Jarel Deaton. R.
Nielim Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Niellim.
Tunya Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Tunia.

Ubangian 306, 127
GbayaGbaya Philip A. Noss 1981. R, Eth NW ~
>Bangando R, Eth BGF Bangandu
-->Manza Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R.
Ngbaka V. Maes 1959. R.

NgbandiNgbandi Jarel Deaton. R, Eth N ~.
Sango Wm J Samarin, A Gram of ~ 1967 . R, V. Eth creole with French based on prev.
>Yakoma R, Eth YKY

SereFeroge Stefano Santandrea 1969. R.
Indri Stefano Santandrea 1969. R.
Ndogo Stefano Santandrea 1969. R.
Sere Jarel Deaton. R.
Tagbu Jarel Deaton. R.
Bai Jarel Deaton. R.
Viri Stefano Santandrea, The Birri Lg 1966. R, Eth Belanda ~.
-->Mangaya Stefano Santandrea 1969 =Manga. R, V. V sez Manga = Mba; but this is almost identical to Feroge; I can't see how it could be a more distantly related language. Eth Mangayat.
Togoyo Stefano Santandrea 1969. R.

GbanziliMundu Stefano Santandrea 1969. R, Eth Mündü.
Mayogo Jarel Deaton. R.
Bangba Jarel Deaton. R.
-->Gbanziri J.P. Calloc'h 1911. R Gbanzili, V.
-->Bwaka J.P. Calloc'h 1911 =Gmbwaga. R, V, Eth Ngbaka Ma'bo.
-->Monjombo J.P. Calloc'h 1911 =Mõnjõmbo. R Monzombo, V.
-->Baka Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R.
-->Bomasa Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R, Eth Bomassa.
Bayanga Jarel Deaton. R, Eth d. Gundi or Baka.
-->Ngombe Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R.
Gundi Jarel Deaton. R.
>Ganzi R, Eth GNZ

Banda Stefano Santandrea 1969. R fa, V, Eth fa.
-->Langbasi Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R, Eth Langbashe.
>Ngubu R, Eth d. LNL S Central Banda
-->Mbanza Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R, Eth alt. next.
Mbanja Tingbo-nyi-Zonga, Étude gram de la lg mbandza (d. de báláwo) 1978. R Mbanja and Mbanza! Self-name is Mbandzha. Eth Mbandja.
>Ngbundu R, Eth NUU
R, Eth NUE
R, Eth KUW
R, Eth GOX Gobu
R, Eth BJO Mid-Southern Banda
R, Eth d. LIY Banda-Bambari
-->Gbi Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R, Eth d. W. Central Banda.
Golo Jarel Deaton. R, Eth d. prev.

Zande Canon & E.C.Gore 1931; also (same, allowing for the French transcription) A. Colombanoli 1895. R, V.
-->Nzakara Jarel Deaton. V poss. d. Bwaka, R.
Barambo Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Barambu.
Pambia Jarel Deaton. R.
Amadi Jarel Deaton. R. Eth Ma; this and rest in Ngbaka-Mba fa.
>Dongo R, Eth DOO
R, Eth NDT Ndunga
R, Eth MFC

South Central


Ijo K Albert Okponanabofa Timitimi 1973 (=Izón Kolokuma d.). M, R Kolokuma, Eth Izon.
Kolokuma Kay Williamson, A Gram of the ~ d. of Ijo 1965. R, Eth IJE
Kalabari K Charles E.W. Jenewari 1973. V d. Ijo, R.
Nembe Williamson 1973. V d. Ijo, R, Eth SE Ijo.
>Biseni R, Eth IJE
R, Eth AFN

Western 308,347 "Kwa"

Volta-ComoeWestern-->Abure Frederick W.H.Migeod 1911. M, V, R.
>Eotile Jarel Deaton. M Mekyibo, V Metyibo, R Eotile, Eth Beti.

CentralTwi Frederick W.H.Migeod 1911. V d.Akan which is R's name as well; Eth alt. next.
Ashanti J.E. Redden, N. Owusu 1963 =Twi; Campbell 1991. M (2 versions), V d.Akan, Eth Akan.
Fanti Bureau of Ghana Lgs. 1986. M, V d.Akan, Eth d. prev.
-->Abron Frederick W.H.Migeod 1911
Baule K Judith Timyan 1975. M, R, V d.Anyi, Eth Baoulé,
Anyi K P.C. Pyne 1972. V, R, Eth Anyin.
Afema. M, V d.Anyi, not in Eth.
Safwi. M Sefwhi, V d.Anyi.
Brissa G.D. Chamberlain 1930. V Anufo d. Anyi, Eth d. Anyin.
Chakosi Ronald & Lyn Stanford 1970. R, Eth Anufo.
-->Nzema Frederick W.H.Migeod 1911.V, M Nsima (2 forms), R.
-->Ahanta Frederick W.H.Migeod 1911 . M, V.]

Eastern Awutu K B. Forson 1967 =Efutu. R, V, M =? Obutu.
Chiripong K Colin Painter 1973 =Hill Guang, Gwa d. = V's Anum. V Chiripong, R Chiripon-Lete-Anum, M Guang 'language of Cherepong', Eth Cherepon.
Lete J.M. Stewart 1966 =Larteh. V d. Chiripong, Eth Larteh.
Guang (Gonja) K Colin Painter 1974. R Gonja, V Guan(g), Eth Gonja.
Nkonya J.M. Stewart 1966. V Nkunya = d. Guang, R.
>Nawuri R, Eth NAW
>Nchumunu R, Eth NNU Dwang
Nchumburu K Alizon M. Cleal 1973 =Nchumuru. R, Eth Nchumbulu
Achode K Alizon M. Cleal 1973 =Gechode. V, R, Eth Gikyode.
Anyanga K Alizon M. Cleal 1973 =Genyanga. V, R.
Krachi K Alizon M. Cleal 1973. V, R, Eth Krache.

Central Togo (=Togo Remnant)-->Adele J.G. Christaller in M. R.
Akpafu M.E. Kropp 1967. V, R, Eth alt. next.
Siwu K Robert Komra Iddah 1975. R, V =Akpafu.
>Basila R, Eth alt. BLO Anii
Buem K Edward Jay Allan 1973. M Bwem, R, V Lefana, Eth Lelemi.
Likpe K Edward Jay Allan 1974. R, V, Eth Sekpele.
>Logba R, Eth LGQ
Sele K Christine Allen 1973. R, V Santrokofi.
Ahlo Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Igo.
>Animere R, Eth ANF
Avatime M.E. Kropp 1967. R, V.
>Nyangbo R, Eth NYB
R, Eth BOV Tuwili
-->Kebu P.F. Wolf in M =Kogboriko. R, V, Eth Akebou.
Kposo Alubwe Amavi Eklo, Le Kposso de Tomegbe 1983. R, Eth Akposo

Berry & Nii Amon Kotei 1969 . V, M Ga, R, Eth Ga.
Adangme M.E. Kropp 1966. V, M Adangbe, Eth Dangme.
Krobo. M, V d. Adangme, Eth d. prev.

Ewe Campbell 1991. V, R, Eth Éwé.
Anglo. M, V Awuna d.Ewe, Eth d. prev.
Popo, Krepi. M, not in V, very similar to Anglo, Eth alt. Ewe.
Fon Hildegard Höftmann 1993. M Fongbe, V Fõ, R Fon, Eth Fon-gbe.
-->Gwa (Mbato) Frederick W.H.Migeod 1911. V, R/Eth Mbato.
-->Kyama (Ebrie) Frederick W.H.Migeod 1911. V, R Ebrie, Eth Ebrié
-->Akye (Attié) Frederick W.H.Migeod 1911 . M, V, R Attie.
-->Abe Frederick W.H.Migeod 1911. M, V, R, Eth Abé.
Ari (Abiji) Jarel Deaton. M Ari, V Ari, R Abiji, Eth Abidji. I think the two versions are M and JD's.
Krobu Jarel Deaton. R.
Adyukru K Georges Herault 1973. M, V, R, Eth Adioukrou.
-->Avikam Frederick W.H.Migeod 1911 . M, V, R.
-->Aladian Frederick W.H.Migeod 1911 =Alagyan, V, R, Eth Alladian.

M has these varieties not in V, obviously d.of this fa: Nkoranza, Assin, Akim, Denkera, Wassaw, all quite close to Akan; Aowin, probably d.Nzema; Daboya, Bole, Tara, Kyan, all similar to Gonja.

Eastern 308

Central Niger
Igbira (Ebira) K Hans-Juergen Scholz 1973 =Igbirra. M (3 versions), V, R/Eth Ebira.
Gade Jan P. Sterk, ~-Engl Dict 1994. R.
Nupe K N.V. Smith 1967. R, M, V, Eth ~-~-Tako.
Kakanda. M (3 versions), V d.Nupe, Eth KKA
Ebe, Kupa. M; Eth ASU, KUG
Gbari Roger Blench & Musa Dona 1993, web. M, V, R Gwari.
>Alago R, Eth ALA
Idoma R, V.
Ihewe, Inkum, Injor. In M; not in V or R or Eth
Yala Williamson 1973 d. Idoma. R, V (I)yala w Ijo.
>Akpa R, Eth AKF
Igede K Richard Bergman 1973. R.
Etulo Robert G. Armstrong, J W Afr Lgs 1964. R.
Eloyi K V. Mackay 1968; Williamson 1973 (1-5 and 10 only). R, V w Plateau Benue-Congo.

Yoruba-Northern Akoko
Yoruba E.C. Rowlands 1969. I also have a set from Joseph Ajayi Fashagba 1991. R, M (2 versions), V.
Jekri. M, V Itsekiri d.Yoruba.
-->Igala Frederick W.H.Migeod 1911 . R, M Igara, V.
>Northern Akoko R, Eth AKK Arigidi

Edo ,129
Proto-Edoid+ Ben Ohio.mamhe. Elugbe 1986. All #s from Elugbe are missing #1!

DeltaEngenni K Elaine Thomas 1968. R.
Degema Williamson 1973. V
-->Epie Elugbe 1986. R.

Southwestern-->Eruwa Elugbe 1986 (missing #1). R.
. Isoko Elugbe 1986 except #1 which is from Migeod =Igabor. R, V d. Urhobo.
-->Okpe Elugbe 1986 (missing #1). R Okpe1.
Urhobo Elugbe 1986. #1 is from M. R.
-->Uvbie Elugbe 1986 (missing #1). R.
M, V = Urhobo + Isoko-- can't tell which. R lists the 2 as sep. lgs.)

North CentralBini K Airen Amayo 1975 =Edo. R, V, M, Eth Edo.
>Esan R, Eth ISH
-->Emai Ronald P. Schaefer, An Initial Orthography and Lexicon for Emai 1987 (missing #8-9). R, Eth ~-Iuleha-Ora.
>Iyekhee R, Eth ETS Yekhee
-->Uneme Elugbe 1986 (missing #1). R.
-->Ghotuo Elugbe 1986 (missing #1). R.
>North Ibie R, Eth ATG Ivbie North-Okpela-Arhe
R, Eth IKP
R, Eth SSC ~-Enwan-Igwe
R, Eth OSS

NorthwesternUhami Elugbe 1986. R.
Ukue Elugbe 1986. R.
-->Oloma M. Eth d. R's Okpe2.
Okpamheri K The Ologori of Ogori (1980) =Okpamberi. R, V.
Ogori K The Ologori of Ogori (1980). Not in R or V. Eth d. Oko-Eni-Osayen (own fa. in Benue-Congo)

Lower Niger
Ibo (Igbo). R Igbo, V Igbo, M (2 versions).
Izi K Paul Meier (1977). R, Eth ~-Ezaa-Ikwo-Mgbo
Ikwere Williamson 1973 =Ikwerre. V d. Igbo, R.
>Ika R, Eth IKK
>Ukwuani R, Eth UKW ~-Aboh-Ndoni
-->Ogbah David J. Clark in The J of West African Lgs 8.1, 1974 (1-2 only). R, Eth OGC
Ekpeye K David Clark (1977). V Ekpeya, R.

Yukuben (Boritsu) Kay Williamson 1973. R, V Boritsu.
Kuteb Kay Williamson 1973. R.
Icen Kay Williamson 1973. R, Eth Etkywan.
Eregba (Kpan) Kay Williamson 1973. R, Eth Kpan.
Jukun (Jibu) Kay Williamson 1973. V d. Jukun, forms a widespread creole, R Jukun, Eth Jibu.
Jukun (Wapan) Kay Williamson 1973 = Wukari d. Jukun. V Wapan d. Jukun, speech of Jukun capital, R Jukun, Eth Wapan.
Ashaku Kay Williamson 1973. V, R Ashaku, Eth poss. Ashuku d. next.
Nama Kay Williamson 1973. V, R, Eth d. Tigon Mbembe.
-->Bandawa Jarel Deaton (3-5, 10 only). R, Eth Shoo-Minda-Nye.
-->Chomo Jarel Deaton (2-5, 10 only). R, Eth Como Karim.
-->Jiru Jarel Deaton (2-5, 10 only). R.

Delta Cross
>Ogbogolo R, Eth OGG
Ogbia Hans Wolff, A Compar Vocabulary of Abuan Dialects 1969. Also in Kay Williamson 1973. R. Kolo Wolff 1969, V d. Ogbia. V. close to Ogbia-- mostly tonal differences. Eth d. prev.
Kugbo Hans Wolff 1969. R.
>Mini R, Eth MGJ
Abua Hans Wolff 1969. Also in K Ian Gardner 1967 (without tones). V, R.
Odual Hans Wolff 1969. Also have this in Ian Gardner 1975 but no tones.
>Ogbronuagum R, Eth OGU
R, Eth OBU
Kana Suanu M. Ikoro 1996. R, Eth Khana.
Gokana Kay Williamson 1973. V, R.
-->Eleme Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R.

Lower Cross
Efik Campbell 1991. R, V, M.
Ibibio K T.L. Cook 1968. R, M, V d.Efik.
Anaang Kay Williamson 1973. V d. Efik, R.
Okobo Jarel Deaton. R.
Oron Jarel Deaton. R.
Ekit Jarel Deaton. R.
Ibino Jarel Deaton. R.
Obolo (Andoni) Kay Williamson 1973 =Andoni. V Andoni, R Obolo.

Upper Cross
Mbembe K Katharine Barnwell 1972. R, Eth Cross River ~.
Leyigha Kay Williamson 1973 =Ayiga. V Leyiga, R.
Legbo Kay Williamson 1973. V, R.
>Lenyima R, Eth LDG
Yakur (Loko) Kay Williamson 1973. V Yakurr, R Loko, Eth Lokaa.
>Agoi R, Eth IBM
Nkukoli Kay Williamson 1973. V, R Lokukoli.
>Lubilo R, Eth KCC Lubila
Olulumo Kay Williamson 1973. V, R, Eth this and next dd. ~-Ikom
Ikom Kay Williamson 1973. V d. Olulumo.
Kukele Kay Williamson 1973 =Ukele. V, R.
Koring Kay Williamson 1973 (1914) =Okpoto. V d. Oring wh. is in R as Koring, Eth Oring.
Ufia Kay Williamson 1973. V d. Oring, Eth d. Oring.
>Uzekwe R, Eth EZE
Kohumono K T.L. Cook 1972. R.
>Ubaghara R, Eth BYC
Awagwune Kay Williamson 1973 =Akunakuna. V , R Agwaagwune.
Umon Kay Williamson 1973. V, R.
Akpet Kay Williamson 1973. V, R Ukpet, Eth d. AKD Ukpet-Ehom.
Kiong Kay Williamson 1973. V, R, M Akayon.
Korop Kay Williamson 1973. V Odorop, R.
Bakpinka Frederick W.H.Migeod 1911. Uwet, V (sis.Kiong); not in R.
>Lyoniyorg R, not in Eth, nor on entire web!
R, Eth UYA ~-Uyanga

BENU Benue-Zambesi
Eastern ,76Amo Williamson 1973. R, V Amap.
Piti Kay Williamson 1973. V, R.
Chawai Kay Williamson 1973. V, R, Eth Atsam.

Kurama>Kuzamani R, Eth prob. KSA Shuwa-Zamani
Kurama Williamson 1973. R, V.
>Rumaya R, Eth RUY Mala
R, Eth RUZ Ruma
Rebina (Binawa) Williamson 1973 Ribina. V Rebina, R Binawa, Eth Bina.
>Kono R, Eth KLK
Surubu Williamson 1973. R, V.
>Kaivi R, Eth KCE
R, Eth KCH Vono
R, Eth KKU Tumi
R, Eth KKD
R, Eth DBV Dungu
Gure Williamson 1973. R, V, Eth this and next dd. GRH Gbiri-Niragu.
Kahugu Williamson 1973, who suggests it forms one lang. w Gure. V, not in R.

JeraKuda+ Williamson 1973 Kudawa. R, V Kuda, Eth d. KOV (see Chamo).
Butu Williamson 1973 Butawa. R, V Butawa, Eth poss. d. BTE Gamo-Ningi
Ningawa Williamson 1973. V d. Butawa, not in Eth.
Gyem Williamson 1973 (1907) Gyemawa. R, V Gyema(wa), R Gyem.
Taura+ Jarel Deaton. R, Eth d. GNH Lere.
Lemoro Jarel Deaton. R.
Janji Williamson 1973. R, V 360.
Sheni Williamson 1973. V, R Shani.
Buji Williamson 1973. R, V, Eth d. Jere.
Anaguta Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Iguta.
Chokobo Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Izora.
Chamo Williamson 1973. V, not in R, Eth d. KOV Kudu-Chamo.

Western ,76-->Reshe Kay Williamson 1973 (missing #1). V, R.
>Laru R, Eth LAN
R, Eth LOP
C Kambari Kay Williamson 1973. V, R =? E Kambari. Eth has just alt. KAM Tsishingmi
SW Kambari Kay Williamson 1973. V, R =? W Kambari.
Ngwoi Michael Ayotte, Socioling Survey of Ngwoi 2003. R, Eth NAT Hungworo
Kamuku Kay Williamson 1973. V, R, Eth Cinda-Regi-Tiyal.
>Bassa-Kontagora+ R, Eth BSR
R, Eth ASG Cishingini
-->Bassa Kay Williamson 1973 (1854). V Basa, R Bassa-Kaduna, Eth Basa-Gumna.
>Bassa-Kuta R, Eth alt. prev.
-->Gurmana HJ. V, R.
>Pongu R, Eth PON
R, Eth BSF
Ura Kay Williamson 1973. V, R, Eth Fungwa.
Basa-Komo Kay Williamson 1973. V Basa-Komo, R Bassa-Kwomu, Eth Basa.
>Lela R, Eth DRI C'lela
Duka K Esther Cressman & Donna Skitch 1974. R, V, Eth Hun-Saare.
Dakarkari Kay Williamson 1973 (d. Dubai). V, R =? Lela, Eth alt. Lela.
>Puku R, Eth d. GEL Kag-Fer-Jiir-Koor-Ror-Us-Zuksun. Now there's a name.
R, Eth BGA Gwamhi-Wuri

PlateauAyu Williamson 1973. R, V.
-->Yashi Williamson 1973 (no #1). R, V, Eth Hasha.
Mabo Williamson 1973. R Mabo-Barkul, V, Eth Bo-Rukul.
Irigwe Williamson 1973. R, V.
Boyawa Williamson 1973 (1907). V, not in R nor Eth.
Birom-Migili-->Migili Williamson 1973 (1854) (`KorK'). R, V, Eth Ligili.
Aten Williamson 1973. R, V.
Birom Williamson 1973. R, V.
Niten Williamson 1973. Not in V or R, Eth alt. Aten.
Kaje-KadaraKatab R, V, Eth Tyap.
Kagoro Eleonore Adwiraah 1989; also Williamson 1973. M, V d. Katab.
Morwa Williamson 1973. V d. Katab.
Yeskwa Williamson 1973. R, V in Plateau 1.
Lungu Williamson 1973 d. Koro. V, R,Eth Idun.
Koro Williamson 1973. R, V; Eth prob. either AHS Ashe or BQV Begbere-Ejar
-->Kamanton Williamson 1973 (no #1). R, V/Eth Kamantan.
-->Kagoma Williamson 1973 (no #1). R, V.
Jaba Williamson 1973. R, V, Eth Jab.
Chori Williamson 1973 (no #1). V d. Jaba, Eth Cori.
Kenyi Williamson 1973 (no #1). V d. Jaba, Eth Zhire.
>Nandu R, Eth NAA ~-Tari
Izarek Kraft 1981 (JD). R, Eth Izere.
Kaje Williamson 1973. R, V, Eth Jju.
-->Kadara Williamson 1973 (no #1). R, V.
-->Kuturmi Williamson 1973 (no #1). R, V.
-->Doka Williamson 1973 (no #1). R, V.
Ikulu Kiyoshi Shimizu 1996 =Kulu, web. Also Williamson 1973 Ikul. R, V.
>Iku R, Eth IKV ~-Gora-Ankwa
Idong Williamson 1973. R, Eth Idon.
-->Afusare Williamson 1973 (no #1). Not in R, V, Eth alt. Izarek.
Jari Williamson 1973. V Afusare (see below); Eth alt. Izarek.
Ninzam-RukubaRukuba Williamson 1973. R, V, Eth Che.
Kwanka Williamson 1973. R, V, Eth Vaghat-Ya-Bijim-Nindem.
>Shall R, Eth ~-Zwall
Ninzam Williamson 1973. R, V.
Mada Williamson 1973. R, V.
>Gwantu R, Eth d. NBR Numana-Nunku-~-Numbu
Nindem Williamson 1973. R, V d. Kaninkwom, Eth Kaningdon-~.
>Kaningkon R, Eth d. prev.
R, Eth KNI
EggonEggon Williamson 1973. R, V.
Nungu Williamson 1973. R, V =Rindre.
Rindre Williamson 1973. V, Eth d. prev.
Ake Williamson 1973 =Akye. R, not in V.
>Jidda R, Eth JIP Bu
FyamPyem Williamson 1973. R Fyam, V, Eth Fyam.
Horom Williamson 1973. R, V.
Tarok Tarok (Yergham) Selbut R. Longtau & Roger Blench 1996; also in Williamson 1973 =Yergham. V Yergham, R Tarok.
Bashar Williamson 1973. R, V Basherawa, Eth Yangkam.
Pai Williamson 1973. R, V.
Tarok >Turkwam R, Eth TDV Toro
R, Eth AAB ~-Tesu

WelBendi-BokyiBokyi Kay Williamson 1973. V Boki, R.
Bekwarra K R. Stanford 1973. R.
Alege Kay Williamson 1973. V Gayi, R.
Bete (Bendi) Kay Williamson 1973. V, R Bendi, Eth Bete-Bendi.
>Obanliku R, Eth BZY
R, Eth UKP ~-Bayobiri
R, Eth UBA
R, Eth AFE Putukwan
R, Eth BYP

Non-Bantu Bantoid (actually a grandchild of Wel)
Mambila K Mona Perrin 1973. R, Eth Nigeria ~; there's also a smaller MYA Cameroon ~.
Kuma Kay Williamson 1973. V d. Mambila, not in Eth.
Kamkam Kay Williamson 1973. V, R, Eth Mbongno.
>Tep R, not in Eth
Magu C.K. Meek, Tribal Studies in Northern Nigeria 1931 (JD). R, Eth Mvanip.
Kila Kay Williamson 1973. V, R, Eth Somyewe.
Ndoro Kay Williamson 1973. V, R, Eth Ndoola.
>Gandua R, Eth d. WWW Wawa
Bute Kay Williamson 1973. V, R/Eth Vute.
Tiv K D.W. Arnott 1968. R, V.
>Otank R, Eth UTA
R, Eth EMN Eman
R, Eth BEC Iceve-Maci
R, Eth BZZ
Batu Kay Williamson 1973. V, R.
Abon Kay Williamson 1973. V Abõ, R.
Bitare Kay Williamson 1973. V, R.

Broad Bantu
Jarawan-EkoidJarawanMboa Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Mbonga.
Nagumi Jarel Deaton. R.
>Bile R, Eth BIL
Mbula Kay Williamson 1973. V, R, Eth d. MBU ~-Bwazza.
Mama Kay Williamson 1973. V, R.
>Lame R, Eth BMA
Jaku Kay Williamson 1973. V, R, Eth Labir.
>Gubi R, Eth GUA Shiki
Kulung Kay Williamson 1973 =Wurkum. V Kulung, R.
Jarawa V, R.
Jarawa Kay Williamson 1973 =Gingwak d. Jarawa. V d. Jarawa.
Bankala Kay Williamson 1973. V d. Jarawa.
(Duguri. M =Duggera, Eth DBM)

Ekoid-MbeMbe Kay Williamson 1973. V, R.
-->Afudu Koelle 1854 in M. V, not in R. Rather similar to KW's Mbe!
Ndoe V, R
Ekparabong Kay Williamson 1973. V d. Ndoe.
Balep Kay Williamson 1973. V d. Ndoe.
. Ekoi V, R =? Ejagham = d. Ekoi in V, Eth Ejagham
F Kay Williamson 1973 =Bendeghe. V d. Ekoi.
G Kay Williamson 1973 =N Etung. V d. Ekoi.
H Kay Williamson 1973 =S Etung. V d. Ekoi.
Akwa Frederick W.H.Migeod 1911. V d. Ekoi
Efutop Kay Williamson 1973. V, R.
-->Nde Kay Williamson 1973. V, R, Eth d. NDD ~-Nsele-Nta.
-->Abanyom Kay Williamson 1973. V, R.
Nkem Kay Williamson 1973. V Nkim, R, Eth ~-Nkum.
-->Nkumm Kay Williamson 1973. V Nkum, R, Eth d. prev.
-->Nnam Kay Williamson 1973. R.
Ekajuk Kay Williamson 1973. V, R.

Mamfe>Esimbi R, Eth AGS with Tivoid
R, Eth MYG with Tivoid
Kenyang Kay Williamson 1973. R, V.
>Kitwii R, Eth d. prev.
R, Eth alt. NKC Nkongho in Bantu A
R, Eth MEA in Narrow Grassfields
R, Eth NGN ditto
R, Eth d. ANV Denya
R, Eth d. CKX Caka

GrassfieldsNkambe-->Adere Jan Voorhoeve, "Noun Classes in ~", in Larry Hyman, Noun Classes in the Grassfields Bantu Borderland 1980 (1-3 only). R, Eth ADD Dzodinka
Limbum Kay Williamson 1973 =Wimbum. Also in Chilver 1974 and in K. V Nsungli, R.
Kofa Jarel Deaton. R, Eth d. Mfumte.
>Kwaja R, Eth KDZ
R, Eth d. next.
Ndaktup Chilver 1974. R, V.
Ntem Chilver 1974. R, V, Eth d. next.
Yamba Jarel Deaton. R.
Mbe' Chilver 1974 =Mbe. Not in R; Eth MTK; I had this confused with Mbe in Ekoid-Mbe.

Nun-BamilekeNB: For blue Bamileke langs. w/attrib, Williamson has only 4 numbers, 2 to 5!
NunBamun Jarel Deaton. R, V.
Mungaka Jarel Deaton. R.
>Bambalang R, Eth BMO
R, Eth BBW
R, Eth Bapa alt. prev.
R, Eth d. Mungaka
NgembaMankon Jacqueline Leroy, Morphologie de Classes Nominales en Mankon 1977. R, Eth Ngemba.
>Mundum R, Eth d. Ngemba
Bafut Kay Williamson 1973. V, R.
Nkwen Kay Williamson 1973. V d. Mandankwe, R, Eth d. next.
Mandankwe Kay Williamson 1973. V, not in R, Eth Mendankwe.
-->Bambui Jarel Deaton (1,2,4,8 only). R, Eth d. Bambili.
Pinyin Kay Williamson 1973. V d. Awing, R.
>Awing R, Eth AZO
R, Eth KOC
Bamileke"Bamileke". Gabriel Nissim, André Noche & Sébastien Ntagne 1983. V, R = fa!
Babaju Tchoffouo 1979 =Babadjou. (#s 2-5 are also in Williamson.) V Babadjou, R, Eth d. NLA Ngombale
Fe'fe (Bafang) Kay Williamson 1973. V Bafang, R, Eth Fe'fe'.
Bana Kay Williamson 1973. V d. Fe'fe, not in R, Eth d. prev.
Dschang Steven Bird, via JD. R, Eth d. Yemba.
Bafu Kay Williamson 1973 =Bafou. V Bafou, R has Dschang wh. = d. Bafu in V; Williamson says this lang. is spoken `near Dschang'; Eth alt. Yemba.
>Bafussam Kay Williamson 1973 =Bafoussam. V Bafoussam, R, not in Eth.
>Bagam Kay Williamson 1973. V, R, Eth d. XMG Mengaka
>Balum Kay Williamson 1973 =Baloum. V Baloum, R, Eth alt. BBJ Ghomálá' below.
>Bamaha R, Eth mentioned as `may be' alt. BKO Kwa'
>Bamendiinda Kay Williamson 1973 =Bamendjina. V, R, Eth prob. Bamendjing d. Mengaka
>Banenkombit Kay Williamson 1973. V, R, not in Eth
>Bamenyam Kay Williamson 1973. V, R, Eth BCE in Nun.
-->Banjun Jarel Deaton (1-6 only). V Bandjoun-Baham, R, Eth d. BBJ Ghomálá' .
Bangangté Kay Williamson 1973. R, V. KW is missing #1, which is supplied here from K Jan Voorhoeve 1972 (whose other numbers differ somewhat from KW's). Eth Medumba.
>Bangwa Kay Williamson 1973. R, V, Eth alt. Ngemba or Yemba.
>Bapi Kay Williamson 1973. R, V; not in Eth.
-->Bacham Stephen C. Anderson, "The Noun Classes of Nyemboon-Bamileke" in Larry Hyman, Noun Classes in the Grassfields Bantu Borderland 1980 (missing #2,5). R, Eth d. NNH Ngiemboon
>Bachingu Kay Williamson 1973 =Bachingou. R, V =Batchingou, not in Eth.
>Bati Kay Williamson 1973. R, V, Eth `may be d. Bamenyam'
>Batié Kay Williamson 1973. R, V, Eth alt. BBJ.
>Bamugun Kay Williamson 1973 =Bamendjou. V Bamougoun, R. Eth Bamendjing d. Mengaka or Bamoungong d. NNH Ngiemboon?
>Fomopea R, Eth alt. NWE Ngwe
>Fongondeng Kay Williamson 1973. V, R, Eth alt. NWE.
>Foto R, Eth alt. NWE
>Fotuni Kay Williamson 1973 =Fotouni. V Fotouni, R. Eth alt. Fe'fe'.
Ngwe Kay Williamson 1973. V, R, Eth NWE
>Babuantu R, not in Eth.
>Upper Mundani R, not in Eth.
RingAghem Jarel Deaton. R.
>Isu R, Eth ISU
R, Eth WEH
R, Eth BFM Mmen
Babanki Chilver 1974 Kidzöm. R, V Kidzöm.
Kom Kay Williamson 1973. V =? Nkom, R.
Bum Chilver 1974. R, V.
Oku Jarel Deaton. R.
Lamnso K Karl & Winnifred Grebe 1973 =Lamnsoq. V, R, Eth Lamnso'. #2-10 are in Williamson 1973.
Mbem (Kaka) Kay Williamson 1973 =Kaka. V Mbem, sis. Lamnso, not in R, Eth there's an alt. Yamba in Nkambe but it's too close to Lamnso for that.
Ndop Chilver 1974. Both R and V have as a fa. Eth geographical term seen in alt. NDO Ndop-Bamunka.
Kënsense (Bamessing) Kay Williamson 1973. V, R Bamessing, Eth alt. NDB Kenswei Nsei
>Bamessi R, not in Eth.
Babungo Willi Schaub 1985 (#1-5 only; #6-10 from JD). R, Eth Vengo.
Bamunka Jarel Deaton. R.
>Bamali R, Eth BBQ under Nun.
R, not in Eth.
Momo-NjenTadkon R, Eth Meta.
Meta Chilver 1974. V Menemo, R d.Tadkon.
Menemo Kay Williamson 1973. V, R d. Tadkon.
Uta Chilver 1974. V d.Menemo, R d.Tadkon.
Ngie SIL, "A Socioling Survey of Nige and Ngishe", 2002. R, Eth NGJ
R, Eth NSH Ngishe
R, Eth MEN Njen
>Lower Mundani
R, Eth MUN Mundani

Menchum>Modele R, Eth d. Befang
R, Eth d. next
R, Eth BBY
R, Eth d. prev.
R, Eth d. Befang
R, Eth d. Befang

BeboidMekaf Chilver 1974 =Bunaki. V; Eth gives equivalence; Eth alt. MFF Naki
>Bu R, Eth BOE
Kinabe Michael & Charlene Ayotte, SIL Electr Survey Reports 2002. R, Eth MIJ Missong
Koshin Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Koskin.
>Bebe R, Eth BZV
Dumbo Chilver 1974 (also has Nkor d.). R, V, Eth Kemezung.
Nchanti Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Ncane.
Noni Larry M. Hyman 1981. R.
>Akweto R, Eth ASJ Nsari

Tikar Tikar Alphonse Mamadou 1984. Also have in Chilver 1974 =Tumu. V, R.
-->Bandobo Koelle 1854 in M =Ndob. V, R, Eth d. prev.

Bantu (actually coequal w/ Bane) 312
Proto-Bantu-X+ Malcolm Guthrie, Compar Bantu 1970.

Northwest Bantu
Zone ALundu-Balong-->Lundu HJ =Ba-kundu. R, V Bakundu d. Lundu, Eth Balundu-Bima
-->Lue HJ =Ba-rondo. R, Eth alt. Lundu.
Balong Jarel Deaton. R, Eth probably BFW Bafaw-Balong, poss. d. KEN Kenyang
-->Bonkeng HJ =Bongkeng. R, V.
Bafo Jarel Deaton. R, Eth d. Bafaw-Balong
Akoose Robert Hedinger, "The Noun Classes of Ako|o:se: (Bakossi)" in Larry Hyman,
Noun Classes in the Grassfields Bantu Borderland 1980. Not in R, Eth BSS.
Duala>Mboko R, Eth BQM Wumboko
Bakwiri Kay Williamson 1973. R, V Kwiri d. Baakpe, Eth Mokpwe.
-->Su HJ =I-subu. R, V, Eth Isu.
Duala Carl Meinhof 1939. R
>Wori R, Eth d. prev.
R, Eth d. Duala
R, Eth MZD Malimba
Bubi-Benga. Bubi Dalby. M (3 varieties; this is Northern), V/Eth Bube, R. I also have this as "Fernandian"... from John Clarke 1848! And 3 d. in HJ.
-->Noho HJ =Ba-noho. R, V Banaka d. Batanga, Eth Batanga.
-->Yasa HJ =Ng-gumbi. R, V Kombe d. Yasa.
-->Benga HJ. R, V.
Basaa-->Lombi HJ =Ba-rombi. R, V, Eth Barombi.
Bankon Kay Williamson 1973 =Bankong. R, V, Eth d. Abo.
-->Basaa Gisèle Dautrey 1994; #2,8,10 from HJ =Ba-sa. R, V Basa.
Tunen Idelette Dugast 1971. R, Eth in Mbam.
-->Nyo'o Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R, Eth Nenni Nyo'o alt. prev.
-->Mande Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R, not in Eth.
BafiaMbong Kay Williamson 1973. R, V, Eth Dimbong.
-->Fa' Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R, Eth prob. KSF Bafia.
-->Kpa Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R, Eth d. prev.
-->Djanti Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R, Eth Tibea.
SanagaKi Larry M. Hyman, "Esquisse des Classes Nominales en Tuki" in S. Cal. Occasional Papers in Lgs 8, 1980 (JD). R, Eth Tuki.
-->Yambasa Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R, Eth Nugunu.
Ewondo>Eton R, Eth ETO
Ewondo Prosper Abéga n.d. R.
Bebele Kay Williamson 1973 =Bamvele. R, V.
Bulu Kay Williamson 1973; 6 numbers are also in Guthrie. R, V.
Fang Samuel Galley n.d. V, R.
Makaa-Njem-->Ngumba HJ =Ma-bea. R, V Mvumbo.
Bujeba Carlos Gonzalec Echegaray 1960. Not in R or V but rel. Ngumba, Eth d. prev.
>So R, Eth SOX
R, Eth MCP
-->Njem HJ =N-jiem (Zimu, Ma-ka). R, V Njëm d. Njëm-Bajue. Could also be Makaa! Eth Koonzime.
>Konabem R, Eth d. MGG Mpongmpong
-->Mpiemo HJ =M-bimu. V Mbimu, R.
>Bomwali R, Eth BMW
Kako>Kwakum R, Eth KWU
R, Eth PMM
-->Yaka (Kako) HJ =Kaka. V Kako, R.

Zone BMyene-->Myene Le Berre 1873 =Pongouée; pretty similar to HJ =Ng-komi-Galoa. R, V Mpongwe d. Myene.
Kele-->Sekyani HJ =Sheke-Bulu. R, V Sekiyani, Eth Seki.
-->Kele HJ. R, V Ngom d. Kele, Eth kili.
>Mbangwe R, Eth ZMN
Wumvu André Raponda Walker, Les Lgs du Gabon 1998 (JD). R, Eth Wumbvu.
-->Kota HJ (Ba-kota). R, V.
>Ndasa R, Eth NDA
R, Eth SXE
TsogoTsogo Raponda Walker 1998 (JD). R.
-->Kande HJ =O-kande. R, V.
Pinji Raponda Walker 1998 (JD). R.
SiraSira André Raponda Walker, Élements de Grammaire Gisira 1936. R.
-->Sangu HJ =Ma-shanggo. R, V.
Punu Raponda Walker 1998 (JD). R.
Lumbu Raponda Walker 1998 (JD).
>Mbwisi R, Eth BWZ Bwisi
R, Eth BBG
NjebiDuma Mgr. J. Adam, Grammaire composée 1954. & HJ =Li-duma (good match). R, V.
-->Njebi HJ =N-jabi. R, V Nzebi.
>Tsaangi R, Eth TSA
MbedeMbede Mgr. J. Adam, Grammaire composée 1954. R, Eth Mbere.
-->Mbama Johnston 1919 (JD; missing #8-9). R.
Ndumu Mgr. J. Adam, Grammaire composée 1954. R.
>Ngwii R, Eth d. Mbede
R, Eth NLO
R, Eth KZO
Teke>Ngu Ngwoni
N Teke Jarel Deaton. R.
NE Teke Jarel Deaton. R.
W Teke Jarel Deaton. R.
C Teke Jarel Deaton. R.
E Teke Jarel Deaton. R.
S Teke J. Calloc'h 1911 =Ifumu. V d. (not biggest) of S. Teke, wh. is in R. Eth Fuumu d. IFM S Central Teke; there's also KKW S. Teke
-->Bali Malcolm Guthrie 1970 (7 numbers only). R, Eth d. E Teke.
>Wuumu R, Eth d. IFM S Central Teke
Yanzi Buma Nico Burssens 1989. V/Eth Boma, not in R.
-->Tiene Jarel Deaton (#1-6 only). R.
>Nfinu R, Eth ZMF Mfinu
R, Eth ZMP
-->Yanzi HJ =Ba-yanzi. R, V, Eth Yansi
Di Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Ding
>Mbuun R, Eth d. Mpuono

Zone CNgando>Ngando R, Eth NGD
-->Aka Jarel Deaton (missing #7-9); pygmy d. of Ngando which is in R; Eth Yaxa
>Kota R, Eth d. Ngando
Ngundi-->Ngundi HJ =Gundi. R.
-->Pande HJ =Pande or Bo-nggiri. V, R. Could also be Bongili.
>Mbati R, Eth MDN
R, Eth ZMX Bomitaba
R, Eth BUI
R, Eth LOQ
Mboshi>Mboko R, Eth MDU
>Akwa (not to be confused with the Ekoid lg)
R, Eth AKW
R, Eth d. Mboko
. Koyo Gaz. Hyman 1996, via CBOLD. R.
>Mboshi R, Eth MDW Mbosi
R, Eth KWC Likwala
R, Eth KXX Likuba
Bangi-Ntomba>Ngiri R, Eth NGR
-->Bobangi John Whitehead 1899; also in Guthrie. R, Eth Bangi
-->Sengele HJ =Senggele. V Senegele, R
Sakata Intiomale Mbonino Mokfe, Keshà, la lg des Basàkàtà 1986. R Sakata.
Ntomba M. Mamet 1960 =Bolia; also L. Gilliard 1928 (v. sim.). R.
Lingala. Éditions LECO V d.Losengo, C = Losengo, R has Losengo.
-->Buja HJ =A-buja. V, R, Eth Budza.
Ngombe-->Ngombe HJ =Ba-bati. V, R.
-->Bwela HJ. V 'Doko, R.
-->Bati HJ =Ba-bati. V, R, Eth d. next.
-->Bua HJ =Abobua. V Boa, R.
>Beo R, Eth d. AGH Ngelima
Kele>Mbesa Eth ZMS
-->So HJ =Soko. V, R.
>Gesogo R, Eth `may be name for' prev.
R, Eth LOO
-->Lokele Malcolm Guthrie 1970 (missing #s from HJ) =Kele. R, Eth Kele.
-->Foma HJ =Li-foma. V Fuma, R.
MongoMongo G. Hulstaert 1938 =Lonkundo. V, R, Eth MOM ~-Nkundu
>Lalia R, Eth LAL
R, Eth NXD
R, Eth d. MOM
-->Mbole HJ =Ba-mbole. R, V, Eth d. next.
-->Ombo Jarel Deaton (missing #10). R.
TetelaTetela J. Hagendorens 1984 =Otetela. Also in Guthrie 1970, but only 7 numbers. R.
-->Kusu HJ =Ng-kusu or Ba-kusu. R, V.
-->Nkutu HJ =Ba-ngkutu. R, V.
>Yela R, Eth YEL
-->Kela HJ =O-lemba. R, V.
Bushong >Ndengese R, Eth DEZ Dengese
-->Songomeno HJ =Ba-songgomeno. R, V.
-->Bushong HJ =Bu-shonggo. R, V Busoong, Eth Bushoong.

Central Bantu
Zone DEnya Lengola Jarel Deaton. R.
>Mituku R, Eth ZMQ
-->Enya HJ =Genya. R, V Ena.
Lega-Kalanga-->Bali HJ =Ba-bali. V, R.
>N Binja R, Eth d. SOD Songoora
Lega Jarel Deaton. R, Eth either LEA ~-Shabunda, or LGM ~-Mwenga.
>S Binja R, Eth d. SOD
Holoholo Jarel Deaton. R.
Bira-Huku. Piri Jarel Deaton (missing #9). R, Eth Bhele.
-->Bira HJ =Lubu-sese. V, R, Eth maybe BRF Bera
-->Nyali HJ =Li-huku. V, R.
Bodo Jarel Deaton. R.
Komo Barbara Thomas, SIL. 2/3 alt. forms are -/+ animate. R, Eth KMW
-->Kare Jarel Deaton (missing 4,5,9,10). R, Eth Kari.
NyangaNyanga Kahombo Mateene 1969. R.
Bembe>Bembe R, Eth BMB
R, Eth BYI

Zone ELogoli-Kuria. Logoli TLS. R, not in Eth.
. Gusii TLS -JD. R.
. Kuria TLS -HJ =Ki-koria. V Koria, R.
. Zanaki TLS (also has Ikizu d.). R.
. Nata TLS. R, Eth Ikoma.
-->Sonjo TLS. R, Eth Temi. Very different from others!
. Ngurimi TLS. R.
Kikuyu-KambaKikuyu Wanjiku Ng'ang'a. R, Eth Gikuyu.
. Embu TLS. R.
. Meru TLS. R.
Tharaka Jarel Deaton (barred i is really under-arch). R, V.
Chuka TLS. Eth CUH
Kamba W.H.Whitely & M.B.Muli 1962; 9 #s also in Guthrie. R.
>Daiso R, Eth DHS Dhaiso
ChagaChaga Jarel Deaton. R, Et Chagga.
TLS has dd. Keni, Kibosho, Kimochi, Machame (JMC), Mamba, Mkuu, Siha, Vunjo (VUN). Eth has these as dd. prev. except those with codes, and Kimochi not found.
>Rwo R, Eth RWK Rwa
-->Kahe TLS (missing #6,9). R.
Gweno Seleman Sewangi (native speaker). V, R.
Nyika -->Pokomo HJ. V, R, Eth POJ Lower ~, PKB Upper ~ (slightly bigger).
-->Nyika HJ =Nika. V Nika, R, Eth Giryama.
-->Digo Jarel Deaton (missing 6-10). R.
Taita Claudia Zaslavsky 1973.

Zone FTongwe>Tongwe R, Eth TNY
-->Bende TLS (missing 3, 8). R.
-->Fipa TLS. R. TLS says it's in zone M; Eth says here.
Sukuma-NyamweziNyamwezi Clement Maganga & Thilo Schadeberg 1992 . R.
-->Sumbwa TLS; #3,5 from HJ =NW Nyamwezi. V Mweri d. Nyamwesi, R.
Sukuma I. Richardson & W.M. Mann, didn't get date! (NU). R.
-->Kimbu TLS (missing #3). R.
. Bungu TLS. R.
Nyilamba-Langi. Nyilamba Malcolm Guthrie 1970 (four #s from TLS) =Nilamba. R, Eth Nilamba.
. Rimi TLS =Nyaturucha. HJ =Ki-nyaturu, R, V Remi, Eth Nyaturu.
. Langi TLS. R, Eth Rangi.
-->Mbugwe (Irangi) HJ =Iranggi. R Mbugwe, V Irangi.
-->Mbugu A.D. Shaw 1885 via PP. R. Eth says mixed lg, Bantu inflections + Cushitic lexicon.

Zone GGogo-->Gogo HJ. R, V.
-->Kaguru HJ. R, V/Eth Kagulu.
Shambala-->Shambala Malcolm Guthrie 1970 (4 #s from HJ) =Sambaa. V, R.
. Tubeta TLS. R, Eth Taveta.
. Casu TLS =N. Pare. Eth/V = Asu. R.
. Bondei TLS -HJ. R, V.
Zigula-Zaramo. Zigula TLS -HJ. R, V.
>Ngwele R, Eth NHE Nghwele
. Zaramo TLS -HJ =Dzalamo. R, V.
Doe TLS. Eth DOE
. Ngulu TLS. R.
-->Ruguru TLS (#1-2 only). R.
. Kami TLS -HJ =Kami or Ki-ruguru. R, V.
. Kutu TLS. R.
>Vidunda R, Eth VID
-->Sagara HJ =Kaguru or N. Sagara. R, V/Eth Sagala.
SwahiliSwahili D.V.Perrott 1950. R.
Kimvita, Kiamu dd. in HJ. Quite unexciting, exc. 1 = moya in Kiamu. Eth dd. prev.
-->Pemba Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R, Eth d. Swahili.
Komoro Jarel Deaton =Shimasiwa. R, V, Eth Comorian.
-->Tikuu HJ =Ki-tikuu. R, V, Eth d. Swahili.
Pogoro. Pogoro TLS -HJ. R, V Pogolo.
-->Ndamba TLS (missing #5). R.
Bena-Kinga -->Sango HJ =Sanggo. R, V, Eth Sangu.
. Hehe TLS -HJ. R, V.
. Bena TLS -HJ. R, V.
. Pangwa TLS -HJ. R, V.
-->Kinga TLS (#6-10 from HJ). R, V.
. Wanji TLS. R.
. Kisi TLS -HJ =Kese. R, V.

Zone HKongo. Kikongo R/Eth Kongo. Also in Guthrie.
Bembe A. Jacquot, Études Beembe 1981. He had accents over the : mark which I changed to reduplications: e.g. àá for à:|. R, Eth Beembe.
-->Yombe HJ =Ki-yombe. R, V Yombe d. Kongo.
>Kunyi R, Eth KNF
>Ndingi R, Eth d. Kongo
R, Eth d. Kongo
R, Eth DOD Doondo
Mbundu-->Kimbundu Heli Chatelain 1889. R North Mbundu, V/Eth Mbundu. Note that there's also a South Mbundu in Zone R. (But this source matches HJ pretty well.)
-->Sama HJ =Kisama. R, V.
-->Bolo HJ =Libolo. R, V.
-->Songo HJ =Songgo. R, V, Eth Nsongo.
YakaYaka Jarel Deaton. R.
-->Suku Jarel Deaton (#1-7 only). R.
>Hungu R, Eth mentioned as rel. next but no codes
-->Mbangala HJ =Um-banggala. R, V Yongo d. Mbangala.
>Sinji R, Eth mentioned as rel. prev. but no codes
Hungana -->Hungana HJ =Huana. V, R.

Zone JNyoro-LugandaNyoro Malcolm Guthrie 1970 (#6 from TLS). R.
Luganda E.O.Ashton et al.1954; 9 numbers also in Guthrie. V/Eth Ganda, R.
. Soga TLS. R.
. Gwere TLS. R.
-->Nyala HJ =Lu-nyara. R, V, Eth East ~.
Nyankole Malcolm Guthrie 1970 (#6 from TLS) =Nyankore. V, not in R. The is from C. This group is in D in Guthrie (and V) but R has its sis. all in J. Dalby notes that J was introduced later anyway.
Nkore-Kiga Charles Taylor 1985. Not in R. Numbers are v. similar to Nyankole. Guthrie has Nyankore and Ciga next to each other in zone E; V gives Nkole and Kiga as alternatives of these. Eth has CHG Chiga and NYN Nyole (no Nyore).
Haya-Kwaya-->Karagwe HJ =Uru-karagwe. R, V Karagwe d. Nyambo.
Nyambo TLS. V Nyambo; R has Karagwe instead.
Haya Jarel Deaton. R.
. Zinza TLS. R Dzindza.
. Kerebe TLS -HJ =Uru-kerebe. R, V.
. Kwaya (Jita) TLS =Jita. R Kwaya, V/Eth Jita.
Masaba-Luyia. Masaba TLS -HJ =Lu-masaba. R, V.
Luhya L.L. Appleby, A First Luyia Grammar 1961 =Luyia. R/Eth Luyia, V.
>Nyole R, Eth NUJ
. Saamia TLS =Samia-Lugwe. R Suamia, V.
>Nyuli R, Eth alt. Nyole
R, Eth d. MYX Masaba
Konzo-->Konzo HJ =Olu-konjo. R, V, Eth Konjo.
Nande Pauline A. Fraas 1961. R, Eth Nandi.
Shi-HavuHunde Shigeki Kaji, Vocab ~ 1992. R, Eth HKE
R, Eth HAV
Shi Louise Polak-Bynon 1975. R. #4: second i has a little hook over it.
>Fuliru R, Eth FLR
R, Eth JOB Joba
-->Kabwari HJ =Ka-bwari. V, R.
>Tembo R, Eth TBT
Rwanda-Rundi Rwanda Kamugunga 1984 = Kinyarwanda. R Rwanda, V Ruanda.
Rundi Elizabeth E. Cox n.d.=Kirundi. R.
. Shubi TLS. R.
. Hangaza TLS. R.
. Vinza TLS. R.
Ha TLS. Not in R, but Eth & V put it here.

Zone KHolu>Yeci Eth d. next
R, Eth HOL
Pende Barthélémy Gusimana, Dict ~-Français 1972. V Pende; not in R; Eth Phende.
Chokwe-LuchaziChokwe Eduardo dos Santos = Quioca 1962. R, V Ciokwe.
>Luimbi R, Eth LUM
-->Luchazi HJ =Lujazi. V Lucazi, R.
Lwena Malcolm Guthrie 1970 and A.E. Horton 1949 =Luvale. R, Eth Luvale.
-->Mbuunda HJ =Mbunda. V/Eth Mbunda, R.
-->Nyengo HJ. V, R.
-->Mbwela HJ =Ngkoya. V, R.
>Nkangala R, Eth NKN
R, Eth NBA Nyemba
Salampasu-Ndembo-->Lunda (Ndembo) Malcolm Guthrie 1970 (1-5 only). R Ndembo, V.
>Salampasu R, Eth SLX
R, Eth RND
KwangwaLuyana Talmy Givón =Si-Luyana. R Luyi, V.
>Mbowe R, Eth MXO
Kwangali J.K. Kloppers 1994 =Rukwangali; also Oxford 1991 (ident.). R.
>Masi R, Eth MHO Mashi
R, Eth SIE
R, Eth only one is d. TOI Tonga in M Lenje-Tonga
-->Kwangwa HJ =Si-luyi. V Luyana, R. Eth only exists as fa name; Luyi is alt. Luyana.
Mwenyi Yasutoshi Yukawa 1987. Not in R, V d. Kwangwa. Eth d. Simaa.
Gova Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Mbukushu.
Subia>Totela R, Eth TTL
-->Subia HJ. V, R, Eth Subiya.
Mbala-->Mbala HJ =Ba-mbala. V, R.
Diriku>Diriku R, Eth DIU

Zone LBwile>Bwile R, Eth BWC
SongyeKete Jarel Deaton. R.
>Mbagani R, Eth d. next.
-->Songye HJ =NE Luba. R, V/Eth Songe.
-->Luna HJ =N Luba. R, V.
>Budya R, Eth only has as s. Shona (Zone S!)
-->Bangubangu HJ =M-banggo-banggo. V Bangobango, R.
LubaLuba-Kasai Jarel Deaton. R, V d. Luba-Lulua.
-->Kanyok HJ =Ka-nyoka. R, V Kanyoka.
Luba-Shaba Jarel Deaton. R, V Luba-Lulua, Eth Luba-Katanga.
-->Hemba HJ =E Luba. R, V.
-->Sanga HJ =S Luba. R, V.
Kaonde-->Kaonde Jarel Deaton (missing 7-9). R.
Nkoya Mbwera Jarel Deaton. R, Eth d. next.
Nkoya Jarel Deaton. R.

Zone MRungu>Pimbwe TLS -HJ =Fipa or Ki-pimbwe. V, R. Not in Eth here, but has Pimbwe as d. Fipa in Zone F, which looks very likely.
. Rungwa TLS -HJ =Nya-lunggwa. V Runga, R.
. Rungu TLS -HJ =Lunggu. V, R, Eth d. next.
Mambwe Knut Felberg . R, Eth ~-Lungu.
Nyika-Safwa . Ndali TLS. R.
. Mwanga TLS -HJ =Chi-na-mwangga. V, R.
. Nyiha TLS -HJ =Ishi-nyixa. V, R.
. Malila TLS. R.
. Safwa TLS. R.
-->Iwa Jarel Deaton (missing 7-9). R, Eth d. Mwanga.
-->Tembo Jarel Deaton (missing 7-9). R, Eth d. Mwanga.
NyakyusaNyakyusa Knut Felberg . R, Eth ~-Ngonde.
Bemba-->Taabwa HJ =Tabwa. V, R.
Bemba E. Hoch 1992. R.
Bisa-LambaBisa Jarel Deaton. R, Eth this and next dd. Lala-Bisa.
-->Lala HJ =Lala-Lamba. V, R.
>Swaka R, Eth d. prev.
Lamba Clement M. Doke 1933. R.
>Seba R, Eth KDG
Lenje-TongaLenje Ryohei Kagaya 1987. R.
. Ila Edwin W. Smith 1907; matches HJ and Dalby. R.
Tonga Jarel Deaton. R.

Zone NManda. Manda TLS -JH Unggu, Ki-manda. R, V.
. Matengo TLS. R.
. Mpoto TLS. R.
Tonga Probably JD. R.
TumbukaTumbuka Jarel Deaton. R.
Lambya TLS
NyanjaNyanja R, V. Didn't record source, but it's identical to Chichewa exc. for prefixes.
Chichewa Orr & Scotton 1980-- I also have this from Zambezi Mission 1978. V d.Nyanja.
Senga-Sena-->Senga HJ Chi-nsengga. R, V/Eth Nsenga.
-->Kunda HJ Chi-mazaro or Chi-kunda. R, V.
-->Nyungwe Victor José Courtois 1899 =Tete. R, V.
Sena P. Albano Albes 1939. R.
-->Rue HJ Chi-rue. R, V, Eth d. Sena.
-->Podzo HJ Chi-podzo. R, V, Eth d. Sena.

Zone PMatumbi. Ndengereko TLS Ndengeleko. R.
. Ruihi TLS. R, Eth Rufiji.
. Matumbi TLS; HJ =Ki-matumbi. V, R.
. Ngindo TLS; HJ Chi-nggindo. R, V.
YaoYao Jarel Deaton. R.
Mwera Lyndon Harries 1950; #10 is from HJ. R.
Makonde M.Viegas Guerreiro 1963. R.
>Ndonde R, Eth NDS
Mabiha Lyndon Harries n.d =Maw^iha (Miyula d.). Spelling modernized. R, Eth d. Makonde.
MakuaMakua Francisco Manuel de Castro 1933 = Èmakua. R, Eth Makhuwa.
-->Lomwe HJ. R, V.
>Ngulu R, Eth alt. prev.
-->Chuabo HJ I-chuabo. R, V Cuabo, Eth Chuwabo.

Zone RS MbunduS Mbundu Not sure of source. HJ =Um-bundu. R, V Mbundu, Eth Umbundu.
-->Ndombe HJ. R, V.
-->Nyaneka HJ =Olu-nyaneka. R, V.
Nkumbi E.O.J. Westphal, Afr Lg Studies 1961. R, Eth Nkhumbi.
Ndonga-->Kwanyama HJ =Kuanyama. R, V.
Ndonga Derek Fivaz & Sakaria Shikomba 1986 =Oshindonga. R. I also have this from the same source as Herero, called Oshiwambo, wh. selon Eth = Ndonga.
>Kwambi R, Eth KWM
>Ngandyera R, Eth NNE
HereroHerero Oxford U. Press 1991. R, V.

Zone SShona. Shona R.
Zezuru Jarel Deaton. R, Eth d. prev.
-->Manyika Malcolm Guthrie 1970 (6 numbers only). R, V d. Shona.
Karanga C.S. Louw 1915 =Chikaranga. R, V, Eth d. Shona.
-->Ndau HJ Chi-ndau. R, V Ndau d. Shona.
Kalanga C.M. Doke 1954. R, V d. Shona.
Venda. Venda Jarel Deaton. R.
Sotho-TswanaSetswana R Tswana, V Tswana.
Northern Sotho Pam Wilken & I.S. Masola 1994. R, V.
Sesotho R.H. Moeketsi, Reader's Digest 1991. R/Eth Southern Sotho, V.
-->Lozi Owen O'Sullivan 1993 =Silozi (missinhg 6-9). R, V.
Nguni. Xhosa R, V d. Nguni.
. Zulu R, V d. Nguni.
Swazi D.K.Rycroft 1981 =SiSwati. R Swati, V Swati d. Nguni, Eth Swati.
Ndebele James & Pamela Pelling 1974. R, V.
Ngoni Probably JD. R. Eth alt. Zulu, or fa., or d. Nsenga, Nyanja, or Tumbala!
Tswa-RongaTswa J.A. Persson, Outlines of ~ Gram 1932. R, Eth Tshwa.
. Tonga Jarel Deaton. R. Eth alt. next, or d. Ndau. (There's also Tongas in N and M, but this one definitely fits here.)
Tsonga EJM Baumbach 1987. R, V.
Ronga José Luís Quintão = Xironga. R, V.
Chopi Chopi C.M. Doke 1954. R, V.
Tonga-Imhambane B. Collins 1962. R, V, Eth Gitonga.

ASIA Uralic 328

Proto- Finno-Ugric+ Miguel Carrasquer Vidal


Finnish Peter Bergman 1968. R, V.
Meänkieli Morgan Nyman. Eth Tornedalian Finnish.
Kven Finnish is Eth FKV.
Ingrian Ruben Erik Nirvi, Inkeroismurteiden Sanakirja 1971 (JD). R.
Karelian Esa Anttikoski, U.Joensuu. R, V.
Olonets Esa Anttikoski, U.Joensuu. R, V Olonetsian d. Karelian, Eth Livvi.
Ludic Jennifer Runner =Ludian. R, V d. Karelian, Eth Ludian.
Veps Esa Anttikoski, U.Joensuu. R and V Vepsian.
Sódjärv PP (from M. Zaitseva & M. Mullonen 1969). (PP lists this as Saami, but it looks more like Veps, and there is a North Vepse village called Sout'ärv)
Votic Frank Valoczy. R, V, Eth Vod.
Estonian R, V.
Livonian Uldis Balodis. R, V.


Saami (Lapp) R 3 lg, V 8 lg, Eth 11.
Southern Eliel Lagercrantz, Sprachlehre des Südlappischen 1923. R. Some exotic diacritics omitted.
Northern Johanna Laakso (official orthography). R.
Eastern Johanna Laakso =Inari. R.
G.M. Kerm in SOV, Lovozero d. (identified by PP).
Skolt (a Russian d.) Jennifer Runner.


Udmurt (Votyak) Also Campbell 1991. R.
Komi R.
Zyrian V.I. Lytkin in SOV. Also Campbell 1991 (matches)
Permyat V.I. Lytkin in SOV.


Mari (Cheremis) E.I. Kovedyaeva in SOV =Lugovo-Vostochnij Mari. Campbell 1991. Eth Low Mari.
Gornomari E.I. Kovedyaeva in SOV . Eth High Mari.
Mordvin A.P. Feoktistov in SOV (Erzya d.)
Moksha Jarel Deaton


Hungarian Peter Bergman 1968
Khanty N.I. Tereshkin in SOV. Campbell 1991
Mansi E.I. Rombandeeva in SOV. Campbell 1991


Selkup E.D. Prokof'eva in SOV. V Ostyak Samoyed, R.
Nenets N.M. Tereshchenko in SOV. V Yurak Samoyed, R.
Enets Jarel Deaton. V Yenisei Samoyed, R.
Nganasan N.M. Tereshchenko in SOV. V Tavgy, R.
Kamas+ R Kamas, Eth ~ or alt. Kamassian.

ASIA Altaic 328


Old Turkic+ Jarel Deaton. R.


Chuvash I.A. Andreev in SOV. Near = Campbell 1991, who has zh' where Andreev has (Cyrillic) ç-- but says it's a sibilant, not s or sh-- I've represented it as s'.


Turkish Lewis V. Thomas 1967. R.
Crimean Turkish Jarel Deaton. R.
Turkmen N.A. Baskarova, B.A. Karryeva, M.Ya. Khamzaeva 1968. R.
Khalaj Gerhard Doerfer 1988. R.
Gagauz L.A. Pokrovskaya in SOV. Also Jarel. R.
Azerbaijani Öztopçu, Abtlov, Kambarov, Azemoun, Dict of the Turkic Lgs 1996-- official orthography. R.
-->Qashqay Jarel Deaton (missing 6-9). R, Eth Qashqa'i.


Uyghur Abdulrakhim Aitbayev, CO Sch Mines
Uzbek Öztopçu, Abtlov, Kambarov, Azemoun 1996-- official orthography. Also Kamran M.Khakimov 1994 who just uses ç for ch, û for o'.
Yellow Uighur S.E. Malov, Jazyk Zheltyx Uigurov 1957. V, R Salar.
Salar Reinhard Hahn. V d. Yellow Uighur.
Western Yughur Reinhard Hahn. Not in V or R, but v. close to Salar. Ramsey says "Yugur" is the Chinese term for Yellow Uighur; they are distinct from Salar. Eth sayes Western Yugur = Yellow Uighur.
Fu-yü Gïrgïs Hu Zhenhua & Guy Imart 1987. Not in V or R or Eth, but close to Salar.
Chagatay+ János Eckmann 1966. Eth puts this here; not in V or R.


Bashkir A.A. Yuldashev in SOV. I use sh after Campbell; it's written 3,, and explained as a voiced affricate. Campbell 1991
Karachay M.A. Xabichev in SOV. also Jarel. R.
Karaim Jarel Deaton = Galits d.; also has Trakay d., differs just in #3-5. Both are also in K.M. Musaev in SOV, same exc. for transcription; I'm unsure of some e/ye's, gh. R.
Kumyk Jarel Deaton. R.
Tatar Öztopçu, Abtlov, Kambarov, Azemoun 1996.
Baraba L.V. Dmitrieva in SOV =Barabin. R.
Crimean Tatar E.V. Sevortyan in SOV =Barabin. R. Eth says either Judeo-Crimean Tatar (JCT) or Crimean Turkish (see Turkish).


Kazakh Abdulrakhim Aitbayev
Kyrghyz Reinhard Hahn
Nogai N.A. Baskakov in SOV. Also Jarel (matches). R.
Karakalpak N.A. Baskakov in SOV. Also Jarel (matches). R.


Yakut E.I. Ubryatova in SOV. Campbell 1991 (he has gh instead of G, but SOV sez it's an uvular fricative). R.
Dolgan Jarel Deaton. R.
Khakas Jarel Deaton. Also B.G. Karpov in SOV; matches exc. Karpov has Cyrillic i where J has e, and a Roman i where J has i! R.
Altay N.A. Baskakov in SOV. Campbell 1991
>Northern Altai
Chulym A.P. Dul'zon in SOV. R. Eth classes with Bashkir.
Shor N.A. Baskakov in SOV. R.
Tuvan Sh.Ch. Sat in SOV. Also Jarel (matches). R Tuva, V Tuva.
Karagas Jarel Deaton. R.


Middle Mongolian+ Mikael Thompson, net.
Classical Mongolian+ Campbell, I think. Mikael confirms the identification.
Mongolian Mikael Thompson; also John G. Hangin 1968. V Khalkha, R Khalkha.
Khorchin Pavel Petrov. R, Et d. Peripheral Mongolian.
Ordos Pavel Petrov. R.
Buryat T.A. Bermagaev in SOV. y in #3 is a `high out-back labial' vowel, whatever that means. Also Campbell. R Buriat.
-->Oirat Yakhontova 1996; this is a 17C source (PP). Eth either Darkhat DAY or Kalmuk.
Kalmyk B.X. Todaeva in SOV. Also in Campbell (matches). Eth Kalmuk-Oirat.
Eastern Yurghur Reinhard Hahn . Not in R or V. But perh. = R's Yellow Uighur? Eth E. Yugur.
Pao-an (Bonan). Reinhard Hahn =Bonan. V, R, Eth Bonan.
Dongxiang (Santa) Reinhard Hahn =Dongxiang. R Santa, V: Tung-hsiang d.Pao-an.
Monguor Reinhard Hahn. R, Eth Tu.
>Yellow Uighur See above?
Dagur Reinhard Hahn =Daghur. V, R, Eth Daur.
Moghol Jarel Deaton; some from Omeljan Pritsak, Handbuch der Orientalistik 1964. R.


Proto-Tungus+ Johannes Benzing, Die tungusischen Sprachen 1955.
Negidal Sergei Starostin; #3 from Benzing 1955. Also B.D. Kolesnikova & O.A. Konstantinova in SOV; a little different. R.
Even K.A. Novikova in SOV. Also Campbell 1991 (a little different, not just diff. transcription) R.
Evenki O.A. Konstantinova in SOV. Also Campbell 1991. R.
Solon Reinhard Hahn. R. Eth alt. Evenki.
>Manegir Eth "may be related" to above.
Orochon Reinhard Hahn. R Orochon, V Orochon, Eth Oroqen.
Manchu Benzing 1955. R.
Ju-chen+ György Kara in Daniels & Bright 1996. j's have a hachek. R, Eth Jurchen.
Sibe (Xibo) Reinhard Hahn. Not in R. V Sibo = Colloquial Manchu. Ramsey says they're basically a dialect of Manchu with separate nationality status in China.
Nanay V.A. Avrorin in SOV. Also Campbell 1991 (matches except C has ng for Cyrillic n-g!). R/V: group Nanaj, Eth Nanai.
Hezhen Nanay Reinhard Hahn. Not in R or V. Ramsey says that these are just the Nanay who live in China (as opposed to Russia).
>Akani Eth d. Nanay.
>Birar Eth d. Nanay.
Gold Benzing 1955. R. Eth alt. Nanay.
Olcha Sergei Starostin; #3 from Benzing 1955. R, Eth Ulch.
Orok Sergei Starostin. #3 from SOV. R.
>Samagir Eth d. Nanay.
Oroch V.A. Avrorin & E.P. Pebedeva in SOV. Also Jarel (close match). R.
Udihe O.P. Sunik in SOV. R.

ASIA Korean

Korean B.J. Jones & Gene S. Rhie 1995
Sino-Korean B.J. Jones & Gene S. Rhie 1995


Old Japanese+ Campbell 1991
native Samuel Martin 1954
Sino-Japanese Samuel Martin 1954
Okinawan Jarel Deaton (from an Okinawan waitress!). R Ryukyuan, V d. Ryukyuan, Eth 11 lgs.; this is their Central ~.

SINO Sino-Tibetan

Proto-Sino-Tibetan+ Glen Gordon.


Proto-Chinese+ Dh (older than OC; informed by TB)
Old Chinese+ William H. Baxter 1992.
Middle Chinese+ William H. Baxter 1992; also Bernhard Karlgren 1923 =Ancient Ch..
Mandarin (Be^iji:ng) T'ung & Pollard 1982; phonetic from Campbell, below
Xi'an, Chéngdù, Yángzho:u Sergei Starostin (+ Jinan, Taiyuan, Hankou)
Mùpíng, Nánji:ng, Ürümqi James Campbell (
Dungan A. Kalimov in SOV. A d. of Gansu spoken in Kyrghyzstan!
Jin (Píngyáo) James Campbell. Eth Jinyu.
Xiang (Changsha) Sergei Starostin.
Shuangfeng Sergei Starostin
Wu (Shanghai) Benjamin Ao (also Starostin)
Suzhou R.A.D.Forrest 1948 (but #4, 9 from Starostin)
Wenzhou Sergei Starostin
Gan (Nanchang) Sergei Starostin.
Cantonese James Campbell (Gua^ngzho:u)
Hong Kong: same exc. tone on #3 is 55, on #5 13, and #6 is luk
Taishan Patrick Chew.
N. Min (Jiano:u) James Campbell. Eth Min Bei.
E. Min (Fúzho:u) Mike Wright (also Starostin). Eth Min Dong.
S. Min (Xiàmén) Mike Wright (also Starostin). Eth Min Nan.
Hailam S.C. de Souza, ~ Colloquial Chinese
1903 (JD). Hainanese Minnan from Singapore.Chaozhou Starostin
Hakka (Siyan) Mike Wright. Also Meixian from Starostin-- v. similar
Táoyuán James Campbell


Bai (Minchia) Dh (Jiànchua:n, Dàlî, Bìjia:ng). Ch has a good version, but it looks like it's Dali and I prefer having all 3 dd. R Minchia, V Bai and Tali.

Tibeto- Burman

Proto-Tibeto-Burman+ Paul K. Benedict, Sino-Tibetan: A Conspectus 1972; also Dh.
Sulung Dh, Shri Aduk Tayeng, ~ Lg Guide 1990. Not in R or V; Eth TB N. Assam.
Sherdukpen James A. Matisoff, Sino-Tibetan Numeral Systems: Prefixes, Protoforms, and Problems 1997 (JD). Not in R or V. Eth unclassified TB.

Karen 331, 198

Proto-Karen+ Dh.
-->Wewaw V, A; not in R.

Pho Paul K. Benedict, Sino-Tibetan: A Conspectus 1972 (but tones are from A). V, R, A Pwo (literary + 2 d.); Eth E. Pwo.
Taungthu (Pa-o) Paul K. Benedict 1972. V, R Pa-o, A, Eth Pa'o Karen.

-->Bwe V, R, A.
Brä. V Brè, Bræ d.Bwe, A.
Karenni. V d.Bwe, A; Eth alt. E. or W. Kayah
Manö A, V Mano d.Bwe, Eth KXF Manumanaw
Zayein A, V d.Bwe, Eth KXK
Kayah Jarel Deaton. R; Eth W. Kayah
Eastern Kayah Li David B. Solnit, ~ 1997. =JD's except: 1 has schwa; 5 has 1st syl. only; no glottal stop in 5-9. Eth EKY
-->Yinbaw V Yeinbaw d.Bwe; R Yinbaw, AYeinbå, Eth KVU
-->Karenbyu (Geba) V d.Bwe; R Geba sis.Bwe, A, Eth KVQ
-->Padaung V d. Bwe, R sis. Bwe, A, Eth.
. Gekho Dh (rather close to A!). V Gheko, R, A, Eth Geko.
Sgaw Paul K. Benedict 1972. V, R, A Sgå, Eth S'gaw.
. Mopwa Dh Palaychi. V Palaychi? or Bilichi d. Mopwa?, R, A (2 d.). Eth's Mopwa = d. Paku, but it has Palaychi as a d. Sgaw.
Pakü Dh Paku. R.
>Brec Eth Karen/Brek KVL t Bwe; R; V = Bwe!

Tibetic 331, 153 + 327

Miju Mishmi (Kaman) Dh Mishmi Kiman. V Miju: Mishmi, A, R Kaman. Jarel also supplied "Miju" which seems to be a form of this, tho' it's just possibly what V has as Midu d. Digaro.

Hruso (Aka) Dh. A, V/R Hruso.

Newari Dh. A, V, R.
Pahri Dh. A d.Newari, V Pahri d.Newari, R Pahri sis.Newari, Eth d. Newari.

Digaru Mishmi Jatan Pulu, A Phrase Boook on Taraon Lg 1991 =Taraon; tones from Dh. V Diga:ru Mishmi, A; R Digaro, Dh/Eth Digaro.
Idu Pulu 1991. Dh Idu-Ind[ia]. V Chulikata Mishmi sis. Digaru, Eth Idu. Not in R.
Lhoba Dh Idu-Lhoba, not in R. Eth alt. Idu.
>Midu. In case this is not the same as Idu. Eth alt. Idu.

Motuo Dh (also has Dirang). Not in V or R. Eth alt. TSJ Tshangla.

-->Dhimal Dh, V, A, R 600.
-->Toto Dh, V, A, R.

. Lepcha Dh (may be old; #10 from A). V, R in Bodo-Naga-Kachin, A (Rong or Lepcha).
-->Adi Dh (not sure if it's more recent!), V, R, A Abor.
Miri Dh, A, V = Adi, not in R.
-->Dafla V sis. Gurung and Gyarung; A; R Tagen ( in V as a d.), Eth alt. Nishi.
Nishi Shri Aduk Tayeng, ~ Phrase Book 1990. Also JD (no #1). Dh, R, Eth Nisi.
Apatani Jarel Deaton. Dh, R.
Yano Jarel Deaton. R, Eth rel. Nisi.
Lho-pa (Bokar Adi) Jarel Deaton. R.
Bokar. Shri Arak Megu, ~ Lg guide 1990. Eth Boga'er Lhoba d. Adi, Dh Bokar Adi. Well, Dh has a "Bogar Lhoba" too, v. similar.

Monpa Dh (N and S dd.). R, Eth Moinba.
Takpa Dh. A, V d.Tibetan; Eth sis. Tibetan fa.
-->Gyarung Dh, V, R, A, Eth alt. Jiarong.
Kaike James A. Matisoff, Sino-Tibetan Numeral Systems 1997 (JD). R.
-->Ghale Dh (#1-2 only). R.
-->Murmi A, V, R Tamang. In Dh but seems = A (and missing #10).
-->Manang Dh (missing some). R.
-->Gurung V, R, A, Eth E. Gurung.
Thakali Matisoff 1997 (JD). Dh, R.
Classical Tibetan+ Stephan R. Beyer 1992.
Tibetan Anil Gupta 1992. R, V, A B`otia:.
Ladakhi Campbell 1991 A/V d.Tibetan.
Spiti A/V d.Tibetan.
Ka:gate A/V d.Tibetan, Eth SYW,
Sherpa James A. Matisoff, Sino-Tibetan Numeral Systems 1997 (JD). A Sherpa, V d.Tibetan.
Dänjongkä A/V d.Tibetan, Eth alt. Sikkimese SIP.
Hloka A d.Tibetan, V Lhoskad d.Tibetan.
Dzongkha (Bhutanese). Jarel Deaton. V d. Tibetan.
Jad D.D. Sharma 1989 (cf. Darmiya). V d. Tibetan.
Sharma also has Marchha, Johari, unID'd. These are in Dh too. Johari = Eth d. Kumauni.
Stod Bothi D.D. Sharma, Tribal Lgs of Himachal Pradesh 1989 =Tod. Not in R, Eth SBU.
Zhang-zhung+ Jarel Deaton. Dh, R, Eth Jangshung.
-->(West Tibetan R, V.)
Balti, A d.Tibetan, R d.West Tibetan.
Purik A d.Tibetan, V d.West Tibetan, Eth BXR

Central Himalayan
-->Magari A, V, R Magar, Eth E. Magar.
Raji D.D. Sharma 1989 (cf. Darmiya); sez in Munda! R; not in V.
>Raute Eth RAU
-->Kham Dh (1-3 only). R; Eth Takale Kham-- biggest of several Khams.
-->Kusunda Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R.
Vayu Boyd Michailovsky, La langue Hayu 1988. 5-10 now Nepali. V, R, A, Eth Wayu.
Chepang Dh. R.

West Himalayan
Bunan D.D. Sharma, Tribal Lgs of Himachal Pradesh 1989. R, Eth alt. Gahri.
-->Thebor Jarel Deaton (missing #1, 10). R; Eth alt. Sungam or Shumcho or Jangshung!
>Sumchu Eth Shumcho SCU.
>Sungam Eth SSK Sunam.
Kanauri Dh. V Kana:wari, R, A, Eth Kinnauri
Chitkuli D.D. Sharma, A Compar Gram of the Tibeto-Himalayan Lgs 1994 (JD). R.
>Tukpa Eth TPQ
-->Kanashi V, R, A Kanas'i.
Manchati Sharma Tribal Lgs 1989. V, R, A, Eth alt. Pattani.
-->Chamba V, R Chamba Lahuli d.Manchati, A Chamba Lahuli.
Rangloi Sharma Tribal Lgs 1989. R, Eth alt. Tinani.
-->Rangkas V, R, A.
Darmiya D.D. Sharma, Tibeto-Himalayan Lgs of Uttarakhand 1989. Dh, R.
Chaudangsi D.D. Sharma 1989; sez = Byangsi too. Dh, R.
Byangsi Gorind Mohan Trivedi, Descriptive Gram of Byansi 1991. Also JD. R.
-->Thami V, R, A.
-->Bhramu Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R, Eth Baraamu.

East Himalayan
Thulung Dh. A d.Khambu, V, R; Eth W
-->Chaurasya A d.Khambu (#5,10 from Jarel), V, R, Eth Chourase.
-->Bahing R, V, A d.Khambu, Eth W
>Umbule R, Eth alt. Chaurasya.
Sunwar Dh. V, R Sunwari, A; Eth W
Dumi George van Driem, A Gram of ~ 1993. A d.Khambu, V, R; Eth W
Khaling Sueyoshi & Ingrid Toba 1975. A d.Khambu, V, R; Eth W
-->Rai, Jimdar A d.Khambu, V, R; Eth Rai includes many lgs.

-->Khambu V, R, A. Eth d. Kulung.
Sangpang.V has as = Khambu, but A has it as a sep.d. Eth C
-->Nachereng A d.Khambu, V, R; Eth Nachering, C
. Kulung Dh (but #10 from A). A d.Khambu, V = Khambu, R; Eth C
-->Rodong, Chamling A d.Khambu, V, R. Eth: Rodong = Kiranti (fam); Chamling = Camling C.
-->Waling Dh, V, R, A d.Khambu; Eth C
-->Rungchhenbung A d.Khambu; V d.Waling, R Rungchenbung; Eth d. Bantawa, C
-->Kiranti Jarel Deaton =Mewahang; #s missing. R. He also has Bantawa wh. Eth has as a group overlying Waling, Rungchenbung etc. Eth Meohang, C.
-->Dungmali A d.Khambu, V d.Waling, R; Eth C

-->Lambichong Dh, V, R, A d.Khambu (1-3 only). Eth E
Chhingtang A d.Khambu, V = Lambichong; Eth Chhintang E
-->Athpare Jarel Deaton (#1-3, #8-9 only). R; Eth Athpariya E
-->Lohorong V, R, A d.Khambu; Eth Lorung E
Balali. V has as = Lohorong, but A has it as a sep.d.Khambu. Eth d. Meohang.
Yamphu Roland Rutgers, Yamphu 1998. Not in V or R; Eth E
-->Yakha Dh, V, A, R, Eth E.
Limbu George Van Driem 1987. Dh, V, R, A; Eth E
Thauchu A, not in V.)
Haurpa A, not in V.)


Many of these are newly investigated lgs. and not in R or V. Eth has them in Qiangic group-- some of them it used to have but no longer does! Matisoff's web page lists most of these here.
Tangut+ (Sihia) Campbell 1991. Ivan has another set; JD has one as Hsihsia, and A as S-hia. V/R Sihia.
N Qiang Jarel Deaton (Taoping, Mawo d.). Dh, R Ch'iang, V Ch'iang, Eth Northern Qiang. Note: JD's and Dh's Mawo are obv. from same source.
-->Dzorgai Henri Marie Gustave d'Ollone, Lgs des Peuples Non-Chinois de la Chine 1912 (JD). R, Eth was Qiang/Dzorgai.
-->Kortse d'Ollone 1912. R, Eth was Qiang/Kortse.
Ergong James A. Matisoff, Sino-Tibetan Numeral Systems 1997 (JD). Dh (Er-go:ng, fairly sim.); Eth.
>Pingfang R, Eth was Pingfang Qiang.
Thochu Dh. R, Eth was Qiang/Thochu.
Queyu Dh Quèyù, 2 dd. Eth.
Zhaba Dh Zhábà. Eth.
S Qiang Dh. Eth.
. Ersu Dh Ersu: (#10 is from Matisoff 1997, via JD). Eth Ersu.
-->Lyusu Dh Lyusu: (no #10). Eth Lisu d. Ersu.
-->Guiqiong Dh Guìqióng (no #10). Eth.
-->Muya Dh Mùya^ (no #10). Eth.
Pumi Dh. Eth N (PMI) & S Pumi (PUS).
Shixing Dh Shíxi:ng. Eth .
-->Namuyi Dh Nàmùyì(no #10; also has a variant Namuzi). Eth in Lolo, sez Namuzi is autonym.

Baric 332, 82

-->Deuri:-Chutiya: A, R Chutiya, not in V, Eth Deuri.
. Bodo Dalby. Dh Boro? A, V, R.
. Dimasa Dh (#10 from A). A Di:ma:-sa:, R, V d.Bodo.
Tripuri Dh. A =Tipura:; not in V; R; Eth Kok Borok.
-->Lalung Jarel Deaton (1-3, 6, 10). A (2 #'s only) La:lung, R, not in V.
>Moran+ R, Not in Eth.
Garo Campbell 1991 (identical to Dh). A, V.
-->Ko:ch A; R; V group incl Atong and Wanang A gives only say `borrows from Bengali'. (JD says, from Assamese!)
Atong Dh. V. Eth A'tong.
(Tangsa. Dh, V, R)
Tableng A, V Angwanku d.Tangsa, not in R, Eth d. Konyak.
Banpara A, V d.Tangsa, not in R, Eth alt. Wancho.
Namsangia A, V d.Tangsa, not in R, Eth alt. Nocte.
Tamlu A, V d.Tangsa, not in R, Eth alt. Phom.
-->Chang Dh. A, R, V d.Tangsa.
Moshang Dh. A, R, V d.Tangsa, Eth Monsang Naga.
>Shangge Eth d. Tase Naga.
Konyak James A. Matisoff, Sino-Tibetan Numeral Systems 1997 (JD). R.
Wancho Matisoff 1997. R.
Nocte Dh. R.
Phom Matisoff 1997. R.


Naga ,246

Meithei Dh. A, V, R, Eth Meitei.

Mikir Dh, Dalby. A, R, V Naga-Mikir.

Mru Dh. A w 'Burma', R, V Mro in Lolo-Moso?

Northern Naga
NB: Eth names in Naga and Kuki usually have `Naga' or `Chin' after them; e.g. Yimchungru Naga. I don't note this for individual languages.
Yimchungru James A. Matisoff, Sino-Tibetan Numeral Systems 1997 (JD). R.
Lhota Campbell 1991 A Hlo:ta:, V Hlot, R =? Lotha, Eth Lotha.
Lophomi Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Sangtam.
-->Thukumi A, V, R, Eth d. prev.
Pochuri James A. Matisoff, Sino-Tibetan Numeral Systems 1997 (JD), Dh. R.
Mongsen Jarel Deaton. R, Eth d. Ao.
-->Yachumi A, V, not in R; Eth alt. Yimchungru.
Ao K.S. Gurubasare Gowda, Ao Gram 1975. Also Campbell 1991 Dh, A, V, R.
-->Tengsa A, V Tensa, R. Not in Eth.

Eastern Naga
-->Rengma Dh (this is SW; he also has NW). A, V, R.
Ntenyi James A. Matisoff, Sino-Tibetan Numeral Systems 1997 (JD). R.
Meluri Matisoff 1997. R.
-->Kezhama A, R, V d.Simi, Eth Kezha.
Mao Matisoff 1997. Dh, R.
-->Zumomi Carl Masthay (#2, #8), Jarel Deaton (still missing #1, #9). R.
Sema Dh. A, V Simi, R has as group: Kezhama, Mao, Zumomi; Eth Sumi.
-->Sopvoma A, R Mao, V d.Simi, Eth alt. Mao.
Angami Dh. A, V, R.
Chakrima Jarel Deaton. R.

Southern Naga
-->Maring A, V, R. In Dh but seems = A.
Tangkhul Dh. Also in Dalby. A, V, R.
Phadang A/V d.Tangkhul, not in R.
-->Khangoi A d.Tangkhul, V Khunggoi, not in R.
-->Kupome Robert Shafer, Introduction to Sino-Tibetan 1966-1974 (JD: missing 2,4,7,8). R, Eth d. Tangkhul.


Western Kuki
Maram Dh. A, V w Naga, R
-->Kabui A, V Kabiu, not in R.
Liangmai James A. Matisoff, Sino-Tibetan Numeral Systems 1997 (JD). Dh, R.
Nruanghmei Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Rongmei.
Khoirao Dh. A, V d.Kabiu in Naga, R
Zeme Matisoff 1997. R.
-->Empeo A, V sis.Maram. Not in Eth; web sources say = Zeme.
-->Kwoireng A, V, R =? Liangmai (since in V = Liya:ng), Eth Koireng.

Northern Kuki
Kamhau James A. Matisoff, Sino-Tibetan Numeral Systems 1997 (exc. #1 from Eugénie J.A. Henderson, London Oriental Series 15, 1965) (JD). R. Eth d. Thado.
-->Siyin A, V, R.
Thado Dh, A, V, R.
Paite H. Kamkhenthang, Eng-Paite Dict 1972 (#4-8 from Jarel-- Matisoff 1977). R Vuite.
-->Ralte Jarel Deaton (1-2 only!). R.
Zo Dh Zou. R, Eth Zome.

Old Kuki
-->Kyao Jarel Deaton (1-2 only!). R.
Anal Dh. A, V, R.
-->Lamgang A Hiroi-Lamgang, V Hiroi-Lamgang 750, R, Eth Lamkang.
-->Kolhreng A, V, R, Eth alt. Kom.
Kom Dh. A.V, R.
-->Tarao Jarel Deaton and Carl Masthay (missing #7). R.
-->Aimol A, V 750 Aimal, R.
-->Chiru A, V, R.
-->Purum A, V 300, R.
-->Langrong Dh, A, V, R.
>Southern Luhupa A website says it's the same as Tangkhul.
-->Hrangkhol A, V, R.
-->Biate Jarel Deaton (missing #7), Carl Masthay (#4). R, Eth Biete.
-->Hallam A, V, R, Eth Falam. Dalby has this (=Falam), but I don't trust it. (All but the prefixes are the same as A, and he has a: for A's a-ring, which looks just wrong.)

Central Kuki
>Langet Not in Eth.
Mizo Jarel Deaton. R.
>Zahao Eth alt. Falam.
Hmar Jarel Deaton. Dh, R.
-->Pankhu A, V, R.
>Paang Eth d. Lushai.
Haka Verena Reichle 1981 =Bawm, A Lai, V, R, Eth Bawm.
-->Shonshe Jarel Deaton (missing #3, 10). R.
Mara Jarel Deaton. R.
Tlongsai Jarel Deaton. R, Eth d. Mara.
>Hawthai Eth Hlawthai d. Mara.
>Sabeu Eth d. Mara.
Lushai Dh, Dalby. A Lushe:i, V in Central Chin (= Central Kuki)
-->Banjogi A, V Zotung in Central Chin, Eth alt. Zotung.
Taungtha Dh. A, V in Central Chin, not in Eth.

Southern Kuki
Sho Dh. A, V Asho, R, Eth Asho.
>Khyeng Eth alt. SHL Shendu or of Asho.
>Khyang Eth alt. Sho.
-->Thayetmyo Chin A, V Thayetmo d.Asho, R Thayetmo, Eth d. Sho.
-->Minbu Jarel Deaton (#1 only!). R, Eth d. Sho.
-->Chinbon A, V d. Asho, R.
>Lemyo Eth d. Sho.
. Chinbok Dh. A, V, R, Eth alt. Mün.
. Yawdin Dh. A, V Yawdwin d.Chinbok, Eth d. Mün.
>Ng'men Eth d. Mün.
-->Khami Dh, A, V, R.
Khumi Jarel Deaton. R.


Kachin (Jingpo) Dh. A Chingpå d.Kachin, V Chingpaw, R Jinghpaw, Eth Jingpho.
Maran A d.Kachin. Not in V or Eth.
Singpho Dh, A d.Kachin, V Singhpo = Chingpaw.
>Hkauri Eth d. Jingpo.
>Hka-hku Eth d. Jingpo.
>Jili+ Eth d. Jingpo.
-->Andro A, R. V: Lolo-Moso (p.90), Eth d. Kado.
>Sengmai Eth d. Kado.
. Kadu Dh (#3 from JD; #8 from same source as Kupome). R, Eth Kado.
Sak Dh. R, Eth alt. Kado.
>Chakpa Eth d. Kado.
>Phayeng Eth d. Kado.
Taman Dh. R.
Chairel Dh. A, R, V: Lolo-Moso; not in Eth.
>Krangku Eth alt. Rawang.
>Lungmi Eth d. Rawang.
Nung Dh. A in Lolo-Moso, V in Bodo-Naga-Kachin, R, Eth alt Rawang.
-->Rawang Jarel Deaton (#8,10 missing). R.
>Zithung Eth d. Rawang.
Drung Dh (this is W; he also has E). R Trung.
. Metu Jarel Deaton (2 sources). R, Eth d. Drung
. Melam Jarel Deaton (2 sources). , Eth d. Drung.
. Tamalu Jarel Deaton (2 sources). , Eth d. Drung.
. Tukiumu Jarel Deaton (2 sources). , Eth d. Drung.

Burmese-Moso 333, 89

. Nakhi (Moso) Dh (E and W Naxi). A Mo-s`o, V Moso, R two languages Moso and Naxi, Eth Naxi.
-->Gazhuo Dh (no #10). Eth Kaduo sis. BYO Biyo. V =? Kadu. Not in R.

Burmic 333, 82/89
Proto-Burmic Robbins Burling 1967.
Written Burmese+ Dh.
Burmese John Okell 1989. A, R, V.
Arakanese A, V d.Burmese, Eth MHV.
Taungyo A, V d.Burmese, Eth TCO.
Danu A, V d.Burmese (Eth agrees, has others as sep. lgs.)
Intha A, V d.Burmese, Eth INT.
Tavoyan A, V d.Burmese, Eth TVN.
. Lashi Dh Lèqí (#10 from A). A, R, V in Bodo-Naga-Kachin.
Maru Dh Làngsù , A, R, V in Bodo-Naga-Kachin.
. Phun Dh (#10 from A), A (Samong, Megyaw), R, Not in V, Eth Hpon.
Tsaiwa (Atsi) Dh. A Szi, R, V Tsaiwa in Kachin group p. 83, Eth Zaiwa.
Achang Dh (Longchuan d.; he also has Luxi, Lianghe, and XD). A Maingtha d. V Ach'ang, R Achang.

Proto-Lolo+ Robbins Burling 1967. But #1 is from David Bradley 1979.
NB: Burling also gives some numbers from Lisu, Lahu, Akha.
>Daignet R; not in Eth.
>Duampu R; not in Eth.
>Nameji R; not in Eth.
>Pai-lang+ R; not in Eth.
>Tosu+ R; not in Eth.
Nusu Dh (N, C, S dd.). Not in V or R; Eth in Unclassified Lolo.
Zaozou Dh. Not in V or R; Eth in Unclassified Lolo.
Xa Pho (autonym Laghy) Jerry Edmondson, via CM. Newly described lg described as close to Yi of Sichuan and Yünnan. Not in Eth.

None of these but Sani are in Eth.
Pakishan Henri Marie Gustave d'Ollone, Lgs des Peuples Non-Chinois de la Chine 1912 (JD). R.
Kangsiangying d'Ollone 1912 (JD). R.
Kiaokio d'Ollone 1912 (JD). R.
Nee d'Ollone 1912 (JD). R.
Tudza d'Ollone 1912 (JD). R.
P'ou-la d'Ollone 1912 (JD). R.
>Sani Eth d. SE Yi below.
-->Ulu Jarel Deaton (#3,7,10 missing). R.
Ko-p'u Jarel Deaton. R.
Weining d'Ollone 1912 (JD). R.

Mung Jarel Deaton. R. Eth has both of these as d. Phunoi below.
JD has Black Lolo and White Lolo. V has Black & White Khoany, is that them?

Lisu Dh. A, V, R.
Lisha A d.Lisu, V Lishaw d.Lisu, not in R.
. Yi (Lolo) Dalby. A Ñi d.Lolo, V, R Nyi. Eth: biggest of 8 Yi lgs. is Southeast Yi.
Chökö Jarel Deaton. R, not in Eth.
-->Ahi A A-hi d.Lolo, V, R, Eth d. SE Yi.
-->Lolopho A Lo-lo p`o d.Lolo, V, R, not in Eth.
Phupha Jarel Deaton. R, not in Eth.

Phunoi David Bradley, "Proto-Loloish", in Scandinavian Institute of Asian Studies, Monograph Series No. 39, 1979 (JD). Dh, R.
-->Pyen A, V, R.
Bisu Dh (I also have a set from JD). R.
Mpi Jarel Deaton. Dh, R.
>Khaskhong R, V, Eth d. Phunoi.
. Hwethom Auguste Louis Bonifacy, Bulletin de l'Ecole Française d'Extrême Orient 5, 1905 (JD). R, V, Eth d. Phunoi.
Akha Dalby. Dh, A A-ka d.Lolo, V, R.
-->Ako A A-kö d.Lolo, V, R, Eth d. Akha.
. Asong Jarel Deaton. R, Eth d. Akha.
. Phana Jarel Deaton (= Asong. Really?). R, Eth. Phana'.
Menghwa Jarel Deaton. R. Eth mentions as related to Hani.
Hani Paul W. Lewis & Bai Bibo, ~-Eng Eng-~ Dict 1966 (but tones are from JD, from Hansson, Lgs of the Tibeto-Burman Area 1982). Dh, R.
Lahu James A. Matisoff, The Dict of ~ 1988. A d.Moso, V, R.
Lahu Na. Dh. (Not in Numbers.) V Lahuna, Eth Na, both as d. Lahu; not in R.
Lahu Xi Dh. Eth Lahu Shi; V Luhusi d. Lahu; not in R

-->Manyak Dh, A; R in Residual Lolo; V in Burmese-Lolo sis.Moso, Lisu etc. Eth now in Qiangic.
. Horpa Dh, Carl Masthay. R. Eth with rGyarong.
Menia Jarel Deaton. R. Eth d. Ersu (Qiangic).
Muli Jarel Deaton. R, eth related to QMR S. Qiang.
Ugong Bradley 1979 (see Phunoi) (JD). R, Eth. sis. Phunoi.

ASIA Miao-Yao 334, 227

NB: R's classification is way out of date. He has a "Laka" I can't find in Dh.


Hmong (Miao) Modern orthography from Jennifer Runner. V, R.
Bunu Dh Bùnu^. R Punu. Eth fa of 5 lgs; biggest is Bu-nao.
White Meo Dh. Eth Hmong Daw.
Green Miao (Mong Njua) Thomas Amis Lyman, Dict. of ~ 1974. The +'s appear over the vowels and mean tone 214 plus glottalization. Also Dh, v. sim. Eth Hmong Njua.
Chuanqiandian. Dh Chua:nqiándia:n. Eth fa.
NE Dian Dh Dia:ndo:ngbe^i. Eth NE Dian Hmong.
Qiandong Dh Qián-do:ng, E Hmongic. Eth fam of 3 lgs, biggest is N. Qiandong.
Xiangxi Dh Xia:ng-xi:, N Hmongic. Eth fam of 2 lgs; biggest is W. Xiangxi.


Mien (Yao) Dh Yo:umia^n, Highland Yao, Mien proper. V Mien, R Mien, A Man, Eth Iu Mien.
Also a modern orthography from Jennifer Runner.
Jinmen(Mun) Dh Ji:nmén, Mun-Sav. Eth Kim Mun.
Dh Bia:omín. Eth Biao-jiao Mien.
Zaomin Dh Za^omín. Eth Ba Pai.
Xiaoban Dh Xia^o-ba:n, not in Eth.
Banyao Dh Ba:nY, not in Eth..


She Dh 2 d.; I listed LianHua. Eth.
Jiongnai Dh Jio^ng-n
ài. Eth Jiongnai in Bunu, but Dh sez this is outdated.

ASIA Tai-Kadai 337, 196


-->Be Jarel Deaton (missing #5,7). R, Eth Lingao.
Nung Ven (autonym En 42) Jerry Edmondson, via CM. Newly described lg. Eth En.

Lati-Kelao (Ch Ge-Chi)

Lati Paul K.Benedict 1975. V, R, Eth Lachi.
Ch names 3 d. (White, Flowery, Long-haired Lachi) but has only 1 set of numbers. Eth has lgs White Lati and Lati, the latter divided into Lipute (Bag), Liputcio (Han), Lipuliongtco (Flowery), Liputio (Black), and Lipupi (Long-haired).
Kelao V, R Gelao. Names of dd. from Eth (=Gelao) (V has none).
Qau Ch =Aqao or Gao Gelao.; Benedict =Northern.
A'ou Ch = Ao Gelao.
Duoluo Ch = Tolo or Dolo Gelao.
Hagei Ch = Hakei or Akei Gelao.
Mulao Ch (as sep. lg); not in Eth.
White Gelao Ch (as sep. lg, aka Tulao); Benedict =Southern.
Red Gelao. Ch (as sep. lg).
Yiren Ch, not in Eth, R, V.


Ch moves Laqua and Laha out, calls this Li-Cun.
Li V, R, Eth Hlai.
Southern, Northern, Basadung, Seao, Dogang, Bupäli, White Sand d. Benedict.
Except the last, these are very hard to relate (either by name or looking at the actual number sets) to the 5 d. given by Ch or Eth:
Ha, Meifu (Moifau), Qi (Gei), Bendi (Baisha, White Sand), Jiamao. Ha and Qi have the most speakers and I've added them to the list.
PP supplies 7 d.: Bouhin, Lauhut, Moifau, Baisha, Yuanmen, Tongshen
>Jiamao Not in R; Eth JIO. I have this from PP somewhere...
Cun Ch. Eth; not in V or R.
Laqua Paul K.Benedict 1975. Also Ch = Pubiao. V, R.
Laha Eugene Chan. R.


Ch classifies Laqua and Laha here too, calls it Yang-Biao.
Buyang Ch 3 d. (Baha =largest, Ecun, Langjia). Eth Buyang; not in V or R.
Yerong Ch. Eth Yerong; not in V or R.


Lakkia Jarel Deaton. R.


Proto-Kam-Sui+ V.I. Gokhman 1992 (PP).
-->Kam Jarel Deaton (#4 from Dalby). 9 has a "t with a loop". R; Eth is either DOC N. Dong or KMC S. Dong.
Dong Long Yaochong & Zheng Guoqiao, The ~ Lg in Guizhou Province 1998. t = curly-tail t. Not in R-- this probably is Kam.
-->Sui Jarel Deaton?. R.
Mulao V.I. Gokhman 1992 (PP). R.
-->Mak Jarel Deaton. R.
-->Ai-Cham Shi Lin & Cui Jianxin in Edmondson & Solnits, eds., Compar Kadai 1988 (some #s). Not in R; Eth AIH.
Maonan V.I. Gokhman 1992 (PP). R.
-->Then V.I. Gokhman 1992 (PP; missing #1). R, Eth T'en.


Proto-Tai+ Dh.


Thai Joe Cummings, ~ Phrasebook 1995. R.
Lao Russell Marcus 1970. R.
Shan V, R, A Shàn.
-->Ahom+ V, A.
-->Khamti R, V, A K`a:mti:; usually same as Ahom; Eth KHT.
William J. Gedrey, The Lue Lg 1996. V, R, Eth KHB.
-->Khün. V, R, A. Et KKH
Maw Linda Wai Ling Young, Shan Chrestomathy: An Intr to Tai Mau: Lg and Literature Monograph Series No. 28 1985 (JD). R, Eth d. Shan.
Phu Thai William J. Gedney, Tai Dialect Studies 1997 (JD). R.
>Phuan Eth PHU.
Northern Thai Jarel Deaton. R.
Southern Thai Gedney 1997 (JD). R.
White Tai, Black Tai William J. Gedney, Southwestern Thai Dialects 1994 (#s same; JD). R 2 langs. Eth White = Tai Dón TWH, Black = Tai Dam BLT.
Red Tai Gedney 1994 (JD). R, Eth Tai Daeng.
Tay Nua Gedney 1994 (JD) =Nua. R, Eth Tay Nüa.
>Ya Eth CUU Tai Ya.
Yuan Jarel Deaton. R, Eth alt. Northern Tai.
-->Yunnan Shant'ou Chan Yin-tang in Jnl of the West China Border Research Society v16, 1945 (JD). R, not in Eth.


Nùng Janice E. Saul & Nancy Freiberger Wilson 1980. Eth alt. Tho.
Tay Gábor Sándi, from informant Ta Van Noan. R.
Man Cao-lan Jarel Deaton. R.
Tho William J. Gedney, Tai Dialect Studies 1997 (JD. R. Eth Tày.
-->Tien-pao Fang Kuei Li, Handbook of Compar Tai 1977 (#2,8,9 missing) (JD). R.
-->Ts'un-lao Jarel Deaton (#2,4,6,9 only). R.
>Yung-chu'un R, not in Eth.
Lung-chow Jarel Deaton. R, not in Eth.


N. Zhuang Patrick Chew, sci.lang (Wuming (standard) d.). Dh, R, V Chaung.
S. Zhuang Patrick Chew, sci.lang (Longzhou d.). Dh, R, V Chaung. It's Ramsey that considers this two languages and his info is more recent than R & V.
>Ch'ien-chiang Maybe Gianzhong d. Puyi.
Puyi (Bouyei) Eugene Chan . V = subgroup w/in Northern Tai; Eth Bouyei.
Giay Jarel Deaton. R; Eth alt. Nhang.
-->Hsi-lin Fang Kuei Li, Handbook of Compar Tai 1977 (missing #8) (JD). R.
>Kwei-yang R; not in Eth.
>Ling-yun R; not in Eth.
>Lung-an R; not in Eth.
Nhang Jarel Deaton. R.
. Po-se William J. Gedney, Tai Dialect Studies 1997 (JD; #9 from E.H.S. Simmonds, Indo-Pacific Lg Studies 1965). R.
>Qui-chau R; not in Eth.
Saek Jarel Deaton. R.
-->Tien-chow Fang Kuei Li, Handbook of Compar Tai 1977 (#1,8,9 missing) (JD). R, not in Eth.
>T'ien-pa R; not in Eth.
. Zhongjia Henri Marie Gustave d'Ollone, Lgs des Peuples Non-Chinois de la Chine 1912 (JD). R; Eth alt. Nhang.
>Tushan R; not in Eth.
Wu-ming Jarel Deaton. R; not in Eth except as d. N Zhuang which it clearly isn't.
Yay Jarel Deaton. R. Eth possibly = YOY Yoy, or an alternate name for Nhang.

ASIA Austro-Asiatic


Bugan Jinfang Li in Mon-Khmer Studies XXVI, 1996. Not in R or V; hard to place.

North 334

Proto-Viet-Muong+ Laurence C. Thompson, Austro-Asiatic Studies pt. 11, 1976.
Vietnamese (and Sino-Vietnamese) Laurence C. Thompson 1965. This is Hanoi d. R, V.
Saigon Thompson 1976.
Muòng Jarel Deaton. Also Thompson 1976, with minor differences. R, V.
May (Ruc) Jarel Deaton =Ruc. R, V May d. Muong; Eth d. Chut.
Tay Pong David Thomas 1976. R Poong; Eth d. Hung.
Thavung Jarel Deaton. R; Eth Aheu.
>Pakatan Eth d. PKT Maleng.
Arem David Thomas, Linguistics 174, 1976. R.

Khasi David Thomas 1976. R.
. Amwi Carl Masthay. R.

. Palaung David Thomas 1976. Suspiciously similar to A. Eth either Pale, Shwe, Rumai.
>Da'ang R. Not in Eth.
>Shwe Eth WWE.
Rumai G.H. Luce, "Danau", Indo-Pacific Lg Studies Pt. 1 1965 (JD). R, Eth ~ Palaung.
>Bonglong R, not in Eth.
>Pale Eth Pale Palaung.
-->Yin, Riang A, V: Riang-lang; R: Riang. Eth Riang (Yin is alt.).
-->Danau A Danå, V: Danaw; R: Danau.

Lamet Jarel Deaton. R.
Khamet Jarel Deaton. R. Eth says this is the Thai name of Lamet (which is the Lao name).
>Phang Eth d. LWL Eastern Lawa.
-->Plang Debbie Paulsen, Mon-Khmer Studies 1992, Kontoi d (missing #10). Eth Blang. Also has Shinman and Samtao, in neither R nor V. Eth has Samtao as d. Kiorr.
-->Tai-loi A, V: d.Wa or Angku; R: l.under Waic.
Kem Degne Jarel Deaton. R.
-->Wa V: Palaung-Wa; R: Palaungic. Eth alt. Parauk or Vo.
Lawa Jarel Deaton. R. Eth Western Lawa.
La Jarel Deaton. R. Eth d. Vo.
Phalok Jarel Deaton. R. Eth Parauk.
-->Son A, V: d.Wa; R: sis.Wa; Eth d. Vo.
-->En A, V: d.Wa; R: sis.Wa; Eth d. Vo.
>K'ala Eth alt. or d. Plang.
-->A Mok A, V: d.Angku; R: =? Mok, l.under Angkuic. Eth Mok.
>Angku Eth Angkuic fa; or = next.
>Kon Keu Eth ANG.
-->Pou Ma Prince Henri d'Orléans, From Tonkin to India by the Sources of the Irawadi, 1898 (JD). R; not in Eth.
>Kiorr Eth XKO.
P'uman Jarel Deaton. R. There's another P'uman above; don't know which this is. Eth alt. UUU.
Hu Jan-Olof Svantesson in JHCS Davidson, Essarys in honor of H.L. Shorto 1991 (JD; 1-5 only). Eth Angkuic; not in R or V.

Khmu' Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Khmu,
Mal Jarel Deaton. R.
>Phray R, Eth PRY Pray3.
>Phaï R, Eth PRJ Phai.
Yumbri Hugo Adolf Bernatzik and Emmy Bernatzik, The Spirits of the Yellow Leaves 1958, via JD (sez there are no numbers! these are glossed as `little', `much') . R.
Mrabri David Thomas 1976. R.
-->Puôc David Thomas 1976 (1-4 only). V, not in R.


So Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Sô.
Bru Thomas 1966 (see Chrau) =Brôu. R.
>Mangkong R, Eth d. Bru or Sô.
>Tri R, Eth d. Bru.
>Chali R, Eth d. Bru or Sô.
R, Eth XHU.
>Leung R, not in Eth.
>Kaleu R, Eth d. Sô.
R, not in Eth.
Vãn Kiê`u Nguyê~n Va
^n T
ài, Mon-Khmer Studies XXII
, 1993. V, Eth alt. E. Bru.
Suei Jarel Deaton. R, Eth d. Kuy.
Na Nhyang Jarel Deaton. R, Eth d. Kuy.
Kuy Jarel Deaton. R.
>Yeu R, Eth Nyeu.

>Katang R, Eth KGD Kataang.
Tareng Jarel Deaton. R.
Pacoh Richard L. Watson, Linguistics 174, 1976. R.
>Phuong R, Eth PHG.
Katu Jarel Deaton; also Thomas 1966. Also in Watson, but JD's look better. R, Eth This or KUF West Katu.
Kantu Jarel Deaton. R, not in Eth.
>Thap R, not in Eth.
>Ta-Oy R, Eth TTH Uppper Ta'oih.
>Tong R, Eth TTO Lower Ta'oih.
-->Ong Jarel Deaton (1-4, 6 only). R.
>Kha In R, not in Eth.
Ngeq Richard L. Watson, Linguistics 174, 1976. R.
>Nkriang R, Eth alt. Ngeq.
>Kha Koh R, not in Eth.

Old Khmer+ Philip N. Jenner, Linguistics 174, 1976.
Khmer Philip N. Jenner 1976. R.

Stieng David Thomas, Linguistics 174, 1976. Also Dh. R, Eth either Bulo Stieng or Budeh Stieng.
Chrau David Thomas 1976. Also Dh. R.
Sre Jarel Deaton. R, V d. Ko'ho, Eth d. Koho.
>Maa' R, V d. Ko'ho
Ko'ho David Thomas 1976 (Chil d.). V, not in R (but it is in Dh), Eth Koho.
Biat Jarel Deaton. R, V d. C Mnong, Eth d. C Mnong.
Eastern Mnong David Thomas 1976 (Rlo'm d.). Also Dh. R.
Central Mnong David Thomas 1976. Also Dh. R.
>Southern Mnong R, Eth MNN.

Loven David Thomas 1976. R, Eth Laven.
Lave David Thomas 1976. R.
>Sok R, Et SKK.
Sapuan Paul Sidwell & Pascale Jacq, A Handbook of Comp Bahnaric 2003. R, Eth SPU.
Cheng Sidwell & Jacq 2003. R, Eth JEG Jeng.
Suq Sidwell & Jacq 2003 = Su'. R, Eth SQQ Sou.
Nyahöñ Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Nyaheun.
>Prouac JD gave me a source, but says that it's really Brao. R, Eth alt. Lave.
Oi David Thomas 1976. R, Eth Oy.
>The R, Eth THX.
Brao Jarel Deaton. R, Eth alt. Lave.
Kru'ng Sidwell & Jacq 2003. R, Eth KRR.
>Kravet R, Eth KRV.
Lavi Sidwell & Jacq 2003. Newly described, not in R nor Eth.

Bahnar Jarel Deaton. R.
Alak Jarel Deaton. R.
-->Tampuan Jarel Deaton (missing #2). R.
>Lmam R, Eth LMM Lamam.

>Takua R, Eth TKZ.
Cua Kenneth Gregerson, Kenneth Smith, & David Thomas, "The Place of Bahnar within Bahnaric", in Austroasiatic Studies v1 1976 (JD). R.
>Kayong R, Eth KXY.
Rengao Jarel Deaton. R.
>Duan R, Eth HLD Halang Doan.
Jeh Jarel Deaton. R.
Halang Jarel Deaton. R.
Sedang Kenneth D. Smith 1979. I substitute o, o for his ô, o, and e for o'. R.
Hrê Jarel Deaton. R.
>Monom R, Et MOO.
Modra Kenneth D. Smith, Linguistics 174, 1976. R, Eth alt. Didra.
Didra Kenneth D. Smith, Linguistics 174, 1976. R, Eth Todrah.

Pear Robert K. Headley, Mon-Khmer Studies VII, 1978 =Pearic. R, V.
Bolyu Jerold A. Edmondson, Mon-Khmer Studies, 1995. Not in R or V, but closest to these languages; Eth Palyu.
>Suoy R, Eth SYO.
Samre David Thomas 1976. R.
>Somray R, Eth SMU.
-->Chong Jarel Deaton (1-6), Thomas (6-9), Masthay (10). R.
>Sa'och R, Eth SCQ.


Old Mon+ Philip N. Jenner, Linguistics 174, 1976
Mon Philip N. Jenner 1976. A Talaing, R.
Nyah Kur Jarel Deaton. R.

NB: Diffloth says that higher numbers are Malay.
-->Che' Wong Jarel Deaton (1-6 only). R, Eth Chewong.
-->Kensiu Gérard Diffloth, Linguistics 174, 1976 (#1 only; #2, 3, 6 from JD). R.
-->Kenta' Bong Diffloth 1976 (#1-2 only) =Kentaq Bong. R, Eth Kintaq.
-->Mos Jarel Deaton (1-6 only). R, Eth alt. Kensiu or TNZ Tonga.
. Jehai David Thomas 1976 (1-5 only). R.
-->Menriq Diffloth 1976 (#1 only; 2-3 from JD). R, Eth Minriq.
-->Bateg Deh Diffloth 1976 (#1 only; #3 from JD). R Bateg Deq; Eth this and next d. Batek.
-->Bateg Nong Diffloth 1976 (#1 only; 2-3 from JD). R.
-->Mintil Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R.

-->Semai Jarel Deaton (1-7 only). R.
Temiar Jarel Deaton. R.
-->Lanoh Diffloth 1976 (#1-2 only; #3 from JD). R.
-->Sabum Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R; Eth Sabüm.
-->Semnam Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R.
-->Jah Hut Diffloth 1976 (#1-2 only; #3 from JD). R.
Sakai A; V = Senoic fa; don't know which of these A has; Eth alt. Lowland Semang.

. Mah Meri Diffloth 1976 (1-3 only; rest from JD from a 19C source). R; Eth Basisi.
Semaq Beri Diffloth 1976. R.
-->Semelai Diffloth 1976 (#2 from JD). R.
Temoq Jarel Deaton. R.

Nicobar Islands
Nicobarese A.R. Das, A Study on the ~ Lg 1977. Underline is really an under-tilde. R.
-->Nancowry Roepstorff 1875. Also have M.Plaisant's Teressa, v. similar R.
Shompen Jarel Deaton. Also (diff. version) Roepstorff 1875. R; Eth Shom Peng.
Car Jean Critchfield Braine, Linguistics 174, 1976

Munda 334, 239


Mundari Campbell 1991 . Dh, V, R, A (d. Kherwari).
Bhumij N. Ramaswami, ~ Gram 1992. V d. Mundari.
-->Ho R.
Korwa Jarel Deaton. R.
-->Birhor Jarel Deaton (could use one modern set). R.
Asuri Jarel Deaton. R.
Santali Henri Maspero in Meillet & Cohen 1952. Dh, V, R, A (d. Kherwari).
Turi Jarel Deaton. R.
-->Kurku V , R Korku, A; Eth Korku.


-->Kharia V, R, A.
Juang Jarel Deaton (after Das Gupta, #1-4 only; remainder is presumably a later set, with 4 having become cha:ri). V, R, A (#1-3 only).
Gorum Jarel Deaton. R; Eth Parenga.
Sora David Stampe & Patricia Donegan. V, R, A Savara.
>Juray R; Eth JUY.
-->Gutob V, R, A Gadaba; Eth Bodo Gadaba.
Remo Jarel Deaton. R; Eth alt. Bondo.
Gta' Jarel Deaton. R 2 langs.; V Gata'.
>Plains/Hill Gta' R; Eth d. Gta'.


Ainu+ R.
Proto-Ainu, Kuril, Sakhalin d. Jarel Deaton.

ANES Austronesian 338

Proto-Austronesian+ Robert A. Blust.

Atayalic ,34

Atayal Ch 4 d, V, R.
Sedeq Ch Sediq 4 d, V Seediq, R; Eth Taroko.

Tsouic ,34

Rukai Ch 5 d listed below, V, R.
(Taloma, Bud, Maga, Tona, Mantauran)
Tsou Ch 2 d, V, R.
Kanakanabu Ch Kanabu, V, R.
Saaroa Ch, V, R.

Paiwanic ,34

Bunun Ch 2 d., V, R.
Paiwan Dalby. Ch 3 d., V, R.
Puyuma Ch 3 d., V, R, Eth Pyuma.
Saisiyat Ch 2 d., V, R.
Ami Ch Amis 2 d., V, R, Eth Amis.


Kavalan Ch, V, R.
Pazeh+ Ch 2 d., V, R.
Thao Ch, V, R.
Ketangalan+ Ch, V, R.
Taokas+ Ch, V, R.
Papora+ Ch, V, R.
Babuza+ Ch, V, R.
Hoanya+ Ch, V, R.
Siraya+ Ch 4 d., V, R, Eth Siraiya.
Luilang. Ch lists this here, but it's not in V or R or Eth.

Western ,45

Chamorro NU; Ch has essentially same numbers. V, R. Modern #s from Dalby.
Palauan NU; Ch has a mildly differing set. V, R.
Yapese Ch, V (listed w Micronesian), R.

N Philippines 338,39

N Luzon
N Cordilleran ,40
Isnag Ch, R; V lists as a group Isneg = Barran, Bayag, Itawi, Malaweg.
Yogad Ch, V, R.
Adasen Ch, R.
Malaweg Ch 2 d., V, R.
Agta Ch, R, V lists 3 Agtas in different groups; Eth has half a dozen of which biggest is Dupaninan Agta.
Itawis Llamzon Itawe or Kalua. V Itawi, R Itawis, also 2 d. in Ch; Eth Itawit.
Gaddang Ch, V (as 2 l.), R.
-->Ga-dang Jarel Deaton (1-4, 10 only). R, Eth Ga'Dang.
Ibanag Llamzon. V, R.
Atta Ch, R, V 500. Eth has four of which Pamplona Atta is the biggest. Others ATH Faire, ATP Pudtol, DYG Villa Viciosa.
Umiray Dumaget Ch, R.
SE Cagayan Agta Ch 4 d., R, V =? Central Agta, Eth Central Cagayan Agta.
Kasiguranin Ch, R.
Casiguran Dumagat Ch, R, V.
Paranan Ch, R.

Ilokano Campbell 1991

SC Cordilleran
Central CordilleranIsinai Ch, R, V.
Itneg Jarel Deaton. R. Eth has four: ITB Binongan, ITI Inlaod, TIS Masadit, ITT Southern.
Kalinga Llamzon Kalingga. R 4 langs, V 1. Eth has eight: KYB Butbut, KMK Limos, KML Lower Tanudian, KNB Lubuagan, KKG Mabaka Valley, KMD Madukayang, KSC Southern, KGH Upper Tanudian; these cover at least some of the following.
North Kalinga Ch, R; V has Kalinga as one l.
Central Kalinga Ch, R.
South Kalinga Ch, R.
Balangaw Ch, R, Eth Balangao.
Kiangan Llamzon =Ifugaw or Kiangan. R has 3 Ifugaos (C, E, Kiangan), V four; but both have Kiangan as a lang. Not same as any of Ch's two Ifugaos-- I'm going to take it as Kiangan. Eth has four: IFA Amganad, IFB Batad, IFU Mayoyao (biggest), IFK Tuwali.
Central Ifugao Ch, R. Based on V's alt. names this is prob. Eth's Tuwali.
Batad Ifugao Leonard E. Newell, ~ Dict 1993.
>East Ifugao Ch has as just Ifugao, R.
>Sadanga R; Eth d. Central Bontok.
Central Bontok Jarel Deaton. R, Eth BNC.
East Bontok Takashi Fukuda, A Discourse-Oriented Gram of ~ 1983 (Kadaclan d.). Eth E BKB, S is alt. of East.
>South Bontok R, but Eth alt. prev.
-->Kankanay Llamzon Kankana-i. R 4 langs, V 1. Ch has two very sim. langs., neither the same as Llamzon.
>Kankanay-Itneg Not in Eth.
>C, S Kankanay C = Eth KNE Kankanaey.
N Kankanay Jarel Deaton. R.
Iyaplay Gábor Sándi, from informant Geraldine Cacho, spoken in "Western MP". Not in R, V, or Eth. Closest to this subfa.

Southern CordilleranIlongot Ch 4 d., R, V.
Pangasinan Llamzon. V, R; also in Ch.
>I'wak Eth IWK I-wak.
Inibaloi Ch, R, V Inibaloy, Eth Ibaloi.
Karaw Ch, R, Eth Karao.
North Kallahan Ch Kallahan, R, Eth Kayapa Kallahan or TNE Tinoc Kallahan.
South Kallahan Ch Keley-i Kallahan, R; Eth Keley-i Kalanguya.

Bashiic-C Luzon-N Mindoro
Yami Ch 2 d., R, V
Itbatayen Ch Itbayat, R, Eth Itbayaten d. Ivatan.
Ivatanen Ch 2 d., R, not in Eth.
Babuyan Ch, R, V in Palawanic. Eth alt. next.
Ivatan Llamzon. R = 3 above lgs, V one lg, Eth IVB Ibatan or IVV Ivatan.

Central Luzon
Sinauna Ch, R, Eth Remontado Agta.
Kapampangan Llamzon Pampanggo. R, V/Eth Pampangan; also in Ch.
Tina Ch Tina Sambal, R, V Tino d. Sambali, Eth Tina Sambal.
Botolan Ch, R,V =? Iba d. Sambali, Eth ~ Sambal.
Bolinao Ch, R,V d. Sambali.
Alangan Ch web, R.
>Iraya R, Eth IRY
>Tadyawan R, Eth TDY

S Philippines

W Subanon Ch web. V Subanun; R has only Siocon Subanon.
>Kalibugan R, Eth SKN Kolibugan Sabanon.
R, Eth SUS Central Subanen.
R, Eth STB N. Subanen.
R, Eth LAA ~ Subanun.

>Kagayanen R, Eth CGC
Binukid Llamzon also Bukidnon. R, V Bukidnon.
>Kinamigin Eth MKX Cinamiguin
Lgs after this have "Manobo" in their Eth name: e.g. Matigsalug Manobo.
Obo Ch, R, V d. Bagobo.
Ata Ch, R, V.
Tigwa Ch, R, Eth d. next.
Matigsalug Gábor Sándi, from informants Datu Cosme M. Lambayon & Datu Lorenzo A. Gawilan Jr. Ch has 2 d., neither same as Gábor's! Not in V or R; Eth has sep. lang. in Ata-Tigwa group.
Agusan Ch, R, V.
Dibabawon Ch, R, V Dibabaon.
Rajah Kabungsuan Ch, R.
Ilianen Ch, R.
Livunganen. Ch. Not in R or V; Eth d. Ilianen.
Western Bukidnon Ch, R.
Tagabawa Ch, R.
Sarangani Ch, R, V Balud d. Bilaan.
Kalamansig Ch, R.
Tasaday Ch, R, Eth Cotabato.
Ubo. Ch. Manobo lang. not in R, V, or Eth.

Magindanao Llamzon Magindanaw. R, V Maguindanao; also in Ch; Eth Magindanaon.
Maranao Llamzon Maranaw. R, V; also in Ch.
Iranon Ch, R, Eth Ilanun.

Mid Philippines 340, 42

South Mangyan
Hanunoo Llamzon Hanunoo-Mangyan. R, V Hanunóo; also in Ch.
Buhid Ch, R, V.
Tabuid Ch, R; Eth W Tawbuid.

Kalamianen Ch, R, V Kalamian, Eth Calamian Tagbanwa.
Agutaynon Ch, R, V d. Kalamian(en), Eth Agutaynen.

Batak Llamzon. Ch, R.
Tagbanwa Llamzon Aborlan-Tagbanwa. R, V Tagbanua; also Ch.
Palaweño Ch, R, V Palawano, Eth Central Palawano; also exists PLV SW, PLW Brooke's Point
Molbog Ch, R.
Banggi Ch, R, Eth Bonggi.

Central Philippines
Tagalog NU libes; also in Ch. V, R.
>Lubang Eth d. prev.
-->Marinduque Jarel Deaton (need #6, 8-10). R; Eth d. Tagalog.

Bikol (Naga) Mintz: Bikol, Naga City d. V entire fa, R Naga; also in Ch; Eth Central Bicolano.
>Virac R; Eth BLN S. Catanduanes Bicolano
R; Eth this and next three dd. BHK Albay Bicolano
Buhi Ch, R, V d. Bikol.
Iriga Ch, R, Eth Iriga Bicolano
>Pandan R; Eth CTS N Catanduanes Bicolano

-->Davaweño Ritsuko Yamami, A preliminary ~ Kalagan Gram 1985 (#2-4,7 only). R; Eth DAW Davawenyo
Kamayo Ch, R.
>Isamal R; Eth d. KQE Kalagan below
R; Eth MRY Karaga Mandaya
Mandayan Ch, R, V (unclassified). Eth fa; besides next there are MST Cataelano and MYT Sangab
Mansakan Ch, R, V, Eth Mansaka.
Kalagan Ch (also Ismal, presumably a d.; but V. lists an Isamal...), R.
Tagakaolo Ch, also Gábor Sándi (kasya is from his informant), R, V, Eth Tagakaulu Kalagan

Mamanwa Llamzon. R, V Manmanua; also Ch.

Surigaonon Ch, R, V d. Cebuano.
Jaun-Jaun Ch, R, Eth d. prev.
Kantilan Ch, R, V d. Cebuano, Eth d. Surigaonon
Tausug Llamzon. R, V Taw Sug; also Ch.
Butuanon Ch, R, V.
Cebuano John U.Wolff 1967. R, V Sebuano; also Ch.
Boholano Ch, R, V Bohol, Eth d. prev.
Gubat Ch, R.
North Samar Jarel Deaton. R, Eth d. next.
Waray Llamzon. R, V; also Ch, Eth Waray-Waray.
Camotes Ch, R, Eth Porohanon.
Bantayan Ch, R, Eth d. Hiligaynon.
Masbate Ch, R; Eth BKS Masbute Sorsogon or, more likely, MSB Masbatenyo.
Ilonggo Llamzon Ilonggo. R/Eth Hiligaynon, V.
Romblonanon Ch, R, V Romblomanon.
Banton Ch, R, V, Eth Bantoanon.
Odionganon Ch, R, Eth d. prev.
Kuyunon Ch, R, V, Eth Cuyonon.
Datagnon Ch, R, V =? Ratagnón d. Cuyunon, Eth Ratagnon.
Kinaray-a Ch, R, V Kinaraya.
Pandan Ch, R; Eth see Pandan in Bikol.
Looknon Ch, R, Eth Inonhan.
Bulalakawnon Ch, R, Eth d. prev.
Aklanon Ch, R, V.

S Mindanao 341

Bagobo Ch, R, V, Eth Giangan.
Tiruray Ch, R, V.
Tboli Ch, R.
Bilaan Llamzon. R 2 langs, V 1. Ch has R's 2 langs., almost identical but not = Llamzon! Eth has BIK Koronadal Blaan and BIS Sarangani Blaan.

Celebes 342, 99

Talaud Scott Merrifield & Martinus Salea, North Sulawesi Language Survey, SIL 1996. Ch, R, V.
Sangir Merrifield & Salea 1996. Ch, R, V w Hesperonesian p. 157.
Sangil Ch, R, V =Sangir.
Bantik Merrifield & Salea 1996. Ch, R, V.
Ratahan Merrifield & Salea 1996. Ch, R, V.
Tonsea Merrifield & Salea 1996; #8 corrected by native speaker Stanley BCT. Ch, R, V Tonsea'.
Tondano Merrifield & Salea 1996. Ch, R, V.
Tombulu Merrifield & Salea 1996. Ch, R, V.
Tontemboan Merrifield & Salea 1996. Ch, R, V.
Tonsawang Merrifield & Salea 1996. Ch, R, V.

Mongondow-Gorontalo ,39
Ponosakan Merrifield & Salea 1996. Ch, R, V d. Mongondow.
Mongondow Merrifield & Salea 1996. Ch, R, V.
Bintauna Merrifield & Salea 1996. Ch, R.
Kaidipang Merrifield & Salea 1996. Ch, R, V Kaidipan.
Bolango Merrifield & Salea 1996. R, Eth d. prev.
Atinggola Merrifield & Salea 1996. Ch, R, V Bulanga-Uki.
Suwawa Merrifield & Salea 1996. Ch, R, V.
Gorontalo Merrifield & Salea 1996. Also Campbell 1991. R, V.
Buol Ch, R, V.

Central Sulawesi
Banggai Ch, R, V.

Saluan Ch, R, V d. Loinang, Eth Coastal ~.
Andio Ch, R, V Bobongko.
Balantak Ch, R, V.

West Central
Balaesan Nikolaus P. Himmelmann, Sourcebook on Tomini-Tolitoli Lgs 2001. R, Eth BLS
Tolitoli Himmelmann 2001 =Totoli. R, V Tontoli.
Tomini Himmelmann 2001 =Tialo. R, V.
Bolano Ch, R, V.
Dondo Himmelmann 2001. R, V =Tomini.
Dampelasa Himmelmann 2001. R, V.
Kasimbar Himmelmann 2001. R, V, Eth Tajio.
Petapa Himmelmann 2001. R, Eth PEE Taje
Ndau Himmelmann 2001. R, V Umalasa, Eth Pendau.
Lauje Himmelmann 2001. V Tinombo; not in R.
Kaili Ch 3 d., R. Eth KZF Da'a ~ or LEW Ledo ~.
Pipikoro Ch, R, Eth Uma
Lindu Ch, R.
Sedoa Ch, R.
Napu Ch, R.
Bada Ch 2 d., R.
Rampi Ch, R.
Pamona Ch 3 d., R.
Bungku Ch 4 d., R.
Mori Ch, R, Eth fa of 4; prob. either MZQ ~ Atas or XMZ ~ Bawah.
Tolaki waarki (Ch also has this). V/R Lalaki, Eth Tolaki.
>Mekongka R, not in Eth.

South Sulawesi
Macassarese Campbell 1991. R Makassarese, V Makasarese, Eth Makasar.
Buginese Campbell 1991; 3 d. also in Ch. R/Eth Bugis, V.
Mandar Ch., R.
Sa'dan Ch 3 d., R, Eth Toraja-~.
Toala. Ch, V, not in R. Eth Toala', says close to Sa'dan.
Massenrempulu Ch, R, Eth one of MLT Malimpung, MVP Duri, PTT Enrekang, WMM Maiwa
Pitu Ulunna Salo Ch 6 d., R, Eth one of ATQ Aralle-Tabulahan, DKK Dakla, PNC Pannei, PTU Bambam, ULM Ulumanda'
Mamuju Ch 4 d., R.
Seko Ch 2 d., R, Eth one of SKX ~ Padang, SKO ~ Tengah.
Wotu Ch, R.

Muna Ch, R, V. Eth one of BUP busoa, LIX Liabuku, MYN Muna, PNP Pancana, UES Kioko, ZKA Kaimbulawa.
Wolio Ch, R, V.
Buton Ch, R, V. Eth could be KGX Kamaru, LLM Lasalimu, XKS Kumbewaha, WTW Wotu
South Buton Ch, R, Eth Cia-Cia
Tukang-Besi Ch, R, V, Eth S BHQ, N KHC
Bonerate Ch, R, V d. Tukanbesi.
Kalaotoa Ch =Kalao, R, V d. Tukanbesi.
Layolo Ch =Laiyolo, R.


Ida'an Ch, R.

Selungai Murut Ch, R.
Kolod Ch, R, Eth Okolod.
Sumambu Ch, R, Eth d. Tagal Murut
Paluan Ch, R.
Timugon Ch, R, Eth ~ Murut
Beaufort Murut Ch, R, Eth d. prev.
Keningau Murut Ch, R.
Tidong Ch, R.
Serudung Ch, R. Numbers identical to Tidong.
Sambakung Ch, R, Eth ~ Murut.
Baukan Ch, R.
Kalabakan Ch, R.

Gana Ch, R.
Kuijau Ch, R.
Kadazan-Dusun Ch, R, Eth maybe DTP Central Dusun; there's others.
Lotud Ch, R.
Papar Ch, R.
Rungus Ch, R.
Eastern Kadazan Ch, R, Eth DTB Labuk-Kinabatangan Kadazan.
Klias River Kadazan Ch, R.
Kimaragang Ch, R.
Garo Ch, R, Eth d. prev.
Tebilung Ch, R.
Tatana Ch, R.
Northern Bisayan Ch, R, Eth Sabah Bisaya.
Southern Bisayan Ch, R, Eth Brunei Bisaya, or BSD Sarawak Bisaya,
>Tutong R, Eth TTX

Dumpas Ch, R.
Lingkabau Ch, R, Eth d. Tambanua
Abai Sungai Ch, R.
Tambanua Ch, R, Eth Tombonuwo.
Upper Kinabatangan Ch, R.
Lobu Ch, R. Eth d. TXA or LOW Tampias Lobu, or RUU Lanas Lobu.

Apo Duat
Lundayeh Ch 2 d., R.
Kelabit Ch, R.
Sa'ban Ch, R.
>Lengilu R, Eth LGI
>Putoh R, Eth PUT

Melanau Ch, R.
>Kanowit R, Eth KXN
R, Eth TNJ
R, Eth BNY
R, Eth LHN
R, Eth KAG
Bukitan Ch, R.
>Lelak R, Eth LLK
Narom Ch, R.
Kiput Robert Blust, A Short Morphology, Phonology & Vocab of ~ 2003. R, Eth KYI
R, Eth TTG
Berawan Ch, R.
Punan Bah Ch, R, Eth ~~-Biau
>Punan Merap R, Eth PUC
>Sajau Basap
R, Eth SAD
R, Eth BQR
R, Eth BDB

Land Dayak
>Silakau R, Eth SKL Selako
R, Eth LRA
Jagoi Ch, R.
Singgie Ch, R, Eth d. prev.
Biatah Ch, R.
Bukar Sadong Ch, R.
Bekati' Ch, R.
Benyadu' Ch, R.
Kembayan Ch, R.
Ribun Ch, R.
>Djongkang R, Eth DJO
Sanggau Ch, R.

Punan-Nibong Ch, R. Eth W PNE, E PEZ.

Murik Kayan Ch, R.

WesternRejang Kayan Ch, R.
>Baram Kayan R, Eth KYS
>Mendalam Kayan
R, Eth XKD
>Kayan Mahakam
R, Eth XAY
R, Eth BFG ~ K.
R, Eth BHV
Kayan River Kayan Ch, R.
>Wahau Kayan R, Eth WHU

Modang>Modang R, Eth MXD
R, Eth SGE

Mullter-Schwaner `Punan'Aoheng Ch, R.
>Havongan R, Eth HOV Hovongan
R, Eth XKE
R, Eth BVK
>Punan Aput
R, Eth PUD
>Punan Merah
R, Eth PUF

>Bakung Kenyah R, Eth BOC
Sebob Kenyah Ch web, R, Eth SIB.
>Tutoh Kenyah R, Eth TTW
>Punan Tubu
R, Eth PUJ
>Wahau Kenyah
R, Eth WHK
>Western Kenyah
R, Eth XKY
Upper Baram Kenyah Ch, R.
>Bahau River Kenyah R, Eth BWV
>Kayan River Kenyah
R, Eth KNH
>Mahakam Kenyah
R, Eth XKM
>Kelinyao Kenyah
R, Eth XKL Kelinyau Kenyah

Lawangan Ch 3 d., R.
Dusun Deyah Ch, R.
Ma'anyan Ch 5 d., R.

Dohoi Ch 3 d., R.
Siang Ch, R.
Kapuas (Ngaju) Ch, R. Ch has a note "Ngaju Dayak" pointing to this language-- R doesn't have Ngaju (a million-speaker lang. according to C), tho' V does. Eth Ngaju.
Katingan Ch, R.
Kahayan Ch web, R.
Bakumpai Ch, R.

Tunjung Ch, R.


Abaknon Ch, R; Eth ~ Sama.
Batuan Ch, R.
Yakan Ch 2 d., R.
Sibutuq Ch, R.
Samalan J.C. Anceau 1978. Not in R, but Sama is. Ch has Central Sama, with some significant diffs (e.g. different #1, 9).
North Sama Ch web, R, Eth Balangingi Sama.
Central Sama Jarel Deaton. R.
South Sama Gábor Sándi, from informant Ismael J. Asakil =Tawi-Tawi. R.
Pangutaran Ch, R.
Bajau Llamzon. R 2 langs, V has as a whole fa! Ch has 3 of these, none of which matches Llamzon's numbers. I used only one of them, Poso.
Jama Mapun Ch, R, Eth Mapun.
>Kota Belud Eth: this and next two dd. BDR West Coast Bajau.
>Sulamu Eth: this and remaining lgs dd. BDL Indonesian Bajau.
>Jaya Bakti
Poso Ch, R.


Old Javanese+ Campbell 1991
Javanese Campbell 1991
Krama (polite) register; above is Ngoko (common). Bettina David, Javanisch Wort für Wort
Sundanese Campbell 1991
Mbaloh Ch, R, Eth Embaloh.
Gayo Ch, R.

Lampung Ch, R.
Komering Ch, R.

Balinese Campbell 1991. Eth Bali.
Sasak Ch, R.
Sumbawa Ch web, R.

Lom Ch, R.
Mentawai Ch, R.
Enggano Ch, R.
Simeulue Ch, R.
Nias Ch, R.
Simalungan Ch, R, Eth Batak Simalungun.
Batak (Toba) Campbell 1991, corrected by Anip Sirait. Eth Batak Toba.
Karo Batak Ch, R.
Alas Ch, R, Eth d. Batak Alas-Kluet.
Mandailing Ch, R.

Madurese Campbell 1991. Eth Madura.

Malayic Dayak
Malayic Dayak Ch (4 d.), R.
Iban Ch (also Kantu, not in R.), R.

Moklen Ch, R.
Moken Ch (3 d.), R.

Minangkabau Campbell 1991 (also Ch). West Sumatra
Urak Lawoi' Ch, R.
-->Duano' Jarel Deaton (missing some). R.
Rejang Ch, R.
. Temuan Walter William Skeat and Charles Otto Blagden, Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula V. II 1906 (says rest = Malay) (JD). R.
. Orang Hulu (same source and comment as Temuan). R, Eth Jakun.
>Orang Kanaq R, Eth ORN
>Orang Seletar R, Eth ORS
Indonesian (Malay) John B. Kwee, Teach Yourself ~ 1965.
Terengganu Mimi
>Orang Laut R, Eth LCE Loncong

Achinese Unknown source; also Ch, R, Eth Aceh,
Huihui (Tsat) Ch, R, Eth Tsat.
Jarai Ch, R.
Rhade James A. Tharp & Y-Bha^m Buôn-ya
A ~-Eng Dict
1980. Ch, R, Eth Rade.
Haroi Ch, R.
East Cham Unknown source; also (v. similar) Ch. R.
West Cham Ch, R.
Chru Ch, R.
S Raglai Ch, R.
N Raglai Ch, R.
>Cacgia Raglai R, Eth ROC


Central Maluku

Teor Ch, R.

Ambelau Ch, R.
Buru Ch, R.
Taliabo Ch (2 d.), R. Eth Kadai KZD, TLV Taliabu.
Sula Ch, R.
Mangoli Ch, R, Eth Mangole.

Banda Ch, R.
Geser Ch (2 d.), R, Eth Geser-Gorom.
Watubela N. N. Miklukho-Maklai, 19C. R.

E Seram
Bobot Ch, R.
Masiwang Ch, R.
Seti Ch, R, Eth Liana-Seti.

Kayeli Ch, R.
Nuaulu Ch, R, Eth N NNI, S (bigger) NXL

Three RiversWemale Ch (2 d.), R, Eth N WEO, S TLW
Atamanu Ch, R, Eth Yalahatan.
Saleman Ch, R, Eth sis Nuaulu.
Hulung Ch, R.
>Loun R, Eth LOX
Lisabata Ch, R, Et N. Nuniali.
Naka'ela Ch, R.
Alune Ch, R.

Piru BayAsilulu Ch, R.
Boano Ch, R.
Wakasihu Ch, R, Eth Larike-~.
Manipa Ch, R.
Luhu Ch, R.
>Batumerah+ R, Eth d. prev.
Teluti Ch, R.
Kaibobo Ch, R.
Hitu Ch, R.
Paulohi Ch, R.
Kamarian Ch, R.
Saparua Ch, R.
Haruku Ch, R.
Nusalaut Ch, R.
Amahai Ch, R.

SE Maluku

Selaru Ch, R.
Kei Ch, R.
Yamdena Ch, R.
Selwasa Ch, R, Eth Seluwasan..
Ujir Ch, R. Eth has this and rest in Aru fa.
Kola Ch, R.
Dobel Ch, R.
Barakai Ch, R.
Tarangan Ch, R, Eth E TRE, W TXN (bigger).


Helong Hull 1999: R.
Naueti Hull 1999 (as d. Kaiwamina, which includes the 3 d. below). R
Kairui Hull 1999. R, Eth ~-Midiki.
Waimaha Hull 1999. R/Eth Waima'a.
Midiki (Hull 1999) is the same as Waimaha except 5 =
kainee. Eth d. Kairui.
Sikka Ch, R, Eth Sika.
Lamaholot Ch (2 d.), R.
Alor W.A.L. Stokhof, Preliminary Notes on the ~ and Pantar Lgs 1975 (Baranusa / Kabir d.). Not in R, Eth ADN.
Kedang Ch, R.
Roti Ch, R, Eth Rote.
Timorese (Dawan) Ch, R, Eth Atoni.
Baikenu Hull 1999; also Ch; Eth d. Timorese.
Habun Hull 1999. R/Eth Habu.
Tetun Ch, R.
Belunese, Bekais Hull 1999. Eth Belu d. Tetun.
Tugun Ch web, not in R or V, Eth sez in Timor group rel. to Wetar.
Kemak Hull 1999. R.
Tukudede Ch, R.
Mambai Ch, R. Eth Mambae.
Ainaro Hull 1999.
Galoli Hull 1999, also Ch. R.
Talur Hull 1999.
Lakalei Jarel Deaton. R.
. Idaté Hull 1999 (missing #9).
Wetar Ch, R. Eth fa, but code WET = Perai.
Rahesuk, Raklungu Hull 1999. Dd. spoken on Ataúro. He also has Resuk, very similar to Raklungu.
Roma Ch, R.
Kisar Jarel Deaton. R.
Lóvaia (Maku'a) Hull 1999. Eth Maku'a.
Letri Lgona Ch (3 d.), R, Eth Luang.
Dai Ch, R.
Dawera Ch, R, Eth ~-Daweloor.
Masela Ch =Marsela, R. Eth Central MKH, E VME, W MSS (biggest).
Damar Ch, R, Eth DMR E Damar, W is DRN.
Teun Ch (2 d.), R, Eth Te'un.
Serua Ch, R.


Bima Ch, R.
-->Kodi Ch (missing #5, 7), R.
Lamboya Ch, R.
Weyewa Ch, R, Eth Wejewa.
>Wanukaka R, Eth WNK
Anakalangu Ch, R.
-->Mamboro Ch (missing #4, 5), R, Eth Mamboru.
East Sumbanese Jarel Deaton =Sumba. R; Eth Kambera.
Savu Ch, R, Eth Sabu.
Manggarai Ch, R.
Riung Ch, R.
Ende Ch, R.
Lio Ch, R, Eth Li'o.
Palu'e Ch, R.
Ngada Ch (5 d.), R, Eth Ngad'a. There's also an Eastern ~ NEA.


S Halmahera-NW New Guinea

Kaiwai Ch, R, Eth Kowiai.
Uruangnirin Ch, R.
Onin Ch, R.
Sekar Ch, R.
Arguni Ch, R.
Bedoanas Ch, R.
Erokwanas Ch, R.
Nabi Ch (2 d.), R, Eth Kuri.
Irahutu Ch (5 d.), R.

S Halmahera
Gane Ch, R.
East Makian Ch, R.
Buli Ch, R.
Maba Ch, R.
Patani Ch, R.
Sawai Ch, R.
Weda Holle 1980. PP, Eth d. prev.
>Misool R, Eth mentions as location where Matbat is spoken.
Amber Jarel Deaton. R, Eth alt. Waigeo.
>Wajamli R, Eth d. BZQ Buli.
>Bichole R, not in Eth.
Giman Holle 1980 =Gane. PP, Eth Gane.
R, Eth alt. Maya.
Waigeo Jarel Deaton. R.
Batanta Jarel Deaton. R, Eth d. Maya.
>As R, Eth ASZ
Maya Ch, R, Eth Ma'ya.
>Maden R, Eth XMX
R, Eth PLX
Matbat Ch, R.
Laganyan Ch, R, Eth Legenyem.
Kawe Ch, R.
Gebe waarki, also Ch. R.

Geelvink Bay
Eth fa is Cenderawasih Bay
Waropen waarki, also Ch. R.
Mor Don Laycock 1978, also Ch. R.
Iresim Ch, R.
Humuku waarki. Not in R or V or Eth; but obviously a sis. or d. Iresim.
Yaur Ch, R.
Yeretuar Ch, R.
Tandia Ch, R.
Biak waarki; also Ch. R.
Numfor Holle 1982 via PP. Not in R; V sis. Biak. Eth Biak-~ is an alt. prev.
Ron Ch, R, Eth Roon in Yapen below.
Dusner Ch, R.
Meoswar Ch, R.

Wabo Ch, R.
Kurudu Ch, R.
Wandamen (Windesi) waarki =Windesi. V d.Wandamen, which is in R (and Ch).
Ansus Ch, R.
Woi Ch, R.
Pom Ch, R.
Aibondeni Ch, R, Eth d. Wandamen.
Marau Ch, R.
Munggui Ch, R.
Papuma Ch, R.
Busami Ch, R.
Serui-Laut Ch, R.
>Wadapi-Laut R, Eth alt. next.
Ambai Ch, R.

Oceanic (actually a child of Eastern)


Maisin Ch web, R.


Sobei Ch (6 d.), R.
Bongo Ch, R, Eth Bonggo.
Tarpia Ch, R.
Yotafa Ch, R, Eth Tobati.
Ormu Ch, R.
Kayupulau Ch, R.


Sepik (E+ Schouten)
-->Sera Ch (#1-5 only), R.
Sissano Ch, R.
-->Tumleo Ch, R.
Ali Ch, R, Eth Yakamul.
Ulau Jarel Deaton. R, Eth ~-Suain.
-->Kis Ch, R.
Kairiru Ch, R.
-->Kaiep Ch, R.
-->Wogeo Ch, R.
Bam Ch web, R, Eth Biem.
-->Sepa Ch, R.
Manam Blaine Turner, ~ Teaching Gram 1986. Ch, R.
-->Medebur Ch, R.

-->Takia Ch, R.
-->Megiar Ch, R, Eth d. prev.
Matukar Ch, R.
Gedaged Ch, R.
-->Bilbil Ch, R.
>Ham R, Eth DAD Marik
-->Wab Ch, R.
Biliau Ch, R, Eth Awad Bing.
Mindiri Ch, R.

Rai Coast-NW New Britain (Ngero-Vitiaz)
Rai Coast
Sio Ch, R.
Mangap Robert D. Bugenhagen, A Gram of ~-Mbula 1995. R, Eth. MNA ~-Mbula.
Lukep Ch, R.
Malasanga Ch, R.
Barim Ch, R.
Nengaya Ch, R, Eth Mato.
Roinji Ch, R, Eth Ronji.

Tami Ch, R.
Mutu Ch, R.
Gitua Ch, R.
>Malamalai R, Eth MMT
Maleu Ch, R, Eth with next dd. MGL ~-Kilenge.
Kilenge Ch, R. (Left off #s list 'cos it's almost identical to Maleu.)
Bariai Ch, R.
Kove Ch, R.
Lusi David R. Counts, a Gram of Kaliai-Kove 1969 = Kandoka-Lusi d. Eth KHL Lusi.

Yabim Ch, R, Eth Yabem.
Bukawac Ch, R, Eth Bugawac.
>Lae R, Eth LAZ Aribwatsa.
Labu Ch, R.
Kela Ch, R.
Kaiwa Ch, R, Eth Iwal.
Siboma Ch, R, Eth Numbami.


-->Silisili Ch; #10 from Smith 1988. R, Eth Middle Watut.
Dangal Ch, R, Eth d. with next of MCY S. Watut.
Maralango Bruce A. Hooley, 1971. R. Hooley #s, all 1-5, 10, fr. Oceanic Linguistics X:2
Azera Bruce A. Hooley 1971; #6 from Jarel, spelling corrected. R/Eth Adzera.
Wampur Ch, R.
Unank Bruce A. Hooley 1971 =Onank. Jarel has another similar set. R, Eth N. Watut.
Sukurum Bruce A. Hooley 1971 (#1-4 only; #5-6 based on Ch web but using Hooley's morphemes). Jarel also has #1-6, slightly different. R. Eth this and next two dd. Azera.
Ngariawan Jarel Deaton. R.
Sirasira Ch, R.
Wampar Ch, R.
Sirak Ch, R, Eth Nafi.
Guwot Ch, R, Eth Duwot.
Musom Ch, R.
Yalu Ch, R, Eth Aribwaung.

Mumeng Ch, R.
Piu Ch, R.
Kapin Ch, R.
Mapos Bruce A. Hooley 1971. #6 is based on a set from Jarel but morpheme for #5 differs. R, Eth ~ Buang.
Manga Bruce A. Hooley 1971. R, Et Mangga Buang.
Buasi (Vehes) Bruce A. Hooley 1971. Jarel has a set too. R/Eth Vehes.

Hote Bruce A. Hooley 1971. #6-7 from a set from Jarel. R.
Yamap Bruce A. Hooley 1971. #6 from a set from Jarel. R.
Misim Jarel Deaton. R, Eth d. Hote.

Milne Bay - Central Province

Milne Bay
Misima Ch, R, Et ~-Paneati.
Nimowa Ch, R, Eth Nimoa
Tagula Ch, R, Eth Sudest.
-->Miniafia Ch, R, Eth d. AAI Arifama-~.
Ubir Ch web, R.
-->Doga Ch, R.
-->Anuki Ch, R.
Mukawa Ch, R, Eth Are.
Gapapaiwa Ch, R.
Boianaki Ch, R, Eth Ghayavi.
Wataluma Ch, R.
Dawawa Ch, R.
Igora Ch, R, Eth Kakabai.
Wedau Ch, R.
Taupota Ch, R.
>Garuwahi R, Eth GRW Gweda.
Kehelala Bryan Ezard, A Gram of Tawala 1997. Ch, R, Eth d. TBO Tawala.
Kukuya Ch web, R, Eth Minaveha.
Suau Ch (8 d.), R.
Bohutu Ch, R, Eth Buhutu.
Wagawaga Ch, R.
Tubetube Ch, R, Eth Bwanabwana.
Duau Ch, R.
Bunama Ch, R.
Mwatebu Ch, R.
Kurada Ch, R, Eth `Auhelawa.
Sewa Bay Ch, R.
Dobu Ch, R.
Bosilewa Ch, R.
Molima Ch, R.
Galeya Ch, R.
Gumasi Ch, R, Eth Gumawana.
Yamalele Ch, R, Eth Iamalele.
Fagululu Ch, R, Eth d. Molima.
Kalokalo Ch, R, Eth Koluawawa.
Bwaidoka Ch, R.
Diodio Ch, R.
Iduna Ch (1-5, 10 only), R.
Budibud Ch, R.
Muyuw Ch (2 d.), R.
Kilivila Ch (2 d.), R.

Central Province
Mekeo Ch, R.
Roro Ch, R.
Kuni Ch (1-5, 10 only), R.
Nara Ch, R.
Gabadi Ch, R, Eth Kabadi.
Doura Ch, R.
Motu Ch, R.
Sinagoro Ch (2 d.), R, Eth Sinaugoro.
Keapara Ch (5 d.), R, V d. Hula, Eth Keopara
Ouma Ch, R.
Magori Ch, R.
Yoba Ch, R.
Bina Ch, R.


Melamela Ch, R.
Bileki (Nakanai) Ch, R Bileki, V/Eth Nakanai.
Xarua Ch, R, Eth d. next.
Bola Ch, R.
Bulu Ch, R.
Vitu Ch, R, Eth Muduapa.

New Britain

Tumuip Ch, R.
Arawe Ch (2 d.), R, Eth Solong.
Lesing. Ch 2 d. Not in R or V. Eth ~-Gelimi sis. Arawe.
Moewehafen Ch (3 d.), R, Eth Aiklep.
Gasmata Ch (2 d.), R.
Longa Ch, R, Eth Amara.
>Idne Eth alt. Maleu earlier.
Mok Ch =Mok-Aria, Mok d., R, Eth Mouk-Aria.
Lamogai Ch, R.
Pulie Ch, R, Eth d. Lamogai.
Rauto Ch, R, Eth d. Lamogai.
Pasismanua Ch (2 d.), R, Eth Kaulong.
Kapore Ch, R, Eth Karore?
Mangseng Ch (2 d.), R.
Uvol Ch, R, Eth Lote.
Mamusi Ch, R.
Mengen Ch (2 d.), R.

New Ireland-Tolai

Barok Ch, R.
Patpatar Ch web, R.
>Sursurunga R, Eth SGZ
>Tangga R, Eth TGG
Lihir Ch web, R.
>Konomala R, Eth KOA
R, Eth KQW
-->Siar Ch web (1-5 only), R, Eth Lak.
Tolai Jarel Deaton = Raluana Tolai. R, Eth d. Kuanua.
-->Duke of York Jarel Deaton-- several forms were available; he chose those t Tolai. R, Eth Ramoaaina.
Lavongai Leslie Fast "Tungak Gram Essentials" in John R. Roberts, Two Grammatical Studies, SIL 1990. R, Eth Tungag.
Tigak Ch, R.
Kara Ch, R.
Tiang Ch, R.
Nalik Ch, R.
Notsi Ch, R.
Tabar Ch, R, Eth Mandara.
Mussau Ch, R, Eth ~-Emira.
>Tenis R, Eth TNS
Lamusong Ch, R, Eth Lavatbura-~.
Madak Ch, R.

Admiralty Islands

Wuvulu Ch, R, Eth ~-Aua.
Seimat Ch, R.
Kaniet Ch, R.

Hermit Ch, R.
Sisi Ch, R, Eth Bipi.
Sori Ch (2 d.), R, Eth ~-Harengan.
Ponom Ch, R, Eth Ponam.
Andra Ch (2 d.), R, Eth ~-Hus.
Leipon Ch, R.
Loniu Ch, R.
Lindrou Ch, R, Eth Nyindrou.
Levei Ch (2 d.), R, Eth Khehek.
>Mondropolon R, Eth MLY
Likum Ch, R.
Gele Ch (4 d.), R, Eth Kele.
Nali Ch, R.
Mokerang Ch, R.
Papitalai Ch, R.
Titan Ch, R.

SE Islands
Baluan Ch, R, Eth ~-Pam.
Lenkau Ch, R.
Lou Jarel Deaton. Not in R; Eth LOU, obviously rel. prev.
Penchal Ch, R.
Nauna Ch, R.
Pak Ch, R, Eth d. ~-Tong.


Nehan Evelyn M. Todd 1978 =Nissan. R.
Halia Jerry & Janice Allen, ~ Gram 1987. R.
Solos Ch, R.
Petats Ch, R.
Saposa Ch, R.
Hahon Ch (no 6-9), R.
Tinputs Ch (2 d.), R, Eth Tinputz.
Teop Ch, R.
Papapana Ch (no 6-9), R.
Mono Ch (3 d.), R.
Uruava Ch, R.
Torau Ch, R.
Banoni Ch, R.
Piva Ch (no 6-9), R.


Vaghua Ch, R.
Varisi Ch, R.
Ririo Ch, R.
Babatana Ch (4 d.), R.

New Georgia

Marovo Ch, R.
Vangunu Ch (2 d.), R.
Ghanonga Ch, R, Eth Ghanongga.
Lungga Ch, R.
Simbo Ch, R.
Nduke Ch, R, Eth Duke.
Ughele Ch, R.
Roviana Ch, R.
Kusaghe Ch, R.
Hoava Karen Davis, A Gram of the ~ Lg, Western Solomons 2003. R.

Santa Isabel

Kia Ch, R, Eth Zabana.
Laghu Ch, R.
Kokota Ch, R.
Zazao Ch, R.
Blablanga Ch, R.
Maringe Ch (4 d.), Rm Eth Cheke Holo.
Gao Ch, R.

Santa Cruz

Nembao Ch, R, Eth Amba.
Asumboa Ch, R.
Tanimbili Ch, R.
Buma Ch, R, Eth Teanu.
Vano Ch, R.
Tanima Ch, R, Eth Tanema.

South New Hebrides

Aneityum Ch, R. Also in Tryon.
Utaha Lynch in John Lynch, Studies in the Lgs of Erromango 1983. Not in R; Eth Ifo.
Sie (Erromangan) Terry Crowley 1998. Also in Tryon, Ch. R, V Eromanga.
Ura Traditional: Terry Crowley, ~: A Disappearing Lg of Southern Vanuatu 1999; modern: John Lynch in Lynch, ed., Studies in the Lgs of Erromango 1983. R.
Kwamera Ch (3 d.), R. Also 3 d. in Tryon.
Whitesands Ch, R. Also 2 d. in Tryon.
North Tanna Ch, R. Also in Tryon.
Lenakel D.T. Tryon, New Hebrides Lg: An Internal Classification 1976 (3 d.). R.
SW Tanna D.T. Tryon 1976 (5 d.). R.

New Caledonia

>Yalayu R, Eth YLY Nyâlayu
>Kumak R, Eth NEE
R, Eth MSQ
Yuaga Ch web =Ywaanga, R.
>Pwapwa R, Eth POP
R, Eth PME
Hmwaveke Ch, R.
Jawe Ch, R.
Nemi Ch, R.
Fwai Ch, R, Eth Fwâi.
Pije Ch, R.
>Cemuhi R, Eth CAM Cemuhî
-->Paici Ch (#1-5 only), R, Eth Paicî.

>Arho R, Eth AOK Arhö
R, Eth ARN Arhâ
Ajie Ch web, R, Eth Ajië.
Orowe Ch, R.
>Neku R, Eth NEK
R, Eth SIH Zire
Tiri (Tinrin) Midori Osumi 1995. R Tiri.
Grand Couli George W. Grace, ~ Dict 1976.
Xaracuu Ch, R, Eth Xârâcùù. Also have this from George Grace, Canala Dict 1975, with 2/3 reversed!
Xaragure Ch, R.
>Dubea R, Eth DUF
Numee Ch web, R.

Loyalty Islands

Iaai D.T. Tryon 1968 =Iai. Ch, R.
Dehu Ch, R.
Nengone Ch, R.

Remote Oceanic

Nauruan Jarel Deaton. R.
Gilbertese Jonathan Willis-Richards, web; Ch (2 d.); M.Fabre 1847. R, Eth Kiribati.
Marshallese Jason Roberts. A little different in Ch. R.
Kusaiean Kee-dong Lee 1975; Ch (2 sets). R, Eth Kosraean.
Mokilese Sheldon P. Harrison 1976; Ch (5 sets). R.
Ponapean Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Pohnpeian.
Pingelapese. Ch web. V d. Ponapean, Eth PIF
Trukese Campbell 1991. R, Eth Chuukese.
Puluwat Samuel H. Elbert, ~ Gram 1974. Not in R; Eth Puluwatese.
Carolinian Jarel Deaton. R.
Tanapag. Jarel Deaton. Eth TPV
Ulithian Jarel Deaton. R.
Sonsorol Francisc Czobor. V d. Ulithian.
Pulo Anna, Merir, Tobi Fransisc Czobor. V d. Sonsorol. Eth too exc. Tobi is TOX.
Woleai Ho-min sohn 1975. Eth Woleaian.
Mapia+ waarki. R.

SE Solomons
Qae (Visale) Evelyn M. Todd 1980. Not in V or R or Eth.
Di (Vaturanga) Evelyn M. Todd 1980. Not in R. V Vaturanga near To'abaita. Eth d. Ghari.
Bughotu Jarel Deaton. R.
Gela Evelyn M. Todd 1980. R.
Lengo Evelyn M. Todd 1980 =Lengo. R Lengo.
Ghari D.T. Tyron & B.D. Hackman, Solomon Islands Lgs: An Internal Classification 1983 (JD). R.
Talise Tyron & Hackman 1983 (JD). R.
Malango Tyron & Hackman 1983 (JD). R.
Birao Tyron & Hackman 1983 (JD). R.
Longgu Tyron & Hackman 1983 (JD). R.
Lau Ch, R.
To'abaita Ch (4 d.), R.
Kwara'ae Ch, R.
Langalanga Ch, R.
Kwaio Ch, R.
Dori'o Ch, R.
Are'are Ch, R, Eth `Are'are.
Marau Ch, R. Same as Are'are except no long vowels. Eth d. Are'are.
Oroha Ch, R.
Sa'a Ivens 1918
Arosi Ch, R.
Fagani Ch (5 d.), R.
Bauro Ch, R.
Kahua Ch, R.

New Hebrides
East Santo
Sakao Jacques Guy
Lorediakarkar Ch, R.
Shark Bay Ch, R. Also 2 d. in Tryon.
Butmas Ch, R. Also Tur d. in Tryon, Eth ~-Tur.
Polonombauk Ch, R.
Tur Ch; not in R or V. Eth d. ~-Tur.
Tur, Nambel. Ch; not in R or V or Eth.

Malekula Interior
Labo Ch, R. Also 2 d. in Tryon.

Small NambasLetemboi D.T. Tryon, , New Hebrides Lgs: An Internal Classification 1976. R.
Repanbitip D.T. Tryon 1976. R.
Dixon Reef D.T. Tryon 1976. R.
Nasarian D.T. Tryon 1976. R.

Malekula CentralKatbol D.T. Tryon 1976 (2 d.). R.
Lingarak D.T. Tryon 1976. R.
Vinmavis Ch, R. Also in Tryon.
Litzlitz Ch, R. Also in Tryon.
Larevat Ch, R. Also in Tryon.
Maragus Ch, R. Also in Tryon.
Big Nambas Ch, R. Also 2 d. in Tryon.

NE New Hebrides- Bank Islands
E New HebridesHiw Ch, R. Also in Tryon.
Toga Ch, R. Also in Tryon.
Lehali Ch, R. Also in Tryon.
Lehalurup Ch, R. Also in Tryon.
Motlav Ch, R. Also in Tryon.
Mota D.T. Tryon 1976. R.
Vatrata D.T. Tryon 1976 (3 d.). R.
Alo-Teqel+ Jarel Deaton. R, Eth LEHALI.
Mosina D.T. Tryon 1976 (2 d.). R.
Nume D.T. Tryon 1976. R.
Koro D.T. Tryon 1976. R.
Wetamut D.T. Tryon 1976 (2 d.). R.
Lakona Ch, R. Also in Tryon.
Merlav Ch (2 d.), R. Also 2 d. in Tryon.
Marino Ch, R. Also in Tryon.
Central Maewo D.T. Tryon 1976; also Ch =Peterara. R.
Baetora Ch (5 d., including Tam, Nevenevene), R. Also 5 d. in Tryon.
NE Aoban D.T. Tryon 1976 (3 d.). R, Eth E Ambae.
Nduindui D.T. Tryon 1976. R, Eth W Ambae.
Raga D.T. Tryon 1976. R, Eth alt. next.
Apma D.T. Tryon 1976. R.
Sowa D.T. Tryon 1976. R.
Seke D.T. Tryon 1976. R.
Sa D.T. Tryon 1976. R.
North Ambrym Ch (2 d.), R. Also 2 d. in Tryon.
Lonwolwol Ch, R. Also in Tryon.
Dakaka Ch (2 d.), R. Also 2 d. in Tryon.
Port Vato Ch, R. Also in Tryon.
Southeast Ambrym Ch (2 d.), R. Also 2 d. in Tryon.
Paama Terry Crowley, A Dict of Paamese 1992. R. Also 3 d. in Tryon.

West SantoValpei D.T. Tryon 1976 (2 d.). R.
Nokuku D.T. Tryon 1976. R.
Piamatsina D.T. Tryon 1976. R.
Vunapu D.T. Tryon 1976. R.
Tolomako D.T. Tryon 1976. R.
Tasmate D.T. Tryon 1976. R.
Wusi Ch (4 d. incl. Nonona), R. Also 4 d. in Tryon.
Akei Ch, R. Also 3 d. in Tryon.
Malmariv Ch, R. Also in Tryon. Eth Tiale.
Navut Ch (also has Matae d.), R. Also 2 d. in Tryon.
Lametin Ch, R. Also in Tryon. Eth Merei.
Morouas Ch, R. Also in Tryon.
Fortsenal D.T. Tryon 1976. R.
Wailapa D.T. Tryon 1976. R.
Roria D.T. Tryon 1976. R.
Amblong D.T. Tryon 1976. R.
Tangoa D.T. Tryon 1976. R.
Araki Alexandre François, ~: A Disappearing Lg of Vanuatu 2002. R.
Narango D.T. Tryon 1976. R.
Tambotalo Ch, R. Also in Tryon.
Aore Ch, R. Also in Tryon.
Malo Ch, R. Also 2 d. in Tryon.
Tutuba Ch, R. Also in Tryon.
Mafea Ch, R. Also in Tryon.

Malekula CoastalMalua Bay Ch (also has Petarmur d.), R. Also 2 d. in Tryon.
Vovo Ch, R. Also in Tryon. Eth alt. Bieria below (numbers don't support this!)
Mpotovoro Ch, R. Also in Tryon.
Mae Ch, R. Also 2 d. in Tryon.
Vao D.T. Tryon 1976. R.
Atchin D.T. Tryon 1976. R. Eth w next. Uripiv-Wala-Rano-~.
Uripiv D.T. Tryon 1976 =Uripiv-Wala-Rano (6 d.). R.
Unua D.T. Tryon 1976. R.
Rerep D.T. Tryon 1976. R.
Aulua D.T. Tryon 1976. R.
Burmbar Ch (2 d.), R. Also 3 d. in Tryon.
Port Sandwich Ch, R. Also in Tryon.
Maskelynes Ch, R. Also in Tryon.
Axamb Ch (3 d., incl. Avok, Maxbaxo), R. Also 3 d. in Tryon.
Malfaxal Ch, R. Also in Tryon.
SW Bay D.T. Tryon 1976 (2 d.). R.

EpiMaii Ch, R. Also in Tryon.
Lewo Ch (3 d.), R. Also 8 d. in Tryon.
Bierobo D.T. Tryon 1976 (4 d.). R.
Baki D.T. Tryon 1976. R.
Bieria D.T. Tryon 1976. R.

Central New HebridesNamakura Ch (5 d.), R. Also 4 d. in Tryon.
North Efate Ch, R. Also 5 d. in Tryon.
South Efate D.T. Tryon 1976 (5 d.). R.

Central Pacific
Rotuman Jarel Deaton. R.
Fijian Campbell 1991. Also Ch (6 d.)
>Nadroga R, Eth WYY W Fijian.

TongicNiuean Jason Roberts
Tongan Campbell 1991

Samoic Outlier[ascii 214]-->Samoan R.
>Niuafo'ou R, Eth NUM
Tuvalu Ch, R, Eth Tuvaluan. Ch didn't record d. but it's not Nanumea so it's prob. Southern
Nanumea Peter Ranby, A ~ Lexicon 1980. Eth Northern d.
Tokelauan Knut Felberg. V d.Ellicean w Samoic Outlier. Not in R.
East Uvea Ch, R, Eth Wallisian.
Pukapuka Ch, R.
Rennellese Ch 2 d., R, Eth Rennell.
Pileni Ch, R.
Anuta Ch; not in R or V; Eth. puts here.
Tikopia Ch, R.
West Uvea Ch, R, Eth W Uvean
Emae D.T. Tryon 1976. R.
Mele Ch (also has Fila of `Mele-Fila'; Tryon has these 2 too), R, Eth Mele-Fila.
West Futuna Janet W.D.Dougherty 1983 West Futuna-Aniwa, R; Ch 2 d, Aniwa & Futuna wh. Tryon has too. Eth d. Futuna-Aniwa.
Sikaiana Ch, R.
Luangiua Ch, R. Eth Ontong Java
Nakumanu, Nukuria. Ch; not in R or V. Eth NUQ, NUR Nuguria
Takuu Ch, R.
Kapingamarangi Jason Roberts. R.
Nukuoro Ch, R.

EasternRapanui Veronica Du Feu 1996. R, Eth Rapa Nui.
Tahitian D.T.Tryon 1970
-->Tongareva Ch (1-2 only). R, Eth PNH Penrhyn.
Rarotongan Ch, R.
Pa'umotu (Tuamotu) Ch, R, Eth Tuamotuan.
Maori Winifred Bauer, William Parker, Te Kareongawai Evans, ~ 1993. R.
Moriori+ Jarel Deaton. R, Eth d. prev.
. Mangareva Edward Tregear, The Maori-Polynesian Compar Dict 1891 (JD). R.
Marquesan René Dordillon 1931. Eth N MRQ (bigger), S QMS.
Hawaiian Samuel H. Elbert and Mary Kawena Pukui, ~ Gram 1979. R

ASIA Chukchi- Kamchatkan

Chukchi P. Ya. Skorik in SOV. Also Campbell 1991; #7-9 from Jarel. R, V Chukchee, Eth Chukot.
Kerek P. Ya. Skorik in SOV. R, V.
Koryak A.N. Zhukova in SOV. Also Campbell 1991. R, V.
Alyutor A.N. Zhukova in SOV. R, V/Eth Alutor.
Kamchadal (Itel'men) A.P. Volodin & A.N. Zhukova in SOV. Also Jarel (similar, 1-4 only). R, V, Eth Itelmen.


Yukaghir Jarel Deaton (2 rather distinct d.). (N d. also in SOV.) R, V.
-->Omok+ Carl Masthay (missing #4, 6-9). R.
>Chuvantsy+ R, not in Eth.


Ket E.A. Kreynovich in SOV. Also Miguel Carrasquer Vidal, v. similar. Also have all but #8,9 in Starostin. R, V.
Sym+ Sergei Starostin (missing #8,9). Not in R or V unless it's Asan. This and rest Eth Yugh.
Kott+ Sergei Starostin (#6-9 from Jarel) =Kottish. V Cottian.
Arin+ Sergei Starostin (#8 from Ivan D.). V.
Pumpokol+ Sergei Starostin (#8,9 from Ivan D). Not in R or V.


Gilyak (Nivkh) Ivan Derzhanski. Gilyak has 26 noun classes; I took class 1, "boats", one of the simplest, from SOV; Ivan's set is the stems. Also Jarel (similar, but evidently another class). R, V, Eth.

NEWG New Guinean languages

Indo-Pacific 354

Taurap Jarel Deaton. V unclassified. Et Burmeso.
Pauwi Jarel Deaton. V unclassified, Eth Yoke.
Bugilai J. Chalmers, J Anthrop Institute of Great Britain 1898. Not in R or V. Eth has a Bulgai or Buglial, d. Meriam (p. 358), but Meriam is nothing like this.
-->Busa Pavel Petrov (1-4 only). R.
-->Nagatman Pavel Petrov (1-4 only). R, Eth Yale.

Trans-New Guinea

Oksapmin Jarel Deaton. R.
>Morwap R, Eth MRF Elseng.
>Molof R, Eth MSL.
>Usku R, Eth ULF.
>Tofamna R, Eth TLG Tofanma.

Main Section
Central & Western
Dem Holle 1983, via PP. R.
>Mor R, Eth MOR.

HuonKovai Jarel Deaton. R.

EasternKate Jarel Deaton =Wamola d. R, Eth Kâte.
Mape Jarel Deaton. R.
Dedua Jarel Deaton (note: l is really l with over-dot). R.
Sene Jarel Deaton. R.
Momare Jarel Deaton. R.
Migabac Jarel Deaton. R.
Kube Jarel Deaton. R.
Kosorong Jarel Deaton. R.

WesternOno Jarel Deaton. R.
Sialum Jarel Deaton. R.
Nomu Jarel Deaton. R.
Kinalakna Jarel Deaton. R.
Kumokio Jarel Deaton. R.
Selepet Jarel Deaton. R.
Timbe Jarel Deaton. R.
Komba Jarel Deaton. R.
Tobo Jarel Deaton. R.
Yaknge Jarel Deaton. R, not in Eth.
Burum Jarel Deaton. R. Eth ~-Mindik.
Mesem Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Mese~.
Nabak Jarel Deaton. R.


ErapNuk Jarel Deaton. R.
Nek Jarel Deaton. R.
Nakama Jarel Deaton =Nakanama. R.
Munkip Jarel Deaton. R.
Numanggang Jarel Deaton. R.
Sauk Geoffrey P. Smith, "Morobe Counting Systems" in Papers in New Guinea Lings No. 26 1988. R, Eth SKC
Gusan Jarel Deaton. R.
Finungwa Jarel Deaton. R.
Nimi Jarel Deaton. R.
Urii Jarel Deaton. R.
Mamaa Jarel Deaton. R.

WantoatIrumu Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Tuma-~.
Yagawak Jarel Deaton. R.
Bam Jarel Deaton. R.
Wantoat Jarel Deaton. R.

Gusap-MotUfim Jarel Deaton. R.
>Nahu R, Eth NCA.
-->Rawa Norma and Donald Toland, Reference Gram of the Karo/~ Lg 1991 (1-5 only). R, Eth RWO
R, Eth NKG
R, Eth NEJ
R, Eth NNF
R, Eth GRG

Yupna>Dahating R, Eth DAH Gwahatike.
R, Eth BMP
R, Eth GKA
R, Eth MTV Asaro'o
R, Eth FRO
R, Eth DGE
R, Eth YGM
R, Eth ASX

Yupna>Mebu R, Eth MJN
R, Eth NNK
R, Eth GAV
R, Eth DEV
Bonkiman Jarel Deaton. R, Eth BOP.
>Wandabong R; Eth d. Isan.
R; Eth d. Isan.
R; Eth d. Isan.
Isan Jarel Deaton. R. Eth YOP Yopno.

Uruwa Som Jarel Deaton. R.
Sakam Jarel Deaton. R.
Yau Jarel Deaton. R.
Komutu Jarel Deaton. R.
Weleki Jarel Deaton. R.

East New Guinea HighlandsProto-East New Guinea Highlands+ Darlene Bee in Howard McKaughan, The Lgs fo the E fa of the East NG Highland Stock 1973 (1,10 only).
Wiru Not sure, probably JD. R.
>Kenati R, Eth GAT

Kalam>Gants R, Eth GAO
R, Eth KMH
Kobon John Davies, ~ 1989. Attributive series is used with nouns; counting sequence is a list of body parts. R.

Eastern>Owena R, Eth WSR Owenia
Gadsup Jarel Deaton (missing #6-9). R
Auyana John R. Roberts 1987 =Usarufa. R, V Usurufa = d. Auyana, Eth Usarufa. Eth sez Auyana = alt. AUY Awiyaana.
Awa Richard & Arette Loving, ~ Dict 1975. R
Tairora Jarel Deaton (missing #6-9). R
>Binumarien R, Eth BJR
Waffa M.D. Stringer & J.M. Hotz, Dict of ~ / Tok Pisin / English 1979. R
Agarabi Jean Goddard, Notes on ~ Gram 1977. Not in R; Eth AGD.

East-CentralGende Jarel Deaton. R.
Kamano Audrey Payne & Dorothy Drew, ~-Kafe' Kemofo Agafa'e 1986. R.
PP also has Yagaria, Yate d. Keigana (see Hua).
Yagaria G.L. Renck, A Gram of ~ 1975 (Move d.). Not in R, Eth YGR.
Hua John Haiman 1980. Not listed in R or V; Eth d. Yagaria.
-->Siane Pavel Petrov (missing #6-9). R.
-->Yabiyufa Pavel Petrov (missing #6-9). R, Eth Yaweyuha.
-->Gahuku Pavel Petrov (missing #6-9; also has Asaro d. which is Eth ASO Dano). R, Eth Alekano.
-->Benabena Pavel Petrov (missing #6-9). R.
Fore Graham Scott 1980. R.
-->Gimi Pavel Petrov (missing #6-9). R.

CentralMedlpa Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Melpa.
. Chimbu D. Trefry 1969 (6-9 prob. concatenated). PP also has Golin d (Eth GVF). R, Eth Kuman.
>Chuave R, Eth CJV
R, Eth NOF
Wahgi Jarel Deaton. R.
-->Nii Al & Dellene Stacky, "~ Phonology" in Phonologies of Three Lgs of PNG 1973 (1-2 only). R, Eth NII
>Narak R, Eth NAC
R, Eth MBW
R, not in Eth.
Salt-Yui Barry Irwin, ~ Gram 1974. #6 glosses as `fist side rest all side rest one'. Eth; not in R.

West-Central >Huli R, Eth HUI
Enga A. Lang 1973 via JD. The native numbers are being replaced by English. R.
Kyaka Norm & Sheila Draper, Dict of ~ Enga 2002. Eth KYC, Not in R.
>Katinja R, Eth AKH Angal Heneng.
-->Lembena John Davies & Bernard Comrie, "A Ling Survey of the Upper Yuat", in Papers in New Guinea Lings 22, 1985 (1-4 only). R, Eth LEQ
-->Nete Davies & Comrie 1985 (1-4 only) =Iniai. R, Eth NET
-->Bisorio Davies & Comrie 1985 (1-4 only). R, Eth BIR
-->Ipili Pavel Petrov (#2,3, 5 only). R.
>Angal R, Eth AGE
Kewa K.J. Franklin, The Dialects of ~ 1968 =East, one of 3 d. R, Eth East Kewa. (West is KEW)
-->Sau Franklin & John Z'gragsen 1975 (1-2 only). R, Eth d. Enga.

Kutubuan-->Foe Murary Rule, The Culture and Lg of the ~ 1993 (no #8). R, Eth FOI Foi
>Fiwaga R, Eth FIW
-->Fasu Franklin & John Z'gragsen 1975 (1-2 only). R, Eth FAA
R, Eth d. Fasu.
-->Namumi Franklin & John Z'gragsen 1975 (1-2 only). R, Eth d. Fasu.

Central & South New Guinea>Somahai R, Eth MQF Momuna.
R, Eth KHM

Asmat-Kamoro>Iria R, Eth IRX Kamerau.
R, Eth ASI Buruwai.
Kamoro Rick Schellen. R.
>Sempan R, Eth SEM.
-->Central Asmat Jarel Deaton (#1-2 only). R.
-->N Asmat Jarel Deaton (#1-3 only). R; in V Asmat is one lang.
-->Citak Asmat Jarel Deaton =Kaunak (#1-3 only). R.
-->Casuarin Asmat Jarel Deaton (#1-3 only). R/Eth Casuarina Coast Asmat.

Awyu-DumutKorowai Jarel Deaton. Not in R or V; Eth unclass. in Awyu-Dumut.
>Sawuy R, Eth SAW Sawi
>Kotogut R, Eth KVZ Tsakwambo.
Mapi Jarel Deaton. R, Eth alt. Yaqay in Marind.
>Ederah R, Eth d. or rel. Kotogut.
R, Eth d. or rel. Kotogut.
>Upper Digul
R, Eth d. or rel. Kotogut.
>Upper Kaeme
R, Eth d. or rel. Kotogut.
Siagha Jarel Deaton. R, Eth ~-Yenimu.
Pisa Jarel Deaton. R. Eth Miaro Awyu.
Aghu Jarel Deaton. R.
>Airo R, not in Eth unless it's YIR Jair.
Kaeti Jarel Deaton. R, Eth KZH Mandobo.
Digul Mandobo Holle 1982, via PP. Not in R, unless this is Upper Digul? Not in Eth.
Wambon Jarel Deaton. R.
>Wanggom R, Eth d. KGU Kombai.

Ok>Yonggom R, Eth YON Yongkom.
>Ninggirum R, Eth NXR Ninggerum,
R, Eth IWO Iwor.
S Kati Holle 1982 via JD =Kaôh! R; V S Kati / Metomka, Eth d. YON.
Muyu (N Kati) Holle 1982; waarki provided the same sans accents. PP has this aka N. Kati! I also have 4 "Kati" numbers from RS, equivalent to Muyu but 4 = war-ajoop. R N Kati; V Lower Muiu or Muju... or N Kati / Niinati. Eth d. YON.
Telefol Jarel Deaton. R.
>Tifal R, Eth TIF
R, Eth alt. next.
R, Eth FAI.
R, Eth STM
R, Eth BHL
Mianmin Jean Smith & Pam Weston in Studies in Lgs of the Ok fa 1974. R, Eth MPT Mian
>Ngalum R, Eth SZB

Awin-Pa>Awin R, Eth AWI Aekyom
-->Pa Franklin & John Z'gragsen 1975 (1-2 only). R, Eth PPT Pare

East Strickland-->Nomad Franklin & John Z'gragsen 1975 (1-2 only). R, Eth SMQ Samo.
-->Agala Franklin & John Z'gragsen 1975 (1-2 only). R, Eth AGL Fembe
-->Kubo Franklin & John Z'gragsen 1975 (1-2 only). Not in R, Eth JKO.
-->Gobasi Franklin & John Z'gragsen 1975 (= Bibo, 1-2 only). Not in R, Eth GOI.
R, Eth KXW

Bosavi-->Beami Franklin & John Z'gragsen 1975 (1-2 only). R, Eth BEO
-->Onabasulu Franklin & John Z'gragsen 1975 (1-2 only). R, Eth ONN
Kaluli Jarel Deaton. R.
-->Kasua Franklin & John Z'gragsen 1975 (#1 only). R, Eth KHS
R, Eth AIL Aimele
R, Eth alt. Nomad
R, Eth PIK
R, Eth SIQ
Etolo Jan David Gossner, Aspects of ~ Gram 1994 (body parts from right little finger to 17 mimogo = nose; proceeds down left for a base of 34.) Eth ETR, not in R.

Duna-Pogaya-->Duna Franklin & John Z'gragsen 1975 (1-2 only). R, Eth DUC
-->Pogaya Franklin & John Z'gragsen 1975 (1-2 only). R, Eth BOQ Bogaya

MombunMombun J.H.M.C. Boelaars, The Ling Position of South-Western New Guinea 1950 (JD). R, Eth Mombun.
>Koneraw R, Eth KDW

AnganAngaataha Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Angaatiha.
-->Simbari Karl J. Franklin & John Z'gragsen, "Comp Wordlists of the Gulf District and Adjacent Areas" in Compar Wordlists 1975 (1-2 only). R, Eth SMB
Baruya Richard Lloyd, Bound and Minor Words in ~ 1989 (#8-9 not explicitly given). R.
Safeyoka Jarel Deaton. R, Eth alt. APZ Ampeeli-Wojokeso.
Kawatsa Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Kawacha.
Kamasa Jarel Deaton. R.
Susuami Geoffrey Smith 1988. Not in R; Eth SSU.
Yagwoia Jarel Deaton. R.
-->Ankave Franklin & John Z'gragsen 1975 (1-2 only). R, Eth AAK
-->Invori Franklin & John Z'gragsen 1975 (1-2 only). R, Eth AGO Tainae
-->Lohiki Franklin & John Z'gragsen 1975 (1-2 only). R, Eth MIW Akoye
Menya Jarel Deaton. R.
Hamta Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Hamtai.

Gogodala-Suki>Suki R, Eth SUI
Gogodala Jarel Deaton. R.
Waruna Jarel Deaton. R.

MarindBoazi Boelaars 1950 (see Mumbun). R.
-->Zimakani Jarel Deaton (#1-2 only). R.
-->Marind Rick Schellen (1-2 only). R.
>Bian Marind R, Eth BPV
R, Eth JAQ
R, Eth BGV ~-Bipim.

Kayagar>Kaugat R, Eth AQM Atohwaim.
R, Eth KYT Kayagar.
R, Eth TCG

Sentani>Demta R, Eth DMG
Sentani H.K.J. Cowan, Gram of the ~ Lg 1965. R.
>Nafri R, Eth NXX
-->Tanah Merah Danielo Ajamiseba, August Kafiar, Kenneth Gregerson, Tabla Conversation 1983 (1-6 only). R, Eth TNM Tabla.

Dani-Kwerba>Wano R, Eth WNO
Lani (W. Dani) waarki. Eth = Western Dani which is in R.
Grand Valley Dani Jarel Deaton. R, V, Eth Mid Grand Valley.
>N Ngalik R, Eth NLK Ninia Yali
>S Ngalik
R, Eth WUL Silimo
Pesegem (Nduga) Jarel Deaton. V d. Grand Valley Dani; R/Eth Nduga.
Saberi Holle 1983 via JD. R, Eth Isirawa.
>Samarokena R, Eth TMJ
R, Eth KWE
R, Eth AIR
R, Eth d. Kwerba.

Wissel Lakes-Kemandoga>Uhunduni R, Eth UHN Damal.
Ekari Marion Doble 1987 (Oceanic Lings XXVI:1/2). R Ekagi, V Kapauku.
>Wodani R, Eth WOD
Moni Boelaars 1950 (see Mumbun) (missing #8-9, tho' these seem predictable). R.

Mairasi-Tanah Merah>Tanah Merah
Mairasi Jarel Deaton. R.
>NE Mairasi R, Eth d. Mairasi.
-->Semimi C.L. Voorhoeve (1 only). R, Eth ETZ

West BomberaiKaras Cowan 1953 (see Mantion). R.
Iha Jarel Deaton. R.
Baham Jarel Deaton. R.

BinandereanGuhu-Semane Jarel Deaton. R.
Suena Jarel Deaton. R.
Yekora Jarel Deaton. R.
Zia Jarel Deaton. R.
Binandere Geoffrey Smith 1988 (JD). R.
>Ambasi R, Eth d. Binandere.
R, Eth d. Binandere.
-->Orokaiva Robert & Marilyn Larsen, ~: Legens, Lessons, and Gram Notes 1982 (1-2 only). R, Eth ORK.
>Hunjara R, Eth d. prev.
R, Eth d. NOU Ewage-Notu.
R, Eth d. prev.
R, Eth GCN.
-->Baruga Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R.
Mawae Jarel Deaton. R, Eth d. Zia above.
>Dogoro R, Eth d. Baruga.
Korafe Cynthia J.M. Farr, The Interface Between Syntax and Discourse in ~ 1999 (JD). R.

GoilalanBiangai Jarel Deaton. R.
Weri Jarel Deaton. R.
Kunimaipa Jarel Deaton. R.
-->Tauade Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R.
Fuyuge Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Fuyug.

KoiarianKoita T.E. Dutton, The Peopling of Central Papua 1969. R, Eth Koitabu.
Koiari T.E. Dutton 1969. R, Eth Grass ~.
Mountain Koiari T.E. Dutton 1969. R.
Aomie T.E. Dutton 1969. R/Eth Ömie.
Barai T.E. Dutton 1969. R.
Mangalasi T.E. Dutton 1969. R, Eth Managalasi.

KwaleanHumene Jarel Deaton. R.
Kwale Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Uare.
Mulaha+ Sydney Ray 1907 (JD). R.

ManubaranDoromu Jarel Deaton. R.
Maria Jarel Deaton. R.

YarebanYareba Jarel Deaton. R.
-->Doriri Probably JD (1-6 only). R, Eth Moikodi.
-->Sirio Jarel Deaton (1-4 only). R, Eth Nawaru.
>Bariji R, Eth BJC
R, Eth ABY Aneme Wake.

MailunMagi Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Mailu.
>Domu R, Eth DOF
Morawa Jarel Deaton. R.
Binahari Jarel Deaton. R.
Bauwaki Jarel Deaton. R.
-->Laua Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R.
Lau'una Tom Dutton in John Lynch & Fa'afo Pat, eds., Oceanic Studies 1996. V d. Magi, not in R or Eth.

DaganOnjob Jarel Deaton. R.
Maiwa Jarel Deaton. R.
Jimajima Jarel Deaton. R.
Daga R.
>Mapena R, Eth MNM
R, Eth TRH
R, Eth GDN Umanakaina.
R, Eth GNM
R, Eth SOQ Kanasi.

Madang-Adelbert Range
Rai Coast>Sinsauru R, Eth SNZ
R, Eth ASD
R, Eth SSJ
R, Eth QKE
R, Eth WTF
R, Eth AWM
R, Eth KLM
Siroi Jarel Deaton. R.
>Lemio R, Eth LEI
R, Eth PUP
R, Eth YBO
R, Eth GGL
R, Eth DUI
R, Eth SPD
R, Eth URW
R, Eth SIX
R, Eth URG
R, Eth DNR
R, Eth UYA Uya
R, Eth ERI Ogea
R, Eth DUK
R, Eth KOP
R, Eth REA
R, Eth JIL
R, Eth YNL
Bom Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Anjam.
-->Male Miklukho-Maklaj 1871, via PP (missing #8,9) Also JD #1-5 only. R.
Bongu Jarel Deaton. R.
-->Songum Jarel Deaton (1-3, 5 only). R.

Mabuso >Kare R, Eth KMF
R, Eth BBR
R, Eth MTC
R, Eth BMH
R, Eth SNR
R, Eth GMU
R, Eth IGO
Amele John R. Roberts 1987. R.
>Bau R, Eth BBD
Panim Jarel Deaton. R.
>Rapting R, Eth PNR
R, Eth WMC
R, Eth SMO
R, Eth MQW
R, Eth SRP
R, Eth NBK
R, Eth MQV
Garus Jarel Deaton. R.
>Yoidik R, Eth YDK
-->Rempi Jarel Deaton (missing 6-9). R.
>Bagupi R, Eth BPI
R, Eth SOT
R, Eth UTU
R, Eth MCZ
R, Eth BMX
R, Eth MQE
R, Eth GAP
R, Eth GAW Nobanob.
Kamba Jarel Deaton. R, Eth FAD Wagi.

Adelbert Range
Mugil Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Bargam.

Wasembo Jarel Deaton. R.
-->Pay Pavel Petrov (1-7 only). R, Eth Mala.
>Pila R, Eth alt. SKS Maia.
-->Saki Jean May and Eunice Loeweke in Five Phonological Studies SIL 1985 =Maia (#3,5 only). R, Eth alt. SKS Maia.
-->Tani Same source as Saki =Miani (#3 only). R, Eth PLA Miani.
-->Maiani Same source as Saki (#2-3 only). Not in R, Eth TNH.
-->Ulingan Pavel Petrov (1-7 only). R, Eth Mauwake.
>Bepour R, Eth BIE
R, Eth MVQ
R, Eth QKK
R, Eth MJJ
R, Eth MIH
R, Eth MMI
Wanambre Jarel Deaton. R.
>Koguman R, Eth QKG
R, Eth ABW
Usan (Wanuma) Jarel Deaton =Usan. R Wanuma, Eth Usan
>Yaben R, Eth YBN
R, Eth YRW
R, Eth BQL
R, Eth PRW
R, Eth UKG

Isumrud>Dimir R, Eth DMC
R, Eth KOZ
Waskia Jarel Deaton. R.
. Malas Pavel Petrov. R.
Bunabun Jarel Deaton. R, Eth BUQ Brem.

Josephstaal. Osum Pavel Petrov (1-4, probably that's it). R, Eth Utarmbung.
>Wadaginam R, Eth WDG
R, Eth SBQ
R, Eth KQA Mum
R, Eth PDA Anam
R, Eth IMI Anamgura
Moresada Jarel Deaton. R.

Wanang >Paynamar R, Eth PMR
R, Eth ATE Atemble
. Angaua Kyle Harris, "Nend Gram Essentials" in John R. Roberts, Two Grammatical Studies, SIL 1990. Says no consensus on >4 and Tok Pisin often used. R, Eth ANH Nend
R, Eth ENA Apali
R, Eth MMQ

Brahman>Isabi R, Eth ISA
R, Eth BPM
Tauya R.
>Faita R, Eth FAT

Pawaian D. Trefry, A Compar Study of Kuman and ~ 1969. R, Eth Pawaia.
-->Dadibi George & Georgetta MacDonald, "~ Phonology" in Phonologies of Four PNG Lgs 1974 (2-3 only); #1 from Franklin & John Z'gragsen 1975. R, Eth MPS
-->Podopa R, Eth PPO Folopa.
Tebera, Suri, Sopese, Boro dd. from Franklin & Z'gragsen 1975 (1-2 only).

-->Kairi Franklin & Z'gragsen 1975 (1-2 only). R, Eth KLQ Rumu
-->Omati Franklin & Z'gragsen 1975 (1-2 only). R, Eth MGX
-->Ikobi Franklin & Z'gragsen 1975 (1-2 only). R, Eth with next, MEB Ikobi-Mena.
-->Mena Franklin & Z'gragsen 1975 (1-2 only).

Inland Gulf
-->Ipiko Franklin & Z'gragsen 1975 (1-2 only). R, Eth IPK
-->Minanibai Franklin & Z'gragsen 1975 (1-2 only). R, Eth MCV
-->Tao Franklin & Z'gragsen 1975 (1-2 only). R, Eth TSX ~-Suamato.
R, Eth XAR
not in Eth

Purari Sidney H. Ray, "The Lgs of the Papuan Gulf District", in Carl Meinhof, Zeitschift für Kolonialsprachen voll. 3-4, 1913-4 (JD). R.
Tate John M. Clifton in S.A. Wurm, ed., Materials on Lgs in Danger of Disappearing int he Asia-Pacific Region No. 1 1997 (6-9 missing). R, Eth TBD Kaki Ae.
Toaripi Ray 1913 (JD). R.
Uaripi Ray 1913 (JD). R.
-->Opao Franklin & Z'gragsen 1975 (1-2 only). R, Eth OPO
-->Keuro Franklin & Z'gragsen 1975 (1-2 only). R, Eth QQK Keuru
Orokolo Jarel Deaton. R.

Yelmek Boelaars 1950 (see Mumbun). R.
Maklew Boelaars 1950 (see Mumbun). R.
-->Kiwai Jarel Deaton. R has 3 lgs (Bamu, S, NE ~), I don't know which one this is. Eth has Bamu plus S ~ KJD (bigger), NE ~ KIW.
-->Bamu Kiwai Jarel Deaton (1-5). R.
Wabuda Jarel Deaton. R.
-->Morigi Franklin & Z'gragsen 1975 (1-2 only). R, Eth MDB
-->Kerewo Franklin & Z'gragsen 1975 (1-2 only). R, Eth KXZ
-->Arigibi Franklin & Z'gragsen 1975 (1-2 only). R, Eth d. NE Kiwai.
Gibaio Franklin & Z'gragsen 1975 (1-2 only). Not in R, Eth d. NE Kiwai.
Tirio Jarel Deaton. R.
>Aturu R, Eth AUP
R, Eth LWD ~-Dewara
R, Eth MCL
Bine Jarel Deaton. R.
-->Gidra Lillian Fleischmann & Sinikka Turpeinen, Surveys in Five PNG Lgs 1976 (Ume d., 1-2 only). R, Eth GDR
-->Gizra Fleischmann & Turpeinen 1976 (Waidoro d., 1-2 only). R, Eth TOF
Meriam Jarel Deaton. R.
-->Agöb Sidney H. Ray, Reports of the Cambridge Expedition to Torres Straits 1907 (JD; 1-5). R, Eth Adob.
>Idi R, Eth IDI
-->Waia Franklin & Z'gragsen 1975 (1-2 only). R, Eth KNV Tabo.
-->Yey Boelaars 1950 (see Mumbun) (1-3). R.
-->Moraori Boelaars 1950 (see Mumbun) (1-4). R, Eth Morori.
-->Nambu Jarel Deaton (1-5). R.
-->Dorro Jarel Deaton (1-5). R, Eth MDW Mari or TST Tais.
>Upper Morehead R, Eth STK Arammba or TCI Wára.
-->Lower Morehead Jarel Deaton (1-2). R, Eth Kunja.
>Tonda R, Eth name of fa. or of IND Blafe.
Kanum Jarel Deaton. R. Eth one of KCD Ngkâlmpw ~ (biggest), KHD Bädi ~, KRZ Sota ~, KXQ Smärky ~.

Kosarek Jarel Deaton. R, Eth ~ Yale.
>Nipsan R, Eth NPS
R, Eth TVL
R, Eth KPQ Korupun-Sela.
Goliath Probably JD. R, Eth MTG Una.
Eipo Jarel Deaton. R, Eth EIP Eipomek.
Ketengban Andrew Sims, ~ Vocab 1990. R, Eth KIN
R, not in Eth.
R, not in Eth.

>Anggor R, Eth AGG Angor.
R, Eth KBV Kamberataro.

>Yafi R, Eth WFG
R, Eth ENR
R, Eth DMU
R, Eth TTN

Imonda Walter Seiler, Imonda, A Papuan Lg 1985 =Imonda d. Waris. Not in R.
>Waris R, Eth WRS.
>Manem R, Eth JET
R, Eth SNU
R, Eth SOW Sowanda
R, Eth DND
R, Eth SMF Auwe
Amanab Andy Minch in John Roberts, ed., Namia & ~ Gram Essentials 1992 (1-5 but that seems to be it). R.
>Awyi R, Eth AUW
R, Eth AOS Taikat.
R, Eth PGI
R, Eth KIH
R, Eth NBY Ningera.

Tor-Lake Plain
>Turu R, Eth d. TMU Iau.
R, Eth MGK
Uria Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Oyra.
Baburiwa Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Eritai.
>Taogwe R, not in Eth.
Tause Jarel Deaton. Not in R or V. Jarel suggests =Taogwe?
Taori-Kei Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Kaiy.
Tori Aikwakai Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Sikaritai.
>Papasena R, Eth PAS
Weretai Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Waritai.
Taori-So Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Doutai.
>Taworta R, Eth TBP
R, Eth alt. prev.
R, Eth FLH
Berik Jarel Deaton. R.
>Bonerif R, Eth BNV
R, Eth MQR
R, Eth ITX
R, Eth KWT
R, Eth MRX
R, Eth WAI

Kaure Jarel Deaton. R.
>Narau R, Eth NXU.
R, Eth KIQ Kosadle
R, Eth SAO
R, Eth KHP

Mekwei Jarel Deaton. R.
>Kemtuk R, Eth KMT Kemtuik.
Nimboran Kevin May & Dip Theol, A study of the ~ Lg 1997. R.

South Bird's Head
>Barau R, Eth d. BZP Kemberano.
R, Eth JBJ
R, Eth d. QKW Kokoda.
R, Eth d. Kokoda.
Puragi Cowan 1953 (see Mantion). R.
Kampong Baru Cowan 1953 (see Mantion). R, Eth Kais.
Inanwatan Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Suabo.
>Duriankere R, Eth DBN
Konda Cowan 1953 (see Mantion). R.
Yahadian Cowan 1953 (see Mantion). R.
>Kaburi Not in R, Eth UKA.

Kimaghana Boelaars 1950 (see Mumbun). R, Eth Kimaama.
>Riantana R, Eth RAN
R, Eth NQM

Oirata Jarel Deaton. R.
Fataluku Hull 1999 (= Lautém d.; he also has Lospalos).
>Lovaea Is this really Lóvaia? (see Kisar under Austronesian). Eth has LVA Maku'a here tho'.
>Kairui Is this R's confusion for the Austronesian lg? Eth has KRD ~-Midiki in Austronesian.
Bunak Hull 1999 (see Timorese for full ref) =Bobonaro d. R.
Zumalai, Marae Hull 1999. Not in Eth.
Kolana Jarel Deaton. R, Eth d. KVW Wersing.
Tanglapui Jarel Deaton. R, Eth TPG Kula (bigger) or SWT Sawila.
Makasai Hull 1999. R, Eth Makasae.
Makalero Hull 1999. R, Eth Maklere d. prev.

Kui W.A.L. Stokhof, Preliminary Notes on the Alor and Pantar Lgs 1975 (JD). R.
Woisika Stokhof 1975 (JD). R, Eth Kamang.
Abui Stokhof 1975 (JD). R.
Kelon Stokhof 1975 (JD). R.
Kafoa Stokhof 1975 (JD). R.
Kabola Stokhof 1975 (JD). R.

Blagar Stokhof 1975 (JD). R.
Tewa Stokhof 1975 (JD). R.
Nedebang Stokhof 1975 (JD)
Lamma Stokhof 1975 (JD). R.
Hamap Stokhof 1975 (Kabola d.). Not in R, Eth HMU.

West Papuan

Amberbaken Ger Reesink, Lgs of the Eastern Bird's Head 2002. R, Eth Mpur.

Bird's Head
Karon Pantai Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Abun.
Madik Cowan 1953 (see Mantion). R, Eth d. prev.
>Karon Dori R, Eth KGW
Brat Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Mai Brat.
>Kuwani R, not in Eth
Tehit Jarel Deaton. R.
Kalabra Cowan 1953 (see Mantion). R.
>Seget R, Eth SBG
Moi Holle 1983, via JD. R.
Moraid Cowan 1953 (see Mantion). R.

>Borai R, Eth alt. next.
-->Hattam Carl Masthay (1-5 only). R, Eth Hatam.

N Halmahera
Ternate Jarel Deaton. R.
Tidore Holle 1980. PP. R.
Galela Jarel Deaton. R.
>Tobelo R, Eth TLB
Loda Holle 1980. PP, Eth Loloda.
>Ibu R, Eth IBU.
Sahu Jarel Deaton. R.
Modole Holle 1980. PP.
>Tabaru R, Eth TBY
Pagu Holle 1980. PP.
>West Makian R, Eth MQS

East Bird's Head

Mantion H.K.J. Cowan, Voorlopige Resultaten Van Een Ambtelijk Taalonderzoek In Nieuw-Guinea 1953 (JD). R, Eth Manikion.
-->Meax Ger Reesink, Lgs of the Eastern Bird's Head 2002 (1-5 only). R, Eth MEJ Meyah
R, Eth MTJ Moskona.

Geelvink Bay

Yava Jarel Deaton. R.
>Turunggare Eth TRT Tunggare
Eth BRP Barapasi
Bauzi Jarel Deaton. R.
>Bapu Eth BPO Anasi


>Sko R, Eth SKV
R, Eth mentioned only as a village where Wutung is spoken.
.Vanimo Pavel Petrov (missing 7-8). R.
Wutung Jarel Deaton. R.
>Krisa R, Eth KRO
R, Eth RWA
R, Eth PUX
Warapu Jarel Deaton. R.


Pyu Pavel Petrov (1-4 only). R.
>Kwomtari R, Eth KWO
R, Eth FAS
R, Eth BBF
R, Eth BIO Nai.


-->Rocky Peak Pavel Petrov (1-4 only). R.
-->Iteri Pavel Petrov (1-4 only). R.
-->Bo Pavel Petrov (1-4 only). R.
-->Ama Pavel Petrov (1-4 only). R.
-->Nimo Pavel Petrov (1-4 only). R.
-->Owiniga Pavel Petrov (1-4 only). R.
>Nakwi Not in R, Eth NAX.


-->Amto Pavel Petrov (1-4 only). R.
-->Musian Pavel Petrov (1-4 only). ly is an l with a breve. R, Eth Musan.


>Urim R, Eth URI

West Wapei
>One R, Eth AUN Aunalei.
R, Eth STF
R, Eth SBI

>Urat R, Eth URT
R, Eth YIS
R, Eth YYU
Olo William E. Staley 1994. R, Eth ONG.
>Elkei R, Eth ELK
Au David Paul scorza, A Sketch of Au Morphology and Syntax 1978. R, Eth AVT
R, Eth YLL
R, Eth alt. DIA Dia.
R, Eth NIZ
R, Eth GNU
R, Eth DIA Dia or SIU Sinagen.
R, Eth YEV
-->Valman Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R, Eth VAN.
>Nambi R, Eth MTY Nabi.
R, Eth AIF
R, Eth LSR
R, Eth WNP Wanap
R, Eth MZF
R, Eth AOF
R, Eth ALX Alatil

>Laeko R, Eth LKL ~-Libuat
R, Eth BEY
R, Eth WII
R, Eth MKC
R, Eth RHP
R, Eth AUK Wanib

>Etiep R, Eth EIT
>Lou. R; Eth has it as an alt. TEI Torricelli. I had a Lou, but it's Austronesian.
R, Eth KOK
R, Eth YMB
R, Eth AUR
R, Eth WMO
Mountain Arapesh Jarel Deaton. R, Eth APE Bukiyip.
-->S Arapesh John Alungam, Robert J. Conrad, Joshua Lukacs, "Muhiang Gram'l Notes" in Miscellaneous Papers on Dobu and Arapesh 1978. R, Eth AOJ Mufian.
R, Eth AON

>Bungain R, Eth BUT
R, Eth TUA
R, Eth MWB
R, Eth URX
R, Eth KMS
R, Eth ELE
R, Eth BVN

Monumbo Jarel Deaton. R. The nj is "n with a loop on right stroke" which so far as I can see is a palatalized n.
>Lilau R, Eth LLL


Gapun Jarel Deaton. R, Eth GPN Taiap.

-->Biksi Pavel Petrov (1-4 only). R.

Upper Sepik
-->Abau Pavel Petrov (1-3 only). R.
-->Iwam Jarel Deaton (#1-4 only). R.
>Amal R, Eth AAD
-->Wogamusin Pavel Petrov (1-4 only). R.
-->Chenapian Pavel Petrov (1-4 only). R.

>Karawa R, Eth QKR
R, Eth BYE Pouye
Autu Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Awtuw.

>Kalou R, Eth YWA
R, Eth PSI
R, Eth LGT
-->Mehek Pavel Petrov (1-3 only). R.
Mayo Velma Foreman 1974 =Yessan-~. R, V, Eth Yessan-~.

Yellow River
Namie Tom & Becky Feldpausch in John Roberts, ed., ~ & Amanab Gram Essentials 1992. R, Eth NNM Namia
>Ak R, Eth AKQ
R, Eth AWW

Middle Sepik
>Yerakai R, Eth YRA
Kwoma Jarel Deaton. R.
>Kwanga R, Eth YUO Yubanakor
-->Ngala Jarel Deaton (1-4 only). R.
-->Manambu Jarel Deaton (1-4 only). R.
Kaunga Laycock 1965. R, Eth YLG Yelogu
Abelam D.C. Laycock, The Ndu Lg Fa 1965. [5] = `hand', and combinations are ambiguous between addition and multiplication. Says rest of fa works similarly. R, Eth Ambulas.
-->Boiken Jarel Deaton (1-4 only). R, Eth Boikin.
>Sawos R, Eth SIC Malinguat
-->Iatmul Jarel Deaton (1-4 only). R.
>Kwasengen R, Eth WOS Hanga Hundi.
Eth has 9 more.

Sepik Hill
-->Sanio Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R, Eth Saniyo-Hiyewe.
>Paka R, Eth d. with next GBE Niksek.
R, Eth PIN
R, Eth BIC

-->Hewa Pavel Petrov (1-3 only); #6 from Paul W. Vollrath in Five Phonological Studies 1985. R. Body parts version from Ivan Derzhanski; 1-5 are thumb and fingers of l.h.s.; 6-10 is wrist to shoulder; up to 14 patapa, then down r.h.s.
>Bitara R, Eth BIT
-->Bahinemo Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R.
>Mari R, Eth MBX
R, Eth BNW
R, Eth WTK
-->Kapriman Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R.
>Sumariup R, Eth SIV
R, Eth KNR Kaningra
Alamblak Jarel Deaton. R.

Leonard Schultze
-->Walio Pavel Petrov (1-4 only). R.
>Pai R, Eth PPQ Pei
R, Eth YBX Yawiyo
R, Eth TWW
-->Papi Pavel Petrov (1-3 only). R.
>Duranmin R, Eth SEO Suarmin

Murik Jarel Deaton (the first n in #4 has a loop on the r.h. stroke). R.
>Kopar R, Eth QKO
-->Chambri Pavel Petrov (1-3 only). R.
Yimas William A. Foley, The ~ Lg of New Guinea 1991. R, Eth.
-->Karawari Pavel Petrov (1-3 only). R, Eth Tabriak.
-->Angoram Pavel Petrov (1-3 only). R.

>Langam R, Eth LNM
R, Eth MGT
R, Eth YLA
R, Eth MYD
R, Eth CGA
R, Eth MVK
-->Miyak Davies & Comrie 1985 (see Lembena. 1-4 only). R, Eth KQL Kyenele
R, Eth BWM
R, Eth BUV
-->Waibuk John Tonson, Surveys in Five PNG Lgs 1976 (missing 6-9). R, Eth alt. TMD Haruai in E. New Guinea Highlands.
-->Pinai Davies & Comrie 1985 (1-4 only). R, Eth PNN Pinai-Hagahai
-->Aramo Davies & Comrie 1985 (1-4 only). R, Eth d. prev.
R, Eth alt. Aramo.

Ramu proper
Grass-->Banaro Davies & Comrie 1985 (1-4 only). R, Eth BYZ
R, Eth KBX Ap Ma
R, Eth AEW
R, Eth ADO Abu
R, Eth GRQ

Arafundi-->Alfendio Davies & Comrie 1985 (1-4 only). R, Eth ARF
R, Eth d. prev.

AnnabergRao Jarel Deaton. R.
>Anor R, Eth ANJ
R, Eth AKI

Ruboni-->Watam Jarel Deaton (missing 6-9). R.
-->Gamei Jarel Deaton (missing 6-9). R, Eth Borei
-->Kaian Pavel Petrov (missing 9-10). R.
-->Bosman Jarel Deaton (missing 6-9). R, Eth Bosngun.
>Awar R, Eth AYA
Giri Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Kire.
>Sepen R, Eth SPM
-->Mikarew Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R, Eth Aruamu.

Goam >Andarum R, Eth AOD
-->Igom Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R.
-->Tangu Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R, Eth Tanggu.
>Tanguat R, Eth TBS
R, Eth RMK
R, Eth BRQ
R, Eth QKM
R, Eth IGG
R, Eth AFI
R, Eth ITU
R, Eth MZU Inapang

East Papuan

Yele Jarel Deaton. R.
Kazukuru+ Jarel Deaton. R.
>Guliguli+ R, Eth GLG
R, Eth DRR
Bilua Jarel Deaton. R.
Baniata Jarel Deaton. R.
. Lavukaleve Pavel Petrov. R.
Savosavo Evelyn M. Todd 1980. R.

New Britain
-->Anem William R. Tuurston, A Compar Study in Anêm and Lusi 1982 (#1-2 only).
Sulka Jarel Deaton (the n in #1 has a loop on the r.h. stroke). R.
>Kol R, Eth KOL
R, Eth ATA Pele-Ata
Panaras Chul-Hwa Chang & Kyung-Ja Chung, "~ Gram Essentials" in Two Non-Austronesian Grams from the Highlands 1996. R, Eth KTO Kuot
. Baining Carl Masthay (7-9 don't repeat a from 2-4). R, Eth BYX Qaqet.
Taulil Jarel Deaton. R, Eth d. TUH ~-Butam.
. Butam+ Carl Masthay. R, Eth d. prev.
Eth also has CKR Kairak, GCC Mali, SMG Simbali, URO Ura.

Nasioi Conrad & Phyllis Hurd 1966. R, Eth Naasioi.
>Nagovisi R, Eth NCO
. Buin Pavel Petrov. R.
>Siwai R, Eth SIW
R, Eth KYX Rapoisi
R, Eth KJX Kereaka
-->Rotokas Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R.
Eth also has UIS Uisai, KQJ Koromira, LNI Lantanai, OUE Oune, SMZ Simeku.

Reef Islands-Santa Cruz
Aiwo Jarel Deaton. R, Eth Ayiwo.
Santa Cruz Jarel Deaton. R.
Nea PP
Nanggu S.A. Würm 1970 via PP. R.


Tasmanian+ W. Schmidt in Meillet & Cohen 1952 (3 d.). Jarel has 3 d. R. Not in Eth!

Andamanese 354

Great Andamanese

Aka-Cari+ Jarel Deaton. R.
>Aka-Kora+ R, Eth ACK
R, Eth AKM
Aka-Jeru+ S. Manoharan 1987 =Great Andamanese, creole based on Jeru. R.
Aka-Kede+ Jarel Deaton. R.
>Aka-Kol+ R, Eth AKY
Oko-Juwoi+ George Weber. R.
A-Pucikwar George Weber. R.
Akar-Bale+ George Weber. R.
Aka-Bea-da+ Miguel Carrasquer Vidal. R/Eth Aka-Bea.

South Andamanese

Onge S. Manoharan 1987. R, Eth Önge.
Jarawa S. Manoharan 1987. R.
>Sentinel Not in R; Eth STD.

AUST Australian 362

Enindhilyagwa Jarel Deaton. R, V Groote Eylandt; Eth Anindilyakwa.
Yanyuwa Jarel Deaton. R.
Gagudju Baldwin Spencer, Native Tribes of the Northern Territory of Australia 1914 (JD). R.
Kungarakany NO. R, Eth.
Mangarayi Francesca Merlan 1982 =Mangarawi. R.
Mingin+ Nick Evans in G.N. O'Grady and D.T. Tryon, Studies in Compar Pama-Nyungan 1990. R.
Tiwi C.R. Osborne 1974. R.
Limilgnan NO. R, Eth.
Garawa NO. Eth; not in R.
Wanyi Gavan Breen in Nicholas Evans, The Non-Pama-Nyungan Lgs of North Australia 2003.
>Umbugarla. Eth UMR
Others from NO, not in Eth or R: Norweilimil, Garig, Galibamu
Recheck in Eth: Yanyuwa, Nakkara, Dyeraidy, Ngalakan, Wagiman, Kawarrang, Nyamal, Nyiyabali, Yunkunytjajara (missing code), Yuwaaliyaay; Yotayota, Yabula Yabula


Margu Jarel Deaton. R.
Iwaidja A. Capell 1962 =Jiwadja. R.
Maung Jarel Deaton and NO. R.
Amarag NO. R Amurag, Eth.


Mangerr NO. R, Eth.
-->Urningangg NO. Eth; not in R.


Jawony Spencer 1914 (JD; #5 from NO). R; Eth Djauan.
Rembarrnga NO. R, Eth Rembarunga.
Ngandi+ Jeffrey Heath 1978; #3,#10 from NO. R.
Ngalakan Spencer 1914 (JD) =Nullakun. R.
Nunggubuyu Jeffrey Heath 1982, 1984. R.
Waray Spencer 1914 (JD).
Wulwulam+ Mark Harvey, "West Gunwinyguan" in Evans 2003 (see below). Not in R or Eth.


Wagiman Stephen Wilson, web (JD). R.
Wardaman Jarel Deaton. R.
>Dagoman+ R; mentioned in Eth but no code.
Yangman Spencer 1914 (JD). R.


Gunwinggu Nicholas Evans, Bininj Gun-wok: A pan-dialectal gram of Mayali, Kunwinjku, and Kune 2003 (standard d., Kunwinjku). R Gunwinygu, V Gunwiggu.
Kune, Manyallaluk-Mayali dd. and avoidance register, same source
Warlang NO. R; Eth Kunbarlang.
Dalabon A. Capell 1962. V, R Ngalkbun.


Guragone NO. R, Eth.
Djeebbana NO. R Ndjébbana, Eth.
Burarra NO. R, Eth.


Alawa NO. R, Eth.
Warndarang+ Jarel Deaton. R; Eth Wandarang.
Mara NO. R.

West Barkly

Djingili Neil Chadwick 1975; #7 from Robert Pensalfini, A Gram of Jingulu. R, V Tjingilu.
Ngarndji NO. R, Eth.
Gudandji NO. Eth d. previous; V Kutandjid. next.
Wambaya NO; #4 is from Spencer 1914 (JD) = Umbia. R, Eth, V.
Allana, Bigongina Spencer 1914 (JD). Not in R or V or Eth but seem to fit in here.


Laragiya Spencer 1914 (JD; #5 from NO). R.
Wulna Jarel Deaton (#4 from NO). R.


Ngenkikurrunggur Jarel Deaton. R; Eth Nangikurrunggurr.
Ngenkiwumerri NO. Eth d. previous.
Murrinhpatha R, Eth.


Wadjiginy Jarel Deaton. R.
Giyug NO. Eth; not in R.
Ami NO. Eth; not in R.
Manda NO. Eth; not in R.
Kuwama NO. Eth; not in R.
Maranungku JD and NO. Eth Maranunggu; R.
Mariyedi NO. Eth; not in R.
Marithiyel Jarel Deaton. R; Eth Miaithiel.
Maridjabin NO. Eth; not in R.
Magadige NO. Eth; not in R.
Maridan NO. Eth; not in R.
Marimanindji Jarel Deaton. R.
Maringarr Jarel Deaton. R.


Dyeraidy Jarel Deaton. R.
Malakmalak NO. R; Eth Mullukmulluk.
Yunggor NO. V, mentioned in Eth but no code; not in R.
Madngele Jarel Deaton. R.
Kamu NO. Eth; not in R.


-->Djamindjung NO (missing #1). Eth, R.
-->Ngaliwuru NO (#1 doubtful). Eth d. previous, R.
-->Nungali NO (missing #1). Eth, R.


>Gadjerawang R; Eth GDH.
-->Miriwung NO (#5 only = `plenty'). R, Eth.
>Kitja NO. R, Eth.


Bunaba NO. Eth, R.
Guniyan William B. McGregor 1990 =Gooniyandi. Eth, R Guniyan.


Nyulnyul Jarel Deaton. R.
Yawuru+ NO. R, Eth.
Warwa+ NO. R, Eth.
Nyigina NO. R, Eth.
Djawi NO. Eth, not in R.
Baadi NO =Bardi. Eth, not in R.
-->Nimanbur NO (#2 only). Eth, not in R.
-->Dyaberdyaber NO (#2 only). Eth, not in R.
-->Dyugun NO =Dyuezun (#2 only). Eth, not in R.


Wunambal William B. McGregor 1993 =Gunin. R.
Ungarinjin Jarel Deaton; #3 fron NO. R; Eth Ngarinyin.
Worora Jarel Deaton; #5,10 from NO. R.
Gambera NO. A near-identical set is given as Forrest River by Capell & Coate, Compar Studies in N Kimberly Lgs 1984. Eth; not in R.
Miwa NO. Eth; not in R.
Wilawila NO. Eth; not in R.

Pama-Nyungan 362

Yotayota+ NO. R.
Yabula-yabula+ NO. R.
Muk Thang+ NO. R, not in Eth.
Dhuduroa+ Source lost; NO's are the same. R; not in Eth.
Gumulgal (Kala Lagaw Ya) Jarel Deaton. Not in R or V nor Eth. He also has Kala Lagaw Ya which is the same except for #3 wh. is ukamodobigal!
Muruwari+ Jarel Deaton. R.
Warumungu Jarel Deaton. R.
Flinders Island NO. R, Eth.
Barrow Point NO. R, Eth.
Pallangahmiddang+ Barry J. Blake, Wathawurrung and the Colac Lg of Southern Victoria 1998 (JD). R.


Bandjalang W.E. Smythe 1978; #3+ from NO. R.
NO has dd. Arakawal, Gidabal, Kambuwal, Manandjali, Minjangbal, Windjabal, Waalubal, Yugumbal (= next). I've included a couple of interesting ones.
Yugumbir Margaret Sharpe, Dict of Yugambeh 1998.


Djinang Bruce Waters 1979. R.
Dhangu NO. R, Eth.
Dhuwal Frances Murphy in Dixon & Blake, Handbook of Australian Lgs 1979 Yolngu d.; #4/5 NO. PP has a similar set as Gomaidj which Eth lists separately.
Djambarpuyngu NO. Not in R; Eth.
-->Gupapuyngu NO (#2/3 only). Not in R; Eth.
>Gumatj. Not in R; V d. Gobabingo; Eth GNN
Dhuwala-Dhuwal-Dha'yi. PP has a similar set as Gomaidj, in V as d. Gobabingo. R.
Djinba Jarel Deaton. R.
-->Ritharngu J. Heath 1980 (missing #3). R.
Dhay'yi NO =Dayi. R, Eth.
Jarnango NO. R Yan-nhangu, Eth.


Lardil NO. R, Eth.
Gayardilt Sandra Keen in Dixon & Blake 1979 =Yukulta; #4,10 from NO. R, V Jakula d. Gayardilt.
Yugulda NO. Not in R, Eth Ganggalida.
-->Nyangga NO (#3 only). Not in R, Eth.


. Gudang+ Carl Masthay. R, not in Eth.
Atampaya Terry Crowley in Dixon & Blake 1979 =Uradhi w/ d. Atampaya, Angkamuthi, Yadhaykenu. R Atampaya. V Otati wh. R has as a sep. lang.
Uradhi NO. Not in R; Eth.
Wudhadhi+ NO. R, not in Eth.
Tjungundji NO. R, not in Eth.
Mpalityanh+ NO. R, not in Eth.
Yupngayth+ NO. R, not in Eth.
Linngithigh+ Jarel Deaton. R.
Alngith NO. Not in R; Eth; V says d. previous.
-->Ngkoth+ NO (#1 only). R, not in Eth.
-->Yinwum+ NO (#1 only). R, not in Eth.
Aritinngithigh+ NO. R, not in Eth.
Anguthimri Terry Crowley in Dixon & Blake 1979 Mpakwithi d. R/V =? Awngthim.
-->Mbiywom+ NO (#2 only). R, not in Eth.

Wik-Me'anha NO. R, Eth.
Wik-Ngathana NO. R, Eth.
Wik-Mungkan Jarel Deaton. R.
>Wik-Iiyanh R, Eth WIJ
-->Wikalkan NO (#2 only). Not in R, Eth; V alt. Wikngatara.
-->Kugu-Muminh NO (#2 only). R, Eth.
Pakanha Philip Hamilton 1997 =Pakanh, web. R.
Ayabadhu Philip Hamilton 1997, web. R.

Yir Yoront Barry Alpher 1991. R.
Thaayorre (Kuuk) Allen Hall. R.

Umpila NO. R, Eth.
Kaantyu NO. R; Eth Kanju.
Kuuku Ya'u NO. Not in R; Eth.

Lama-Lama Jarel Deaton. R.
Umbuygamu Jarel Deaton. R.
Mbariman-Gudhinma Jarel Deaton. R.
>Umbindhamu R, Eth UMD.
Gugu Warra+ NO. R, Eth.

Gugubera R Koko Pera; Eth.
>Gog Nar+
R, not in Eth.

Thaypan NO. R, Eth.
>Aghu-Tharnggala R, Eth GGR.
Gogo Mini+ Jarel Deaton. R.
-->Kawarrang NO (missing #1). R, not in Eth.
Oykangand Philip Hamilton 1997 =Uw Oykangand, web. R, V Oykangant d. Kundjen.
Olkola Philip Hamilton 1997, web =Uw Olkola. V Uwolkol d. Kundjen.

Kurtjar NO. R; Eth Gurdjar.
Kuthant+ NO. R, Eth.
>Walagama+ R; Not in Eth.
>Kunggara. Not in R; Eth KVS.

Gugadj Jarel Deaton. R.

Agwamin+ Pavel Petrov. R.
Mbabaram+ R.M.W. Dixon in Dixon & Blake 1979. R; not in Eth.
Mbara+ NO. R.
Wamin NO. Not in R; Eth.

Mayi-Kutuna+ Jarel Deaton. R; Eth Mayaguduna.
Mayi-Kulan+ Jarel Deaton. R; Eth Maykulan.
Mayabi NO. Not in R or Eth.


Guugu Yimidhirr John Haviland in Dixon & Blake 1979. R; Eth Guguyimidjir.
Brother-in-law lg NO
Gugu Yalandyi Elisabeth Patz, A gram of the ~ lg of N Queensland 2002. R; Eth Kuku-Yalanji.


Yidiny Jarel Deaton; NO has a fairly divergent set. R.
Dyaabugay Elisabeth Patz in Dixon & Blake 1979 = Djabugay; #4 from NO. R Dyaabugay.


Dyirbal R.M.W. Dixon 1972. R.
Warrgamay John Haviland in Dixon & Blake 1979. R.


Nyawaygi R.M.W. Dixon in Dixon & Blake 1979.
Wulguru+ NO. R; no Eth code.
Bindal NO. Not in R or Eth.


Guwa+ Breen 1990. R; not in Eth.
Yanda+ Jarel Deaton. R; not in Eth.
Yirandhali+ Jarel Deaton. R; not in Eth.
Gunggari Gavan Breen, Salvage Studies of W Queensland Aboriginal Lgs 1990. R; Eth Kunggari.
Birria Breen 1990 (JD). R; Eth mentions as rel. Gunggari.
Gugu Badhun Jarel Deaton. R.
Warungu NO. Eth; not in R.
>Gudjala+ R; not in Eth.
Yilba+ Jarel Deaton. R; not in Eth.
Biri+ Holmer 1983 (JD: see Barunggam below) and Angela Terrill, Birri 1998.
Giya+ Jarel Deaton. R; not in Eth.
Yiningay+ Jarel Deaton. R; not in Eth.
Wadjalang+ Breen 1990 (NO). Eth; R.
Gayiri+ Jarel Deaton. R; not in Eth.
Gangulu+ Holmer 1983 (JD: see Barunggam below).
Bidyara+ Jarel Deaton. R.
>Yiman+ R; not in Eth.
Margany J.E. Breen in Dixon & Blake 1979; #3 from NO. R.
Gunya J.E. Breen in Dixon & Blake 1979: sis. Margany.; #3 from NO. Not in R.
Guwamu Jarel Deaton. R.
Mandandanyi NO. Eth; not in R.
NO also has these lgs not in Eth or R: Yangga, Wiri, Yuwibara, Yambina, Yagalingu, Barnya, Wadjabangay, Garingbal, Nguri, Gungadudji


Darambal+ Nils M. Holmer, Notes on Some Queensland Lgs 1988 (JD); #5+ from NO. R; Eth alt. next.
Bayali+ Lost source; same one's in NO as Koinjmal. R; not in Eth.
Gabi (Dippil)+ Jarel Deaton =Queensland Dippil. R Gabi, V Dippil d. Dalla; Eth rel. Gureng Gureng.
Waga Lost source; #4 from NO. R; Eth Wakawaka.
Djuungidjawu Suzanne Kite & Stephen Wurm, The ~ Lg of SE Queensland 2004. #4 = `many'. Eth d. prev.
-->Muringam+ NO marked as questionable. R; Eth rel. Wakawaka.
Barunggam+ Nils M. Holmer, Ling Survey of South-Eastern Queensland 1983 (JD). R; Eth rel. Waga.
Wuliwuli+ Holmer 1983 (JD).
Gureng Gureng+ Holmer 1983 (JD).


Turrubal+ Jarel Deaton. R.
Gowar+ Jarel Deaton. R.
Yagara+ NO. Not in R.
Entire family is missing from Eth.


Gumbaynggir Diana Eades in Dixon & Blake 1979. Principle for #3-6 given in W.E. Smuth 1948 =Gumbáinggar. R; Eth Kumbainggar.
Yaygir+ Terry Crowley in Dixon & Blake 1979. R; not in Eth.


Yugambal+ Source lost. #4 from NO.
-->Nganyaywana+ NO (#2 only).
Dyangadi R.H. Matthews, Ethnological Notes on the Aboriginal Tribes of New South Wales and Victoria 1905 =Thangatti. Also from JD; he just has guda for #1. V Thangatti, R, Eth Worimi.
Gadang+ Pavel Petrov. R.
Awabakal. NO. Eth.
Gundungurra+ R.H. Mathews. R Gudungura.
Ngarigu+ Jarel Deaton. R.
>Thawa+ R; Eth fam.
. Dyirringany+ Carl Masthay. R.
Dhurga+ Jarel Deaton. R.
Dharawal+ Jarel Deaton. R; Eth Thurrawal.
Darkinyung+ Source lost. R; not in Eth.
Dharuk+ NO. R; not in Eth.


Bandjigali NO. Eth.
S Baagandji NO. Eth Darling.
NO also has Baarundji, Gurnu, Nabarlgu, Wanyubarlgu,
Dhanggagarli, Barundji, Marawara not in Eth, and Wilyagali = Eth d. Darling. R has one lg, Baagandji.


Gamilaraay+ Peter Austin 1993. R; Eth Kamilaroi.
Yuwaaliyaay Corinne J. Williams, A gram of ~ 1980. Also Yuwaalaraay, same except 1 is bi:r. V Yualyai, not in R or Eth.
Ngiyambaa Jarel Deaton. Also in Matthews 1905 =Ngeumba. R, V Ngemba; Eth Wangaaybuwan-Ngiyambaa.
Wiradhuri Jarel Deaton (#4/5 from NO). R.


Wemba Wemba+ Pavel Petrov. R.
Djadjala L.A. Hercus, Victorian Lgs: A Late Survey 1986. Not in R; V has prev. as a d. of this
Madi Madi Hercus 1986 = Madi Madi. V d. Djadjala.
Nari Nari+ Source lost-- odd, 'cos L.A. Hercus says no numbers were recorded!
Wathawurung+ Barry J. Blake, Wathawurrung and the Colac Lg of Southern Victoria 1998 (JD). R.
Kolakngat+ Pavel Petrov. R.
Woiwurrung+ Barry J. Blake in Dixon & Blake 1979; #4 from NO. R Wuywurrung, V d. Taungurong.
Bungandidj+ Barry Blake, The ~ (Buwandik) Lg of the Mt. Gambier Region 2003. R.
Kuurn Kopan Noot+ Jarel Deaton. R, V d. Tjapwurong.
Chaap Wuurong Jarel Deaton. Not in R; V Chaapwurru = Tjapwurong.
Warrnambool Barry J. Blake, The ~ Lg 2003. Not in R/V/Eth; a web source says name derives from Kuurn Kopan Noot and the numbers match it closest.
Entire family is missing from Eth.
NO also has Latji-Latji, Wadi-wadi and some dd.


Ngarinyeri+ Jarel Deaton. R. This is the only one in Eth.
Ngayawung George Taplin 1879 =Moorundee (Niawoo). V d. Nganguruku; NO lists as ~ which is in R.
Yuyu+ NO. R, not in Eth.
Keramin+ Jarel Deaton; NO's agree. R.
(Maraura George Taplin, The Folklore, Manners, Customs, and Langauges of the South Australian Aborigines 1879 =Maroura. V Maraura, R Keramin. The sequence goes nuki, barkolo, barkalonuke, [2]-[2]. It looks Karnic to me.)
Yitha-Yitha+ Jarel Deaton. R.


Wagaya Jarel Deaton. R; Eth.
Warluwara Jarel Deaton. R; Eth.
>Yindjilandji R; Eth YIL.
NO has Nguburindi not in R nor Eth nor V.


Pitta-Pitta Barry J. Blake in Dixon & Blake 1979. R.
Lhanima NO. R; Eth rel. prev.
Arabana Jarel Deaton. R.
Ngamini+ Peter Austin 1981 . R
Yandruwandha Jarel Deaton. R.
Diyari+ Peter Austin 1981 . R; Eth Dieri.
-->Midhaga NO (#3 only). R; Eth rel. Diyari.
Garuwali NO. R; Eth rel. Diyari.
Yarluyandi+ Peter Austin 1981 . R; Eth rel. Diyari.
Wangkumara Jarel Deaton. (watu has a "t left hook.") R; Eth Ngura.
Badjiri NO. R; not in Eth.
Bidjara NO. R; not in Eth.
Yardliwarra NO. R; not in Eth.
Malyangaba Jarel Deaton. R.
Yawarawarga NO. Eth; not in R.
Dirari NO. Eth; not in R.
Pirlatapa NO =Biladaba. Eth; not in R.
NO also has Mayawarli, Wanggayudyuru, Ringuringu, Yurlayurlanya, Njirrpi not in R or Eth, Gungalanya = Eth rel. Pitta-Pitta.


Kalkatungu Jarel Deaton. R; Eth Kalkutung.
Yalarnnga+ Jarel Deaton. R, Eth.


Alyawarra Colin Yallop 1977. R.
Aranda Jarel Deaton; #10 from NO (=W. Aranda). R; Eth W. Arrarnta.
Anmatyerre NO. Eth; not in R.
Kaytetye NO =Kaititj. Eth; R Kaititj.
E Aranda NO. Eth E. Arrernte; R perhaps Lower Aranda.
NO also has Yuruwinga, not in R nor Eth, and S. Aranda = Eth d. ARE.


Walmatjari Joyce Hudson 1978; #3 from NO. R/Eth Walmajarri.
Djaru Jarel Deaton. R; Eth Jaru.
Gurindji Pavel Petrov. R; Eth Gurinji.
Mudburra Jarel Deaton. R; Eth Mudbura.
Ngarinman NO. R.

Garadjari Anna Kristine Sands 1989 on web. R Garadyari, V/Eth Karadjeri.
Nyangumarta NO. R.
-->Mangarla NO (#1 only). R, Eth.

Ngarla Pavel Petrov (#4 from NO, prob. diff. source). R.
Nyamal Geoffrey N. O'Grady in Oceanic Lgs V5 1966 (JD). R.
>Nyiyabali R; not in Eth.
Panytyima NO. Not in R; Eth.
Tjurruru+ NO. R; Eth.
Wariyangga NO. Not in R; Eth.

Kariyarra O'Grady 1966 (JD). R.
-->Ngarluma NO (check on #5). Not in R; Eth.
Martuyhunira Jarel Deaton. R.
Nhuwala O'Grady 1966 (JD). R.
Yindjibarndi Jarel Deaton. R.
Kurrama NO. Not in R; Eth.
Binigura NO. R; Eth Pinigura.
Djiwarli NO. Not in R; Eth.
NO also has Dhiin, not in R or Eth.

Thargari Jarel Deaton =Thagari, probably a typo. R.


Yinggarda+ Jarel Deaton (#5 from NO = `many'). R.
>Maya+ R, Not in Eth.
Malgana+ Jarel Deaton. R.
Nhanda+ Jarel Deaton. R; Eth rel. Yinggarda.
NO also has Bulinya+-- Eth rel. Yinggarda.

Watjarri Wilfrid H. Douglas in Dixon & Blake 1979. R Wadjari.
Wirdimay NO. R; Eth. says alt. of next.
Badimay NO. Not in R; Eth. Badimaya.
>Karlamay R; Eth says rel. Ngunga, below.

Western Desert Language Wilf Douglas, An introductory dict of the ~ 1988. R. Eth MPJ.
NO has essentially these numbers for Wangkajungka, Yumu, Nangatara, Ildawongga, Gardudjara, Budidjara, Giyadjara, Nanadjara, Bidungu, Djalgadjara, Guwara, Nyanganyadjara, Mandjindja, Nakako, Wirdjaragandja, Ngalia, Pintini, Murunitja, Ngurlu. I've included those with Eth listings.
.Kukatja Eth, NO.
Pitjantjatjara Paul Eckert & Joyce Hudson, Wangka Wiru: A Handbook for the ~ Lg Learner 1988. Combo forms exist alongside the English borrowings, e.g. mankur-mankurpa '6'. Eth PJT.
.Pintupi Eth ~-Luritja, NO Gugadja.
.Kokata NO Maduwongga. Not in R; Eth d. Kokata.
Wirangu+ Luise A. Hercus, A Gram of the ~ Lg 1999. 4/5 narrowed down from sense of `a few, a group'. R, Eth.
Warnman Geoffrey N. O'Grady in Oceanic Lgs V5 1966 (JD). R.
NO also has Gugadja poss. = Kukatja, Yulbaridja, Mandjildjara d. MPJ, Balygu alt. NAD, Gugada alt. KTD, Ngaadjadjara not in Eth.

Warlpiri Laurie Reece 1970 =Wailbri; #5 = `hand' from Mark Cogan. R Walbiri, V, Eth.
Ngardi NO. R; Eth rel. prev.
Warlmanpa NO. R, Eth.

Nyungar+ Jarel Deaton (Minang and Wadjuk d.). R.
Pipelman, Neo-Nyungar, Tjapanmay NO. He also has Karlamay, Kwetjman, Mirnong (= Minang?), and Kaniyang dd.

Ngadjunmaya Jarel Deaton; #5/6 from NO. R.

Banggarla Jarel Deaton. Also in George Taplin 1879 (not quite same). #4 from NO. R.
Adynyamathanha Jarel Deaton (#3/4 from NO). R.
Wailpi George Taplin 1879 =Nimbalda tribe. (#5,#10 from JD. Probably newer, but who knows.) V Wailpi d. Adnyamathanha.
Kaurna+ Jarel Deaton. R; not in Eth.
Nugunu NO. Not in R; Eth.
Narungga NO. Not in R; Eth.

AMER Eskimo- Aleut 329, 132 - L 1


Aleut (Eastern, Atkan, Attuan) Knut Bergsland, ~ Dict 1994 (JD). R, V, L.


Proto-Eskimo+ Fortescue, Jacobson & Kaplan, Compar Eskimo Dict 1994


Naukan Siberian Yupik Menovshchikov 1964 (JD). R, V d. St. Lawrence I. Yupik, L Naukanski.
Sirenik+ (Siberian) G.A. Menovshchikov, Jazyk Sirenikskikh Eskimosov 1964 (JD). JD also has Centreal Siberian Yupik. R, V, L Sirenikski.
Chaplino Menovshchikov 1964 (JD). R, V d. St. Lawrence I. Yupik, L Central Siberian Yupik (thus same as Fortescue etc. 1994); Eth C. Siberian.
Alutiiq Alaskan Yupik Fortescue etc. 1994. R, V, L Pacific Yupik; Eth Pacific Gulf Yupik.
Central Alaskan Yupik Fortescue etc. 1994; #7-8 from Jarel. V, L, R Central Yupik.


Seward Peninsula Inuit Fortescue etc. 1994. R Alaskan Inuit. V sez all Inuits are 1 lang, ditto L; Eth this and next Inupiatun.
North Alaskan Inuit Fortescue etc. 1994. R Alaskan Inuit.
Western Canadian Inuit Fortescue etc. 1994; #7-8 from Jarel. R Canadian Inuit; Eth these Inuktitut.
Eastern Canadian Inuit Fortescue etc. 1994; #7 from Jarel. R Canadian Inuit.
Greenlandic Inuit Salik Hard [at Greenland tourist office!]. R.

AMER Na-Dené - L 2

Haida Campbell 1991. R. L iso 4, lexically v. unlike Athabaskan; Eth N. HAI, S. HAX.
Tlingit Roby Littlefield. R. L iso 3, lexically v. unlike to Athabaskan.
Eyak Jarel Deaton. R, L lg on a par with all of Athabaskan.



Ahtna Jarel Deaton. R, L; Eth Ahtena.
Tanaina Jarel Deaton. R, L.
Ingalik Ralph Sonnenschein. R, L; Eth Degexit'an.
>Holikachuk R, L, Eth HOI.
Koyukon Jarel Deaton. R, L.
>Tanana R, L Lower Tanana, Eth TAA.
>Tanacross R, L, Eth TCB.
>Upper Tanana R, L, Eth TAU.
>Han R, L, Eth HAA.
Kutchin McDonald, A Gram of the Tukudh Lg 1972. V/Eth d. Kutchin wh. is in R; Eth Gwich'in.
>Tutchone R 2 lgs N and S; L Tuchone; Eth S TCE, N TUT.
Tsetsaut+ Jarel Deaton. R, L.
. Tahltan Hank Nater. R 2 lgs Tahltan and Kaska, L.
Sekani Jarel Deaton (odd orthog.). R, L.
Beaver Jarel Deaton. R, L.
Chipewyan Jarel Deaton. R, L.
Slave Keren Rice 1989 = Hay River d.; has 4 more. R, V d. Chipewyan, L Slavey-Hare; Eth N Slave.
Hare Keren Rice, A Gram of Slave 1989. R, V d. Dogrib, L lg w/in Slavey-Hare; Eth d. S. Slave.
-->Dogrib Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R, L.
-->Babine Gillian L. Story, Babine and Carrier Phonology 1984 (#3 only). L; also Northern Carrier Eth N Carrier CAR.
Carrier A.G. Morice 1932. Anahim Lake d.: Hank Nater. R, L; Eth S Carrier.
-->Chilcotin Jarel Deaton (old). R, L.
-->Nicola+ Franz Boas, IJAL 3, 1924-5 (JD; but Boas says numbers are erroneous). R, L, not in Eth.
Sarcee Eung-Do Cook 1984. R, L.


Kwalhioqua+ Jarel Deaton =Clatskanie which V has as d. Kwalhioqua. R, V, L Kwalhioqua-Tlatskanai; not in Eth.

Pacific Coast

Umpqua+ Jarel Deaton. R, L Upper Umpqua.
-->Tolowa Jarel Deaton (old). R, L Tolowa-Chetco.
Tututni+ Jarel Deaton. V d. Chasta Costa. R only has sis. Tolowa.
Coquille+ Ralph Sonnenschein. V d. Chasta Costa, not in R, L part of Tututni.
Galice+ Jarel Deaton. R, L Applegate-Galice.

Hupa Danny Ammon, web. R, L.
Mattole+ Fang-Kuei Li 1930. R, L.
Wailaki+ Jarel Deaton (old). R, L.
Kato Ralph Sonnenschein. V sis. Chasta Costa, not in R, L Cahto.


Navajo Young & Morgan. R, V, L

Jicarilla Jarel Deaton. L
>Lipan L, Eth APL.
>Kiowa Apache R, L, Eth APK.
W Apache Dorothy Bray, ~-English Dict 1998. R, V d. Navajo.
-->Chiricahua Jarel Deaton (#1-4); Carl Masthay (rest). L, V d. Navajo. R E Apache.
>Mescalero L, Eth d. prev.

AMER Algic - L 57

Kutenai - L 9

Kutenai Jarel Deaton. R, L iso.

Beothuk - L 58

Beothuk+ Jarel Deaton. R, L iso with scanty evidence.


Proto-Algonquian+ George F. Aubin 1975.
Blackfoot Campbell 1991. R, L.
Cheyenne Wayne Leman (fieldworker); also Debbie Young. I have a set from Amos Tallbear too, in a different orthography; his are also the `times' set (1ce, 2ce...) where Wayne's are the `quantity' set. R, L.
Arapaho Amos Tallbear. R. L 4 lgs Arapaho, Atsina, Besawunera, Nawathinehena.
Menomini Leonard Bloomfield 1962. R, L.
Western Ojibwe John Hyaduck. L Ojibwa.
Potawatomi Smokey & Jim McKinney, web. L grouped with Ojibwa.
Algonkin Claudio Salvucci . Not in R. V d. Ojibwa. L Algonquin, grouped with Ojibwa.
Fox Ives Goddard 1994 (ed. of Leonard Bloomfield). V, R, L, Eth s. SAC Mesquakie.
Kickapoo Paul H. Voorhis 1988. V d. Fox, L grouped with Fox.
Sauk Jarel Deaton. V d. Fox, L grouped with Fox; Eth d. Mesquakie.
Shawnee Jarel Deaton. R, L.
Miami+ Jarel Deaton. V d. Miami, not in R, L.
Illinois+ Jarel Deaton. V d. Miami, R Illinois, L & Eth grouped with Miami.
Cree Campbell 1991. L Cree-Montagnais-(Naskapi), Eth Plains Cree.
Québec. Where from?
Montagnais Jarel Deaton.
Naskapi Marguerite MacKenzie & Bill Jancewicz, Lexique ~ 1994.


Micmac Maqtewékpaqtism. Have an older version from James L. Fidelholtz 1968. R, V, L. Autonym L'nuwísimk.
Souriquoian+ DeLaet 1633 (CS). Not in R. V d.Micmac. Not in Eth.
W Abenaki (Sokoki) Maqtewékpaqtism.
V d. Penobscot, R and L have 2 Abenakis, E and W. Autonym Alnôbaôdwawôgan.
E Abenaki (Alnôbak) J. Dyneley, `The Penobscot Lg of Maine' in Amer Anthropologist 12, 1910 (JD). R, L.
Narragansett+ Williams 1643 (CS). R, V d.Massachusett. L. Eth D. Mohegan-Montauk-~.
Powhatan+ Smith 1614 (CS). R, V, L.
Delaware Delaware Tribal HQ, web. V, R&Eth Unami. L.
Also David Zeisberger 1808 = Delaware, Brinton & Antony 1888 (CS) =Lenape (Unami). I also have a rather different set from John O'Meara 1996.
Minsi Heckewelder 1816 (CS). R Munsee, V d. Delaware, L Munsee grouped with Delaware. Eth Munsee.
Natick+ Trumbull 1903 (CS). Not in R. V d.Massachusett. L Massachusett. Eth alt. Wampanoag.
Passamaquoddy Herman Miller. V, R. Autonym Peskotomuhkatiyik. Eth Malecite-~.
Maliseet Philip S. LeSourd 1984 (ed. Leavitt & Francis). V d. Passamaquoddy. Autonym Wolastoqewiyik. L Maliseet(-Passamaquoddy).
Nanticoke+ Vans Murray 1792 (CS). R, V d.Mohegan. L Nanticoke-Conoy
Loup A+ Carl Masthay from Mathevet ~1750. R, not in L. Neither Loup is in Eth.
Loup B+ Carl Masthay from Magnon de Terlaye 1755. R, L.
Mohegan-Pequot+ Prince & Speck 1904 (CS) . V d.Mohegan. Eth see Narragansett.
Mahican+ Schmick 1754 (CS). R, V d.Mohegan.
-->Quiripi+ Abraham Pierson, Some Helps for the Indians: A Catechism in the Lg of the ~ Indians of New Haven Colony 1658 (JD). R; not in L nor Eth.
-->Unquachog+ Jefferson 1791 (CS) (#1-5 only; rest from JD). R; not in L nor Eth.
Pamlico+ Lawson 1709 (CS). Not in R or V or L. Eth Lumbee `descendent'.
>Carolina+ R; not in L nor Eth.
>Christanna+ L, Not in Eth.
L, Eth ETC


Wiyot+ Jarel Deaton. R, L.
Yurok R.H. Robins, The ~ Lg: Gram, Texts, Lexicon 1958. V, R, L


Chimakuan - L 7

Chemakum+ Jarel Deaton (K = backwards k). R, L.
Quileute Jarel Deaton. R, L.

Wakashan - L 6

Kwakiutl David McC. Grubb 1977. R Kwakwala, L.
Heiltsuk Jarel Deaton. R, L.
Haisla (Kitamat) Neville J. Lincoln & John C. Rath, Phonology, Dict & Listing of Roots... of the ~ Lg 1986. Apostrophes are over the letters. R, L.

Nootka Augustin Brabant cited in Michael Closs 1986. R, L.
Nitinat Jarel Deaton. R,L. Eth d. prev.
Makah Jarel Deaton. R, L.

Salish - L 8

Bella Coola
Bella Coola H.F. Nater 1984. R, L.

Central Salish
-->Comox Jarel Deaton; #4,7,9 from W.Fraser Tolmie & George M. Dawson, Comp Vocab of the Indian Tribes of British Columbia 1884 =Kowmook. R, L Comox-Sliammon.
>Pentlatch+ R, L, Eth PTW.
>Sechelt R Seshelt, L, Eth SEC.
Squamish Jarel Deaton. R, L.
Halkomelem Jarel Deaton. R, L.
Nooksack+ Jarel Deaton. R, L.
Northern Straits Timothy Montler (fieldworker) =Saanich d.. Also Brent D. Galloway 1990 Samish d. R, V Saanich d. N. Straits, L Straits.
Klallam Timothy Montler (fieldworker). Also Laurence & Terry Thompson 1971 =Clallam. R, L&Eth Clallam.
Lushootseed R, L, V =Northern d. Puget Sound Salish.Skagit Dawn Bates, Thom Hess, Vi Hilbert 1994 =Skagit d; corrections from Liland Brajant Ros'.
Duwamish Gladys A. Reichard in IJAL 1959 =Snoqualmie-Duwamish. R Lushootseed, V&Eth Southern d. Puget Sound Salish. I also have this from George Gibbs 1877.
Twana+ Jarel Deaton. R, L.

Tillamook+ Gladys A. Reichard in IJAL 1959. V, R, L.

-->Quinault Jarel Deaton (old). R, L, Eth.
Upper Chehalis Gladys A. Reichard in IJAL 1959; JD has a 1991 source. V, R, L Upper Chehalis.
-->Lower Chehalis Horatio Hale, Ethnograpy and Philology 1846 (JD). R, L, Eth.
-->Cowlitz Jarel Deaton (old). R, L, Eth.

Lillooeet Mike Cleven =St'at'imcets. R, L.
Thompson Jarel Deaton. R, L.
Shuswap Aert H. Kuipers 1974 . V, R, L

Columbian Jarel Deaton. R, L, Eth ~-Wenatchi.
Okanagan George Gibbs 1877 =Okináke:n. V Okanogan, R, L.
Kalispel Barry Carlson & Pauline Flett 1989 =Spokane. V d. Kalispel, L. Eth ~-Pend d'Oreille.
Coeur d'Alene Gladys A. Reichard in IJAL 1959. V, R, L.

AMER Keres - L 36

Western Keres Jarel Deaton (Acoma). R, V d. Keres, L.
Eastern Keres Jarel Deaton (Santa Ana Pueblo). R, V d. Keres, L.
I have a version of "Keresan" from Leslie A. White, Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association 1935; JD's looks more modern.

AMER Yuchi - L 55

Yuchi Jarel Deaton. R, L iso.

AMER Siouan - L 39


Catawban Jarel Deaton. R, L.
Woccon+ Gallatin 1836 (CS). R, L.

Siouan Proper

Mississippi Valley

Dakota Stephen Return Riggs 1893. R, L.
Lakhota Jennifer Runner
Assiniboine oops! UIC libes
Omaha-Poncan John E Koontz. R Omaha, L&Eth Omaha-Ponca.
Osage Francis La Flesche 1932. R, L d. Kansa-Osage.
-->Kansa Jarel Deaton (probably old). R, L.
Quapaw+ Jarel Deaton. R, L.
Chiwere Jarel Deaton =Otto; sent another version =Otoe-Iowa too. R, L, Eth Iowa-oto.
Winnebago (Hochank) Síle Shigley. R, L.


Tutelo+ Jarel Deaton. I also have this in a version by Sapir 1913. R, L.
Biloxi+ Jarel Deaton. R, L.
Ofo+ Jarel Deaton. R, L.

Missouri River

Crow Jarel Deaton. R, L.
Hidatsa G.H. Matthews, ~ Syntax 1965. R, L.


Mandan Jarel Deaton. R, L.

AMER Caddoan - L 40


Caddo Dr. Sibley 1804. R, L.

N Caddoan

Wichita Jarel Deaton. R, L.
Kitsai+ Jarel Deaton. R, L.
Arikara Jarel Deaton. R, L.
Pawnee Jarel Deaton. R, L.

Adai - L 41

Adai+ Jarel Deaton. R, L iso. Eth mentioned, no code.

AMER Iroquoian - L 56


Laurentian+ Cartier 1535 (CS). R, L.
>Wenro+, Erie+ L


Huron+ Potier 1920 (CS). R, L, Eth d. next.
Wyandot+ Claudio Salvucci . Not in R. V = Huron. L sibling of `Petun' under Huron-Petun; he also lists Neutral+.

Five Nations

Onondaga John Gilmay Shea 1860. From a 17C French MS R, L.
Susquehannock+ Campanius 1696 (CS). R, L.
Seneca Campbell 1991 R, L.
Mingo Jordan Lachler, Thomas McElwain, Sean Burke, web (NU). d. Cayuga. R, not in Eth.
Cayuga Claudio Salvucci R, L.
Oneida Claudio Salvucci R, L.
Mohawk Kahon:wes, web. Also (CS). Autonym Kanien'kehá:ka R, L.


Tuscarora+ Claudio Salvucci. R, L.
Nottoway+ Wood 1820 (CS). R, L Nottaway-Meherrin, Eth mentioned but no code.


Cherokee Richard Francis, web. R, L.

AMER Kiowa-Tanoan - L 37


Kiowa Laurel J. Watkins and Parker McKenzie, A Gram of ~ 1984 (JD). R, L.


Tewa Jarel Deaton =Tesuque Tewa. R, L Hopi Tewa.
>Santa Clara-San Juan L. Eth dd. prev.
-->Towa Jarel Deaton (old). R, L.


-->Taos Jarel Deaton (old). R, L, Eth d. N Tiwa.
-->Picurís John P. Harrington, ~ Children's Stories 1925-26 (JD; missing 6-9). R, L, Eth d. N Tiwa.
-->Isleta Jarel Deaton (old). R, L.
>Sandia R, L
Piro+ Jarel Deaton. R, L.

AMER [Hokan]

Shasta - L 19

-->Shasta+ Shirley Silver 1964 (#1,2,5 only), Jarel Deaton (spelling corr'd to match Silver). R, L iso.

Karuk - L 20

Karuk William Bright, The Karok Lg 1957. R&Eth Karok, L iso.

Chimariko - L 21

Chimariko+ Jarel Deaton. R, L iso.

Palaihnihan - L 22

Achumawi Bruce Nevin. R, L.
Atsugewi A.L. Kroeber in IJAL 1958. R, L.

Yana - L 23

N Yana+ Edward Sapir & Morris Swadesh, Yana Dict 1960. R Yana, V Yana, L.
-->Central Yana+ Sapir & Swadesh 1960 (missing 7,8). L
>South Yana+ L
Yahi+ Sapir & Swadesh 1960 (1-6, 10 only). R, V, L.

Pomoan - L 24

-->SE Pomo Jarel Deaton (old). R, L.
E Pomo Sally McLendon 1975; 9 supplied from Closs. R, L.
-->NE Pomo+ Jarel Deaton (old). R, L.

W Branch

-->N Pomo Jarel Deaton (old). R, L.
-->Central Pomo Jarel Deaton (old). R, L.
-->S Pomo Jarel Deaton (old). R, L.
Kashaya Michael Closs 1986 =SW Pomo. R, V Southwestern Pomo, L.

Washo - L 25

Washo Jarel Deaton. R, L iso.

Esselen - L 26

Esselen+ Betty War Brusa 1975 (#1-6), Jarel Deaton (#7-10). R, L iso.

Salinan - L 27

Salinan+ (2 d.) Katherine Turner in Shipley, In Honor of Mary Haas 1986. R, L iso.

Chumashan - L 28

Chumash+ Madison S. Beeler in Michael Closs 1986. R, V, L iso. Don't know which of L's lgs this is.
>Obispeño L, Eth OBI
Ventureño José Señán, Confesionario 1823. Base 4. L, Eth VEO
>Barbareño L, Eth BOI
>Inezeño L, Eth INE Ineseño
>Purisimeeño L, Eth PUY
>Isleño L, d.s Cruzeño (CRZ), Roseño

Cochimi-Yuman - L 29

NB: Most of the fa is in Margaret Langdon and Pamela Munro, "Yuman numerals", in Klar, Langdon, & Silver, eds., American Indian and Indoeuropean Studies 1980. I've only used this when previous sources were obviously inferior.


Pai (N)
Walapai Jarel Deaton. R, L; Eth d. ~-Havasupai-Yavapai.
Havasupai Leslie Spier, Comp Vocab and Parallel Texts in Two Yuman Lgs of Arizona 1946. R, L.
Yavapai Jarel Deaton. R, L.
Paipai Jarel Deaton 2 d. R, L.

River (C)
-->Mohave Jarel Deaton (from 2 diff. sets). R, L.
Maricopa Leslie Spier 1946, web. R, L.
Yuma Langdon & Munro 1980 (orig. from A.M. Halpern). L&Eth Quechan.

Cocopa James M. Crawford, ~ Dict 1989. R, L.
Diegueño Langdon & Munro 1980. Orig Langdon; Campo d-- also has Mesa Grande d. #1-5,10 wh. differs only in #1. R, L, Eth Kumiái.

Kiliwa Mauricio J. Mixco, ~ Dict 1985. R.


>Cochimí+ L

Tequistlatecan - M 2

Tequistlatec Paul & Shirley Turner 1971 =Chontal. Also in Yasugi =Highland Chontal. R, V Mountain Tequistlateco. L distinguishes Tequistlatec+ from Highland Chontal. Eth Sierra Chontal de Oaxaca.
Tlamelula Yasugi 1995 from Waterhouse 1985 =Lowland Chontal. R, V. Eth Costa Chontal de Oaxaca.

Jicaquean - M 3

Jicaque (Tol) Yasugi 1995 from Von Hagen 1943 =Tol. R, L Eastern Jicaque.
Palmar+ Yasugi 1995 from Membreño 1897. L Jicaque of El Palmar. Not in Eth.
>Yurimangui+ R. Not in Eth.

AMER N American isolates

Seri - M 4

Seri Mary B. Moser and Stephen A. Marlett, SIL, web (both sets). A more phonetic set is in Yasugi 1995 from Turner 1967. R, L iso.

Guacurian - M 16

Waicuri+ Jarel Deaton (only #1,3 are known). R, L Guaicura. L lists other lgs, all extinct.
>Quinigua+ R; mentioned by L but not included in any fa. Neither of these in Eth.

Coahuilteco - L 44

Coahuiltec+ Michael Closs 1986. R, L Coahuilteco. Not in Eth except as fa name for Tonkawa!

Cotoname - L 45

-->Cotoname+ Carl Masthay (#3-4 only). R.

Solano - L 47

>Solano+ L - just 21 words are attested. Eth XSO

Comecrudan - L 48

Comecrudo+ Jarel Deaton. R, L. None of these in Eth.
>Mamulique+ L, Eth EMM
>Garza+ L, Eth XGR

Tonkawa - L 42

Tonkawa+ Jarel Deaton. R.

Karankawa - L 43

Karankawa+ Jarel Deaton. R, Eth.

CAME Uto-Aztecan - L 35

Proto-Uto-Aztecan Ronald W.Langacker 1977.



Northern Paiute Allen Snapp & John & Joy Anderson 1982. R, V, L Paviotso-Bannock-Snake.
Mono Yasugi 1995 from Kroeber 1906 = N. Fork d.; Y also has Inyo d. R, V, L Monache.
Shoshone (Tümpisa) Jon P. Dayley, Tümpisa (Panamint) ~ Dict 1989. R and V Shoshoni, L Shoshoni-Goshiute. Eth Panamint.
Ft. Hall, Idaho Fred Moses, Idaho State U., web.
Gosiute Dirk Elzinga. R d. Shoshoni. Eth Shoshoni.
Comanche Ormsbee Charney 1993. L.
Koso Jarel Deaton. R, not in R or L. Eth alt. Panamint.
S Paiute (of San Juan) Pamela A. Bunte & Robert J. Franklin in Wm. Shipley, ed., In Honor of Mary Haas 1986. R, V, L. Eth d. with next two as Ute-S. Paiute.
Ute Yasugi 1995 from Kroeber 1906. V d. Southern Paiute, L.
Chemehuevi Margaret L.Press 1979. R, V d. Southern Paiute, L.
Kawaiisu Zigmond, Booth, Munro, ~: A Gram & Dict with Texts 1991. R, V d. Southern Paiute, L.


Tübatulabal Yasugi 1995 from Voegelin 1935. V, R, L.


Serrano Yasugi 1995 from Kroeber 1909. V, R. L Serran.
Kitanemuk+ Yasugi 1995 from Kroeber 1906. V, R. Not in Eth.
Cahuilla R, L.
Cupeño Jane H. Hill & Rosinda Nolasquez 1973. R, L.
Luiseño A.L. Kroeber & George William Grace, The Sparkman Gram of ~ 1960. #6-9: Jarel Deaton. K&G have 5-7 as paváhi, kavíkvish, shölash. JD sent another set with a totally different #6-9! 10 = `my hand finished both'. R, L.
Gabrielino+ Yasugi 1995 from Kroeber 1906. V, R, L. Eth part of a fa name.
Giamina+ Jarel Deaton. Not in R or Eth. V has as dubious member of Uto-Aztecan. It seems quite close to Kitanemuk however. L notes it as an old source, probably Takic. Not in Eth.


Hopi P.David Seaman 1985. R, L.



Pima Barnaby Lewis & Ralph Cameron, web. R, L Pima-Papago. Eth O'odham.
Papago Ofelia Zepeda 1983. V d.Pima.
Pima Bajo Yasugi 1995 from 18C source. R, L. Eth Sonora PIA, Chihuahua PMB.
Tepecano+ Yasugi 1995 from Mason 1916. R, L.
Northern Tepehuan Burton Bascom 1982. R, L
Southeastern Tepehuan Thomas Leslie Willett 1991. R, L


Tarahumara Andrés Lionnet 1972; also 2 d. in Yasugi. R, L. Eth Central, biggest of 5 lgs.
-->Guarijío Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R, L. Eth Huarijío.
Tubar+ Jarel Deaton. R, L.
Yaqui Jean B. Johnson 1962. L d. Cahitan.
Cahita+ Andrés Lionnet 1977. (Also in Yasugi as Mayo, respelled from this source.) V d. Yaqui, R Cahita, L d. Cahitan; he also names Mayo.
Opata+ Jarel Deaton. R, L.
Eudeve+ Yasugi 1995 (from Pennington 1981). Not in R or V or Eth. L.


Nahuatl Thelma Sullivan 1976. These numbers match Yasugi's Classical Nahuatl. R.
Tetelcingo Nahuatl David H Tuggy 1979.
North Pueblo Nahuatl Earl Brockway 1979.
Michoacán Nahual William R.Sischo 1979.
Huasteca Nahuatl Richard & Patricia Butler 1979.
Sierra Nahuat Yasugi 1995 from Robinson 1966. Eth AZZ?
Sierra de Zacapoaxtla, Puebla Harold Key & May Ritchie de Key,
Voc Mej de la ~ 1953.
Pipil Jarel Deaton. R, L.
Pochutla+ Jarel Deaton. R, L. Eth West ZTP, Northwest ZPX.

Cora Yasugi 1995 (from Casad 1984). R, L.
Huichol Yasugi 1995 (from Palafox Vargas 1978). R, L.

CAME Oto-Manguean - M 1



Amuzgo Yasugi 1995 from Anonymous 1954. R, L. Eth AMU is biggest of 3 lgs.

Mixtec Campbell 1991. R. Yasugi has 4 d.; Campbell's seem to be Jicaltepec Mixtec. Also have Chalcatongo d. from Monica Macaulay, A Gram. of Ch- ~ 1996. R, L. Eth MIO Pinotepa Nacional Mixteco is biggest of 50 lgs.
Cuicatec Lost my source, but it largely agrees with another in Yasugi, from 1983. R, L. Eth biggest of 2.
Trique Yasugi 1995 from Good 1979. Also have this from Claude Good 1978, just an orthographical variant. R, L. Eth Copala ~, biggest of 3.


Mazatec JD? R, L. Eth Huautla ~o, biggest of 8.
Chiquihuitlán Careole Jamieson, Gram Mazateca 1988. Eth MAQ.
Ixcatec Yasugi 1995 from Fernández de Miranda 1961. R, L.
Chocho Yasugi 1995 from Mock 1977. R, L. Eth Chochoteco.
-->Popoloca Jarel Deaton (old). R Popoloc, L. Eth Santa Inés Ahuatempan biggest of 7.


Zapotec Campbell 1991. R. Yasugi has 5 d. + Córdova; Campbell's is Yatzachí d. L says there are between 6 and 55 distinct lgs. Eth ZAV is biggest of 58.
Classical Zapotec+ Yasugi 1995 from Córdova 1578. Fairly similar to today's Valle.
Istmo Velma Pickett, Vocab Zapoteco del Istmo 1965. Eth ZAI.
Mitla Yasugi 1995 from Briggs 1961. R. Eth ZAW.
Chatino Leslie & Kitty Pride 1970. R, L. Eth Napala ~ biggest.



Proto-Oto-Pamean+ Doris Aileen Bartholomew, The Reconstruction of Otopamean 1965.
Otomí Yasugi 1995 from Echegoyen Gleason 1979 = Sierra d. (Y has another d. too). R, L.
Mazahua Mariscela Amador Hernandez, Gram del ~ 1976. R, L, Eth Central ~.
Older version: Nágera Yanguas 1637 (from Yasugi 1995).
Matlatzinca Yasugi 1995 from Soustelle 1937 Mexicalzingo d (has 3 other d.). R, L.
Ocuilteco Yasugi 1995 from Schumann 1975. R, L, Eth Atzingo Matlatzinca.
Pame Leonardo Manrique C. in in Hdbk Mid Amer Inds v5 1967 =Jiliapan d. S Pame. N and C Pame from Heriberto Avelino, "Pame Number Systems", UCLA seminar 1999. R, L.
Chichimeca Yasugi 1995 from Angulo 1932 =Chichimec. R, L Chichimeco. V has as d. Pipil and as sis. Pame; I take it this is the latter since it's listed next to Pame.


Proto-Chinantec+ Calvin R. Rensch, An Etymological Dict of the Chinantec Lgs 1989. R has just one Chinantec.
Ojitlán Rensch 1989. L, V, Eth CHJ.
Usila Rensch 1989. L, V, Eth CUS
Tlacoatzintepec Rensch 1989. Eth CTL
Chiltepec Rensch 1989. L, V, Eth CSA
Sochiapan Rensch 1989. Eth CSO
Tepetotutla Rensch 1989. Eth CNT
Palantla Rensch 1989. L, V, Eth CPA
Valle Nacional Rensch 1989. Eth CHV
Ozumacín Rensch 1989. V Azumacin, Eth CHZ
Lalana Rensch 1989. L, V, Eth CNL
-->Petlapa Rensch 1989 (2,7,10 only). Eth CTE Tepinapa.
Lealao Yasugi 1995 from Rupp 1980. Mentioned in L but not in table; Eth CLE
Quiotepec Rensch 1989. L, V (also has Yolox, which L groups here).
. Comaltepec Rensch 1989 (no #3). Eth CPA.


Chiapanec+ Yasugi 1995 from Lehmann 1920. R.
Mangue+ Juan Santiago Quirós Rodríguez, Dicc Esp-~ ~-Esp 1999. Missing 6/8/9 but they're probably lost for good. R.


Tlapanec Jorge A. Suárez, ~ de Malinaltepec 1988. L; R puts this fa in Hokan. Eth also has TPX Acatepec and TPC Azoyú.
Subtiaba+ Yasugi 1995 from Lehmann 1920. R, L.

CAME [Penutian]

Tsimshian - L 5

Tsimshian John Asher Dunn 1995. R, L fa of 3 lgs: Nass-Gitksan, Coast, Southern.

Chinook - L 10

Chinook Jargon George Gibbs 1863. Eth ~ Wawa.
Lower Chinook+ Jarel Deaton. R, L Lower Chinookan.
-->Upper Chinook W. Fraser Tolmie & George M. Dawson, Comp Vocab of the Indian Tribes of British Columbia 1884. R, L Upper Chinookan, fa of 3 lgs Cathlamet, Multnomah, Kiksht. Eth Wasco-Wishram.

Takelman - L 14

Takelma+ Edward Sapir in Boas 1922. R, L.
Tfalati+ William Shipley in Earl H. Swanson 1970. R, L Northern Kalapuya, not in Eth.
Santiam+ William Shipley in Earl H. Swanson 1970; #6-9 from Jarel. R, L Central Kalapuya. Eth Kalapuya.
-->Yonkalla+ William Shipley in Earl H. Swanson 1970. R, L Southern Kalapuya.

Coosan - L 13

Coos+ Leo J. Frachtenberg in Boas 1922. R, L fa with 2 lgs Hanis and Miluk.

Alsean - L 11

Alsea+ Jarel Deaton. R, L.
>Yaquina+ L, Eth d. prev.

Siuslaw - L 12

Siuslaw+ Leo J. Frachtenberg in Boas 1922. R, L iso.


Sahaptian - L 15

>Lipan L. This does differ from Apache Lipan, right?
Sahaptin Jarel Deaton. R, L. Eth WAA Walla Walla or UMA Umatilla.
Nez Percé Haruo Aoki 1994; also Anthony Morvillo 1891. R, L.

Klamath-Modoc - L 16

Klamath Scott DeLancey (whose field it is). R, L. Eth ~-Modoc.

Molala - L 17

Molale+ Jarel Deaton. R, L.

Cayuse - L 18

Cayuse+ Jarel Deaton. R, L. Not in Eth.

Wintuan - L 30

Wintu+ Harvey Pitkin 1984. R Wintun, L.
Nomlaki+ Jarel Deaton. R, L, Eth d. Wintu.
Patwin Jarel Deaton. R, L 2 lgs N and, Eth d. Wintu..

Maiduan - L 30

NW Maidu Michael Closs 1986. R, L has one Maidu lg.
S Maidu Jarel Deaton. R, Eth d. Nisenan.
-->Mountain Maidu Jarel Deaton (old). R.
>Konkow L, Eth alt. NW Maidu.
Nisenan Andrew Eatough, Central Hill ~ Texts with Gram Sketch 1999. L, Eth NSZ.

Yokutsan - L 33

Foothill North Yokuts Geoffrey Gamble 1978 =Wikchamni. R, V Wükchamni d. Ft N Yokuts, L Tule-Kaweah. Eth all of these are d. Yokuts.
Noptinte Yokuts+ Madison S. Beeler 1971, but based on Felipe Arroyo de la Cuesta 1837, L.
Foothill South Yokuts+ Jarel Deaton. R, L uncertain.
Valley Yokuts+ Jarel Deaton. R, L grouping.
>Poso Creek (Palewyami), Buena Vista (Tulamni), Kings River (Chukaymina), Gashowu, Yachikumne, bd-Yokuts, Chawchila, N. Hill (Chukchansi), S. Valley (Wechihit) L

Miwok-Costanoan - L 32


Karkin+ M.S. Beeler in IJAL 1961. V, L, not in R.

>San Francisco+ V d. N Costanoan, L Ramaytush,
Juichun+ M.S. Beeler in IJAL 1961. V Huichun d. East Bay (Chocheño) d. N Costanoan.
Santa Clara+ M.S. Beeler in IJAL 1961. V d. N Costanoan, L Tamyen, Eth this and next N Costanoan.
Santa Cruz+ M.S. Beeler in IJAL 1961. R, V d. N Costanoan, L Awaswas.
San José+ M.S. Beeler in IJAL 1961. R, V d. N Costanoan, not in L.
Soledad+ Jarel Deaton (from Hale). R, L Chalon.
>Ohlone+ R, not in L or V. Eth has this as an alt. N or S Costanoan.

Rumsen+ Jarel Deaton. R, L. Eth has all of these as one lg, S Costanoan.
Mutsun + M.S. Beeler in IJAL 1961 =San Juan Bautista. R, L, V d S Costanoan, L.
Monterey+ M.S. Beeler in IJAL 1961. R, V d. S Costanoan, not in L.


Proto-Miwok Catherine Callaghan 1994 (IJAL).
Unless otherwise shown, Miwoks come from Eugene Conrotto 1973; all are in V, R, L.

Plains Miwok Catherine Callaghan, ~ Dict 1984
Northern Sierra (Amador) Miwok Catherine Callaghan, N- S- M- Dict 1987
Central Sierra (Tuolumne) Miwok
Southern Sierra (Mariposa) Miwok
>Bay Miwok+ L & V only =Saclan. Eth MKQ.

Coast Miwok
Bodega Miwok
Marin Miwok
Lake Miwok

Zuñi - L 38

Zuñi Michael Closs 1986. R, L iso.

Yukian - L 34

Yuki+ Michael Closs 1986. Also have (exc. #7,9,10 v. diff.) in Jesse O. Sawyer & Alice Schlichter 1984. R; L has 3 lgs Yuki, Coast Yuki, Huchnom.
Wappo Paul Radin 1929. R, L.

Chitimacha - L 50

Chitimacha+ Thomas Jefferson 1790 (CM). R, L iso.

Tunica - L 51

Tunica+ Jarel Deaton. R, L iso.

Atakapan - L 49

W Atakapa+ Jarel Deaton. R Atakapa, L. Eth puts this and next together.
-->E Atakapa+ Jarel Deaton (missing #3,5,6,9,10). R Atakapa, L.
>Akokisa+ L, not in Eth.

Natchez - L 52

Natchez+ John R. Swanton, IJAL 3, 1924-5 (JD). R, L iso.

Muskogean - L 53

L presents two classifications; each recognizes the groupings below, but they differ on which of them form higher-level taxa.


Choctaw George Aaron Broadwell (via net; author of a Choctaw dict.). R, L.
Chickasaw Pamela Munro, Catherine Willmond 1994. V d. Choctaw. R, L.


Apalachee+ Jarel Deaton. R, L, Eth.
Alabama Cora Sylestine, Heather Hardy, Timothy Montler 1993 R, L.
Koasati Geoffrey Kimball 1994. R, L.


Hitchiti+ Jarel Deaton. V, L, not in Eth.
Mikasuki Jarel Deaton. R, V d. Hitchiti.


Muskogee (Creek) Jarel Deaton. R,V, L Creek.
Seminole Jarel Deaton. R d. Muskogee, L separate, not in Eth.
Mobile Trade Language+ James M. Crawford 1978 (#6,7,9 from Jarel). Not in V / R / L / Eth.

Huave - M 5

Huave Yasugi 1995 from Stairs & Stairs 1981. R, L iso.

Mixe-Zoquean - M 7


Sayula Yasugi 1995 from Clark & Clark 1974 (1-6), Lehmann 1920 (7-10). R, L.
Oluta Yasugi 1995 from Clark 1981. R, L.
>Tapachultec+ L, not in Eth.

Totontepec Yasugi 1995 from Schoenhals 1982. Also Miguel Bolaños Cacho 1902. L North Highland Mixe. R has just Mixe.
Tlahuitoltepec Yasugi 1995 from Lyon 1980. L Zempoaltepetl.
>Non-Zempoaltepetl L. These 3 not in Eth.
>N Midland Mixe L
>S Midland Mixe L


Texixtepec Yasugi 1995 from Lehmann 1920. R, L Texistepec.
-->Sierra Popoluca Benjamin F. Elson in Hdbk Mid Amer Inds v5 1967 (1-3); #4 is from Yasugi, apparently from another Elson article; gives #5+ as singkoh and sez rest are now Spanish. Old #5-6 are from Mary L. Foster & George M. Foster 1948. R, L Soteapan.
>Ayapa L. If = Ayapanec, alt. ZOQ Tabasco Zoque.

>Santa María L. Eth both of these ZOH.
>San Miguel L

Francisco León Yasugi 1995. L N Zoque. R has just Zoque.
Rayón Yasugi 1995. L NE Zoque A.
>Chapultenango, Oxolotán L ds. NE Zoque B. Eth first is ZOS.
Copainalá Yasugi 1995 from Harrison & García 1981; Yasugi has 3 d. in all. L d. Central Zoque.
>Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Ocozocuautla L ds. S Zoque. Not in Eth.

Totonacan - M 6

Totonac Yasugi 1995 from Hernández García 1982. R, L. Eth TOS biggest of 8.
Tepehua Yasugi 1995 from Bower 1948. R, L. Eth TPP biggest of 3.

Mayan - M 8

Proto-Mayan+ Lyle Campbell 1988.

Huastec Lyle Campbell 1988 =Chicomuceltec & Huastec. Also Norman A. McQuown in Supp. Hdbk. Mid. Amer. Ind., 1984. R, V, L. Eth HVA San Luís Potosí is biggest.
Chicomuceltec+ Yasugi 1995 from Sapper 1910. R, L.

Yucatec Alfred M.Tozzer 1921. Also have a classical orthography from Beltran 1746 (in Yasugi). L, R, V d. Maya.
-->Lacandon Yasugi 1995 from Bruce 1968. #4 up are terms based on finger counting; #7-9 are from Jarel, from an old source. R, L.
-->Itza Jarel Deaton (old). R, L.
-->Mopan Jarel Deaton (old; no #8-10). R, L.

Chol Lyle Campbell 1988. Yasugi has 2 (earlier) versions. R, V, L. Eth CTI Tila Ch'ol or CTU Tumbala, bigger.
Chontal Jarel Deaton. R, L.
>Choltí+ R, L. Eth mentions but no code.
-->Chorti Jarel Deaton (old). R, L Ch'orti'.
Tzeltal Lyle Campbell 1988 =Southern Tzeltal. Yasugi has another version. R, L. Eth Oxchuc (Highland) TZH, Bachajón (Lowland) TZB.
Tzotzil Jennifer Runner. Yasugi has 2 d. R, V, L. Eth biggest Chamula.

Tojolabal Lyle Campbell 1988. Also in Yasugi. R, V, L.
Chuj Lyle Campbell 1988. Also in Yasugi. R, V Chujean, L. Eth San Mateo Ixtatán CNM, San Sebastián Coatán CAC.
Motozintlec Lyle Campbell 1988. Also in Yasugi, but old. R&Eth Mocho, V, L Motocintlec.
Kanjobal Jarel Deaton. R, L Q'anjob'al. Eth East Kanjobal.
-->Acatec Jarel Deaton (#1-2 only). R, L Akateko. Eth alt W. Kanjobal.
Jacaltec Lyle Campbell 1988. Also in Yasugi. R, V L Jakalteko. Eth E JAC, W JAI,

Teco Terrence Kaufman in IJAL 1969. In Yasugi as Tectitec, from 1987... R, L. Eth Tectiteco.
Mam Campbell 1991. Also in Yasugi. #9 from Jarel. R, V, L. Eth biggest of 5.
Aguacatec Jarel Deaton. R, L Awakateko.
Ixil Yasugi 1995 from Ayres 1980 2 d. R, L. Eth biggest is Nebaj.

Uspantec Jarel Deaton. R, L Uspanteko.
-->Achi Mary Shaw & Helen Nevenswander in Marvin K. Mayers, Lgs of Guatemala 1966 (missing #6,7,10). R, not in L. Probably a form of Uspantec.
Kekchi Guillermo Sedat S., Nuevo Dicc de las Lgas K'ekchi' y Esp 1955. R, L Q'eqchi'.

Core K'icheanQuiché Campbell 1991. Also in Yasugi. R, V, L K'iche'. Eth Central QUC, W Central QUT are biggest.
Cakchiquel Alfredo Herbruger & Eduardo Diaz Barrios 1956. In Yasugi as Kekchí. R, V, L Kaqchikel.
Tzutujil Jon P. Dayley, ~ Gram. 1985. R, V, L Tz'utujil.
Sacapultec Jarel Deaton. R, L Sakapulteko.
-->Sipacapa Jarel Deaton (#1-2 only). R, L Sipakapense.

PoqomPocomchi Yasugi 1995 from Brown 1979 (#1 correction from Victor Engel). R, L Poqomchi'.
Pocomam Jarel Deaton. R, L Poqomam.

CAME [Macro-Chibchan]

Tarascan - M 9

Tarascan Yasugi 1995 from Foster 1969; v. sim. forms in Pablo Velásquez Gallardo 1978 =Phorhépecha. R; V iso, maybe w/ Penutian, L iso. Eth Purépecha.

Cuitlatec - M 10

Cuitlatec+ Yasugi 1995 from Escalante Hernández 1962. R, L iso. Not in Eth.

Xincan - M 11

Eth has all this as one lg Xinca.
Sinacatan Yasugi 1995 from Lehmann 1920. R & V Xinca. L has 4 lgs but not this one.
Chiquimulilla Yasugi 1995. L.
Yupiltepec+ Yasugi 1995 (also has Jutiapa d.). L Yupiltepeque.
>Jumaytepeque L
>Guazacapan L

Lencan - M 12

Lenca+ Yasugi 1995 from Lehmann 1920. R.
>Chilanga L, not in Eth.

Naolan - M 14

>Naolan+ L iso. Not in Eth.

Maratino - M 15

>Maratino+ L iso, R in Hokan. Not in Eth.

Alagüiac - M 17

>Alagüilac+ L iso. Not in Eth.

Misumalpan - M 13, K 9

Miskito Mike MacDonell. L.
Sumo (Ulwa) Thomas Green, web =Ulwa. Yasugi has 2 d., Ulwa and Panamaka. R, V, L Sumu.
Cacaopera+ Yasugi 1995 from Campbell 1975. Not in R or V. Eth: sis. Sumo, Miskito. L.
-->Matagalpa+ Jarel Deaton (1-4 only). R, L.

Chibchan - K 8

>Guetar+ R, L Huetar. Not in Eth.
-->Katio+ Lk (1950). R, L Old Catío, Eth Emberá-Catío.
>Nutabe+ R, L. Not in Eth.
-->Tairona+ Lk (1953). L. Not in Eth.
-->Buglere Stephen H. Levinsohn in Lgs de Panama 1975 =Bocotá.
>Anserma+, Arma+ R, not in L. Eth SAB, ANS, AOH.

Chibchan A

Teribe Yasugi 1995 from Lehmann 1920. R, L Tiribí.
Cabecar Yasugi 1995 from Lehmann 1920. R, L Cabécar.
Bribri Yasugi 1995 from Lehmann 1920. R, L.
Borunca Victor Manual Arroyo Soto 1972 =Brunka. R, L/Eth Boruca.
Guaymi Yasugi 1995 from Alphonse 1956. R, L d. Movere. Eth Ngäbere.
>Bocotá L. Eth alt. Buglere from Chibchan.

Chibchan B

Paya Yasugi 1995 from Lehmann 1920. R, L, Eth Pech.
Rama Yasugi 1995 from Rigby & Schneider 1989. R, L.
-->Guatuso Carl Masthay (1-5, 10 only). R, L, Eth Maléku-Jaíka.
>Dorasque+ L, not in Eth.
-->Chánguena+ Lk (1920). L, not in Eth.

Chibcha+ Campbell 1991... what the heck is this? It's in this family, but what lg?
Cuna Yasugi 1995 from Holmer 1946. R, L. Eth CUK San Blas (Panama) or KUA Border (Colombia)

N Columbian
Chimila Jarel Deaton. JD also sent 2 d, Alto Río Ariguaní and Bajo Río Ariguaní; the first differs from those listed only in accents, and the 2nd is not far distant. R, L.
-->Cagaba Jarel Deaton (1-8 only). R, L Cágaba, Eth Cogui.
Ica Jarel Deaton. R, L Bíntucua.
Guamaca+ Jarel Deaton. R, L. Eth d. Malayo.
-->Malayo Jarel Deaton (missing 5-9). R, L d. Guamaca.
-->Atanque+ Jarel Deaton (1-9 only). R, L. Not in Eth.

S Columbian
-->Motilon Adolfo de Villamañán, Vocab Barí Comparado 1975 (6-9 missing). R, L Barí.
Central Tunebo Jarel Deaton. R, V, L Tunebo.
Tunebo de Margua Jarel Deaton. R has 3 Tunebos... which is this? Not in Eth.
Tunebo de Manare Jarel Deaton. Not in Eth.
Sinsiga+ Jarel Deaton. R, L Sínsiga d. Tunebo. Not in Eth.
-->Duit+ Jarel Deaton (#1,3 only). R. Not in Eth.
Muisca+ L. Eth alt. Chibcha. It's in Lk and it is Chibcha.

SAME [Paezan]

Chimuan - K 41

Chimú+ Campbell. R, L Yunga. Fa not in Eth.
>Cañari+ L.
-->Puruha+ Lk (1927, #2 only). L.


Huarpe - K 61

Allentiac+ Jarel Deaton. R, L Huarpe. Fa not in Eth.
Millcayac+ Jarel Deaton. R, L.

Muran - K 96

-->Mura+ Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, L. Fa as one lg Múra-Pirahã.
-->Pirahã Daniel Leonard Everett, A lg ~ e a teoria da sintaxe 1983 (1-2 only). L, not in R, Eth d. prev.
-->Bohura+ Lk (1925). L, not in R.
>Yahahí+ L, not in R.

Matanawi - K 97

Matanawi+ Jarel Deaton. R, L Matanawí. Eth mentioned, no code.

Jirajaran - K 3

-->Ayoman+ Lk (1927). L, R. Fa not in Eth.
L, R.
L, R.

Chocoan - K 4

-->Embera Charles A. Mortensen, A Ref Gram of the Northern ~ Lgs 1999 (1-5 only). R, L 2 lgs N and S.
Epena Pedee Philip Lee Harris, ~ Syntax 1994. Eth SJA Emberá-Saija.
-->Catio Randall Q. Huber and Robert B. Reed, Vocabulario Comparativo: Palabras Selectas de Lenguas Indígenas de Colombia 1992 (JD) (1-3, 5 only). R, L d. S Emberá.
-->Chami Huber & Reed 1992 (JD) (1-4, 10 only). R, L d. S Emberá.
-->Saija Huber & Reed 1992 (JD)(1-3, 5 only). R, L Saixa-Baudo d. S Emberá.
>Baudo R, L see previous
-->Tado Huber & Reed 1992 (JD)(1-5 only). R, L d. S Emberá.
. Waunana Micaela Sánchez A. & Olga Castro G., Una Gram Pedagogica del ~. R, L Noanamá. Eth Woun Meu.
>Sinúfana L, not in Eth.
>Quimbaya+ L, not in Eth.
>Caramanta R, not in L. Eth mentioned as rel. Anserma.
-->Basurudo Huber & Reed 1992 (JD) (1-3 only). R, not in L. Eth d. Saija.
>Runa+ R, not in L. Eth RUN


Cunza - K 99

Kunza+ Jarel Deaton. R, L iso.

Kapixaná - K 100

-->Capishana Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R in Equatorial, L Kapixaná iso. Not in Eth.

Betoi - K 5

-->Betoi+ Lk (1911). R, L iso. Not in Eth.


Paezan - K 6
-->Andaqui+ Jarel Deaton (#1-3, 5 only). R, L.
-->Paez Huber & Reed 1992 (JD)(1-5, 10 only). R, L, Eth Páez.
>Panzaleo+ (Latacunga, Quito) L. Not in Eth.
-->Coconuco+ Jarel Deaton (1-2 only). R.
-->Totoro+ Jarel Deaton (1-6, 10 only). R. Not in Eth.
-->Guambiano Huber & Reed 1992 (JD)(1-5, 10 only). R.
>Popayan+ R, V Popayán (with Puracé), not in L. Not in Eth.

Barbacoan - K 7
-->Cuaiquer Huber & Reed 1992 (JD)(1-4 only). R, V, L Coaiquer. Eth Awa-~.
>Muellama+ L, V Muellamues. Note: R has a "Barbacoas" lg. Not in Eth.
>Pasto+ L, V. Eth BPB Barbacoas.
Cayapa Jarel Deaton. R, V, L. Eth Chachi.
Colorado Bruce R. Moore 1966. R, V, L.
>Caranqui+ L, V Caranki. Not in Eth.

Itonama - K 98

-->Itonama Jarel Deaton (1-4 only). R.

Warao - K 112

Warao Jarel Deaton. R, L iso.

SAME Yanomaman - K 111

>Yanam R Crichana?, L. Eth alt. Ninam.
-->Ninam Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, L Nimam d. Yanam.
-->Sanuma Jarel Deaton (1-4 only). R, L Sanumá
-->Yanomami Michael Closs 1986 =Yanoama. R has 4 Yanomam languages, I don't know which this is. V has Yanomani d. Waica. L Yanomámi,
-->Yanomamö Jacques Lizot, Dicc Yanomami-Esp 1975 (JD). (1-3 only). R, L Yanomamö.

SAME [Andean]


Culle - K 43

>Culli+ R, L Culle. Not in Eth.

Cholonan - K 42

Cholona+ Jarel Deaton; also in Brinton 1892. R, L&Eth Cholón.
-->Hibito+ Jarel Deaton (1-2 only). R, L.

Tucanoan - K 23


-->Coreguaje Huber & Reed 1992 (JD) (#1-5, 10). R, L Correguaje, Eth Koreguaje.
>Macaguaje+ R, L ~ d. ~. Eth MCL.
Siona Alva Wheeler, Gram of the ~ Lg 1970. R, L Siona-Piojé d. Macaguaje.
. Pioche Carl Masthay. V d. Piojé-Sioni = R's SIONA-SECOYA, L see previous. Eth alt. prev.
Secoya Ramón & Elias Piaguaje, Orville E. & María de Johnson, Vocab ~ 1992. R, L d. Macaguaje.
>Tetete R, L Teteté. Eth TEB.
-->Orejón Daniel & Virginia Velie SIL 1981 (#1-5, 10). R, L.
>Yauna L. Not in Eth.


Cubeo Nancy L. Morse, Jay K. Salser Jr., Neva de Salser, Dicc Ilustrado Bilingüe ~-Español 1999. All numbers followed by (ãmuyo) i~ni
(#5,10 leave out first word). R, L, Eth CUB


Macuna Germán Franco García & José Raúl Monquí Sánchez, Gram Yemabasa 1975. I've normalized some spelling variants in 6-9. R, L
Desano Marion Miller, ~ Gram 1999. R, L 1 lg with next.
-->Siriano Huber & Reed 1992 (JD) (#1-5, 10). R.
-->Tuyuca Huber & Reed 1992 (JD) (#1-5, 10). R, L Bará-Tuyuka.
-->N, S Barasano Wendell & Paula Jones (#1-5; #10 from Jarel). R, L d. previous. Eth Barasana.
-->Carapana Huber & Reed 1992 (JD) (#1-5, 10). R, L Carapano.
-->Tatuyo Huber & Reed 1992 (JD) (#1-5, 10). R, L d. Carapano
-->Tucano Huber & Reed 1992 (JD) (#1-5, 10). R, L
-->Yuruti Huber & Reed 1992 (JD) (#1-5, 10). R, L d. Tucano.
-->Guanano Huber & Reed 1992 (JD) (#1-5, 10). R, L
-->Piratapuyo Huber & Reed 1992 (JD) (#1-5, 10). R, L.
-->Tanimuca Huber & Reed 1992 (JD) (#1-5, 10). R, not in L. Eth ~-Retuarâ.
Tama+ Carl Masthay. (1-4 v. similar in Daniel Brinton 1892). R, not in L.
>Miriti R, not in L nor Eth.


Puinavean - K 19
>Kuri-Dou L. Not in Eth.
-->Hupda Huber & Reed 1992 (JD)(#1-5, 10). R 2 lgs Hupda, Yahup), L. Eth Hupdë.
-->Nadëb Jarel Deaton (originally reported as Macu, but 1-3 match numbers for Nadëb given in Loukotka). R, L Nadöb
>Kamán L, Eth KWA Kamã.
>Guariba R, L, not in Eth.
-->Cacua Huber & Reed 1992 (JD) (#1-5, 10). R.
-->Puinave Jarel Deaton (missing #9; from 2 diff. sources). R.
-->Waviare (Makusa) Huber & Reed 1992 (1-2,5,10 only). L, Eth MBR Nukak Makú.

Katukinan - K 20
-->Catawishi+ Lk (1949). R, L Katawixi, Eth QKI Katawixi.
-->Catuquina Carl Friedr. Phil. von Martius, Glossaria Linguarum Brasiliensum 1863. R, L Katukina, Eth Katukína.
-->Canamari Carl Masthay (1-3 only). R, L d. S Katukinan, Eth Kanamarí.
>Tucundiapa+ R, L d. S Katukinan. This and rest of fa not in Eth.
-->Bendiapa+ Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R
-->Parawa+ Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R
>Burua+, Taware+ R, not in L

Ahuaqué - K 115
-->Arutani Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, L Ahuaqué, V gives equivalence.

Kaliana - K 116
-->Sape Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, L Sapé

Maku - K 117
-->Macu Loukotka (JD; 1-3 only). R, L iso Maku, Eth Yuhup.

Nambiquaran - K 104

. S Nambikuara Prelazia de Diamantino, Listas de Vócabulos Nambiquaras 1942. JD has a v. similar set explicitly labelled S... also a rather different set labelled S! R, L Nambiquara.
>Sarare R, L Sararé, Eth SRR.
>Kabishi Not in R; L lists here but also as a lg under Chapakuran! Eth alt. Sarare.
-->N Nambikuara Jarel Deaton (1-6 only). R, L Kithãulhú
-->Sabanes Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, L Sabané.


Ticuna - K 24

-->Ticuna Jarel Deaton (old). R, L

Yuri =- K 25

-->Yuri+ Jarel Deaton (old; and is this the right place?). R, L, not in Eth.



Eth has 46 lgs!
Proto-Quechua+ Rosenfelder
Quechua A L Central Quechua (divided into 9 lgs!)
(Ancash) Gary J. Parker & Amancio Chávez 1976. Eth Huaylas Ancash.
Huánuco David John Weber 1947
Junín Rodolfo Cerron-Palomino 1976
Quechua B L Peripheral Quechua (divided into 16 lgs!)
Ayacucho Clodoaldo Soto Ruiz 1976
Cajamarca Félix Quesada C. 1976
San Martín Marinell Park, Nancy Weber, Victor Cenepo S. 1976
Brazil (S. Paulo d'Olivenza, Tabatingu, etc.) Carl Friedr. Phil. von Martius, Glossaria Linguarum Brasiliensum 1863.
Cuzco Antonio Cusihuamán 1976
Ecuador Julio (s.t.) Montenegro 1971. Eth Highland Chimbarazo (biggest).
Argentina Ivan Derzhanski = Quichua de Santiago del Estero, from web.


Aymara Juan Francisco Deza Galindo 1992. R, L
Jaqaru M.J. Hardman 1966 R, L
-->Kawki Lk (1956). L. Eth d. prev.
Most specialists find the resemblances to Quechua to be superficial; Campbell believes that there is some evidence for a deep relationship, though it is inconclusive.


Sechura - K 44

>Sec+ R, L Sechura. Not in Eth.

Catacaoan - K 45

>Catacao+ R, L. Fa not in Eth.
>Colan+ R, L Colán

Leco - K 46

Leco+ Daniel Brinton, Studies in South American Native Lgs 1892 (1-5, 10 only). R, L.


Zaparoan - K 33

-->Zaparo Jarel Deaton (old). R, L Záparo-Conambo
-->Andoa Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, L Arabela-Andoa.
. Arabela Rolland G. Rich, Dicc ~-Castellano 1999 (1-4 only). R, L see prev., Eth ARL.

-->Iquito Jarel Deaton (old). R.
-->Cahuarano Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R.


Peba+ Jarel Deaton. R. Eth: mentioned in fa name but no code.
Yameo+ Jarel Deaton. R.
-->Yagua Jarel Deaton (old). R.

Sabela - K 36

Auca (Waorani) M. Catherine Peeke =Auca. R Auca, V Sabela, Eth Waorani, L Sabela.


Kaufman tentatively groups these together, and others relate one or more of these to Zaparoan; Candoshi has also been linked to Arawakan and Jivaroan.

Omurano - K 35
Omurano+ Jarel Deaton. R, L.

Taushiro - K 35a
>Taushiro R, Eth TRR

Candoshi - K 30
Candoshi Juan Tuggy, Vocab ~ de Loreto 1966. R in Jivaroan, L iso, Eth ~-Shapra.

SAME [Equatorial]


Taruma - K 113

Taruma+ Jarel Deaton. R, L, not in Eth.

Katembri - K 86

>Katembri+ R, L Katembrí, not in Eth.


Esmeralda - K 27

-->Esmeralda (Takame) Jarel, probably: 1 number only. R, L, not in Eth.

Yaruro - K 28

Yaruro Jarel Deaton. R, L


Tequiraka- K 21

-->Auishiri+ Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, L Tequiraca, Eth Abishira.

Canichana - K 22

-->Canichana Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, L



Jivaroan - K 31
Jivaro Maurizio Covaz Gnerre in Closs 1986. Also in Julio (s.t.) Montenegro 1971, but Covaz's transcription is obviously more precise. R Shuara, L d. Jívaro, Eth Shuar.
Aguaruna Mildred L. Larson 1966. R, L.
Achuar Maurizio Covaz Gnerre in Closs 1986. R, L d. Jívaro, Eth ~-Shiwiar.
Huambisa Martha Jakway, Vocab ~ 1987. R, L d. Jívaro.

Cahuapanan - K 32
-->Chayahuita Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, L
Jebero Jarel Deaton. Also in Brinton 1892 as "Jívaro" (but it's this). R, L

Urarina - K 37

Urarina Phyllis Manus (SIL fieldworker). Autonym Kacha `people'. R, L

Puelche - K 60

-->Puelche+ Jarel Deaton (old). Also in Brinton 1892-- better-looking, actually, but #1-5 only. R, V, L.

Zamucoan - K 68

. Ayoreo Carl Masthay. R, L.
-->Chamacoco Jarel Deaton (old). R, L

Timotean - K 2

Cuica+ Jarel Deaton. R, L d. Timote-Cuica.
Timote+ Jarel Deaton. R
-->Mucuchí+ Lk (1927). R.
-->Maripú+ Lk (1927). R.
Fa not in Eth except MUF Mutús, said to be a descendant.

Piaroa-Saliba - K 114

-->Piaroa Jarel Deaton (#1-3), Carl Masthay (rest). R, L Piaroa-Maco.
-->Saliba Huber & Reed 1992 (JD) (#1-5 only). R, L Sáliva

SAME Tupi-Cariban

Tupian - K 109

>Arawete R, L Araweté, Eth AWT
-->Aweti Lucien Adam 1896 =Auetö. R, L
-->Kamayura Lucien Adam 1896. R, L Kamayurá
>Mawe Jarel Deaton. R, L d. Mawé-Sateré
>Jo'é L, not in R nor Eth.
-->Purubora Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, L Puruborá
-->Dzubucua+ Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, not in L.
-->Kamaru+ Jarel Deaton (1-4 only). R, not in L nor Eth.
>Sapuya+ R, not in L nor Eth..
General note: Searching for accented characters in Eth didn't work, so some of the `not in Eth' notations may be inaccurate.


-->Sheta+ Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R, L&Eth Xetá
. Guayaki Branislava Susnik, Estudios ~ : Voc Ache 1962 (#1 from JD). miro = `accompany'; wachú = `big'; tara = `many'. R, L Guajaki, Eth Aché.
-->Juma Lk (1867). Not in Eth.

. Kaiwa Jarel Deaton (sez source is Anthropos). R, L Kaiwá d. Kaingwá.
>Bolivian Guaraní L, not in R, Eth GNW.
Guarani Modern #s from Dalby. L Paraguayan Guaraní.
-->Chiripá-Nyandeva Lk (1934). L, not in R, Eth NHD.
Chiriguano Wolf Dietrich 1986. V d. Guarani, L, Eth E. Boliv. Guaraní.
-->Tapiete Lk (1930). R, L d. Chiriguano, Eth TAI.
>Mbü'a L, not in R nor Eth.


-->Guarayu Jarel Deaton (old). R.
. Nhengatu Ermano Stradelli, Voc Pt-Nheêngatú 1920. = `hand'. R, L Nheengatú not classified.
-->Pauserna Lk (1880). R, L, Eth PSM.
Siriono Michael Closs 1986 =Siriona. R, V, L&Eth Sirionó
>Yuqui R, L d. Sirionó. Eth YUQ.


Old Tupi+ Not in R, L Tupinamba
>Southern Tupí+ L, not in Eth.
>Potiguara+ R, L

Cocama Norma Faust W. 1972; also Lucien Adam 1896 and Lucas Espinosa 1935. R, L&Eth Cocama-Cocamilla
-->Omagua #2-3 Lucien Adam 1896; others: Jarel Deaton. R, L Omagua-Campeva


-->Tapirape Lk (1916). R, L Tapirapé, Eth TAF.
>Parakaña R, L Parakaná d. Akwawa, Eth PAK.
-->Ava Lk (1963, #1 only). R, L Avá, Eth AVV Avá-Canoeiro.
Anambe+ Jarel Deaton. R
-->Guajajara Carl Masthay (missing #2 and others). R, L d. Tenetehara.
. Tembe Max H. Boudin, Dic de Tupi Moderno 1978 =Tembé-Ténêtéhar. 10 = `my hands'. R, L d. Tenetehara.


>Amanaye R, L Amanayé, Eth AMA
Urubu (Kapoor) Jarel Deaton; also #1-2 from James Kakumasu 1986. R, L d. Amanayé, Eth Urubú-Kaapor
>Guaja R, L Guajá d. Amanayé, Eth GUJ
Oyampi Roberta Olson, Dic. Por Tópicoa na lgs Oiampí (Wajapi)-Português. R, L Oyampí d. Wayampí, Eth Oiapoque Wayampi.
-->Emerillon Lucien Adam 1896. R, L Emérillon d. Wayampí
Karipuna+ J. Barbosa 1927, in Cândido M.S. Rondon & João Barbosa de Faria, Glossário Geral dos tribos silvícolas de Mato Grosso e Outras de Amazónica e do Norte do Brasil 1948. Note that the Karipuna now speak a French creole, which I also have. R, L d. Wayampí. Eth poss. d. Tenharim below.
>Takunyapé+ R Takunape, L, not in Eth.


-->Kayabi Jarel Deaton (1-2 only). R, L, Eth Kayabí.
-->Asurini Jarel Deaton (missing #6-9). R, L


Parintintin LaVera Betts, Dic Parintintín-Pt Pt-~ 1981 (SIL). Not in R; V d. Kawaib, L d. Parintintín. Eth d. Tenharim.
>Tenharim R, not in V, L d. Parintintín (= previous?). Eth PAH
Paranawat+ J. Barbosa 1926 =Pauatê, cf. Karipuna. R, V Pawaté d. Kawaib, L d. Parantintín.
-->Wirafed Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, V d. Kawaib, L d. Parantintín (= previous?).
>Tukumanfed R, not in V, L d. Parintintín, Eth TKF.
L, not in R, Eth URZ Uru-eu-uau-uau.
-->Apiaca #2-3 Lucien Adam 1896; others: Jarel Deaton. R, L Apiaká, Eth Apiacá.
-->Makiri Lk (1963). L, Eth d. Kayabi.


-->Munduruku Jarel Deaton (old; #9 = #6!). R, L Mundurukú
-->Kuruaya+ Jarel Deaton (1-6 only). R, L


-->Yuruna+ Carl Masthay (1-5 only). R, L Juruna, Eth Jurúna.
-->Shipaya+ Carl Masthay. R, L Xipaya
>Manitsawa+ R, L, Eth MSP Maritsauá.


Arikem+ Jarel Deaton (missing #8-9, but these are predictable). R, L, Eth fa name only.
Karitiana David Landin, Dic e Léxico ~/Pt 1983. R, L
>Kabishiana+ R, L Kabixiana, not in Eth.


-->Tupari Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, L Tuparí
-->Mekens Lk (1955). L, not in R, Eth alt. KXO Kanoé.
-->Wayoro Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, L Ayurú
-->Guarategaja Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, not in L, Eth alt. Kanoé.
-->Makurapi Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). Also a variant 1946 Brazilian source. R, L Makurap.
-->Kepkiriwat Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R, L, not in Eth.


>Ramarama+ R, L (with next)
Urumi+ Rondon 1913, cf. Karipuna. R, L Urumí d. previous, Eth d. ITG Itogapuk.
-->Arara Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, L
-->Uruku+ Jarel Deaton (1-5, 10 only). R, L d. previous
-->Itogapuk Lk (1925). L, not in R


-->Monde Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, L Mondé-Sanamai
Surui Willem Bontkes, Dic Preliminar ~-Pt 1978. #3 is "3 and up". R, L Suruí
-->Arua Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, L Aruá
>Gavião R, L d. Aruá, Eth GVO.
R, not in L, Eth alt. prev.

Cariban - K 110

>Kumayena+ R, L, Eth d. AKO Akuriyo below.
>Arinagoto+ R, L, not in Eth.


Carib B.J. Hoff, The ~ Lg 1968. R, L Cariña


-->Opone+ Lk (1878). R, L Opón. Fa not in Eth.
>Carare+ R, L


-->Yukpa Jarel Deaton (#1-5, 10 only). R, L d. Yucpa-Yaprería
>Japreria R, L d. previous, Eth JRU.
>Coyaima+ L, not in R, Eth COY.


>Salumá R Saluma, L, Eth SLJ.

-->Tirió Lk (1924). R Trio, L, Eth TRI Trió.
. Pianakoto Not sure of source. R, L = Tirió, Eth d. prev.
-->Akuriyo Lk (1946). R Triometesen, L, Eth AKO Akurio.
>Wama R, L = Akuriyo, Et. alt. prev.

Hianacoto+ Jarel Deaton. R, L Jianácoto, Eth alt. next or perhaps sep. lg.
-->Carijona Jarel Deaton (#1-5, 10 only). R, L.
>Guaque+ R, V d. Carijona, not in L, Eth mentioned, no code.


>Kashuyana R, L (also calls it Pauxi, which is a separate lg Paushi in R), Eth Kaxuiâna.
-->Shikuyana Lk (1924) = Chiquena. L, V Shikiana, R Chikena, Eth SIK Sikiana.


-->Waiwai Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, L
-->Parukoto Lk (1924). R, L d. previous, Eth alt. prev. or next.
Hixkaryana Desmond C. Derbyshire 1979. V Hishkaryana, L.

N Amazonian

-->Boanarí+ Lk (1874). R Bonari, L, not in Eth.
-->Yauapery Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R, L Yawaperí, Eth d. Waimiri.
. Waimiri Jarel Deaton (missing #10). R, L d. previous.

-->Sapara Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, L Sapará, Eth this and next d. Atruahi.
-->Paushiana Carl Masthay (1-4 only). R, L Pawixiana
-->Paravilhana+ Jarel Deaton (1-7 only; old). R, L, not in Eth.

Makushi James Williams 1932 =Makuchi. R, V&Eth Macushi, L Makuxí
Pemon Barbosa 1927 =Taurepã, cf. Karipuna. R Pemon, V d. Arecuna, L&Eth Pemón
Akawaio Jarel Deaton. R. L d. Kapong
>Patamona R, L d. Kapong, Eth PBC.
-->Purukotó Lk (1924). L, not in R, Eth d. Pemon.


-->Cumanagoto+ Jarel Deaton (1-6, 10 only). R, L Cumaná. Eth if Camaracoto, d. Peman.
-->Chayma+ Jarel Deaton (1-4, 6, 10 only), Carl Masthay (#5). R, L Chaima = previous. Eth d. Carib.
-->Apalai Jarel Deaton (1-9 only). R, L&Eth Apalaí

-->Tivericoto+ Lk (1867). L. Fa not in Eth.
Yao+ Jan De Laet 1640. R, L

Wayana C.H. de Goeje, "Gram et vocab de la lg Oayana," in Études linguistiques caribes t. II 1946. R, L Wayana.
-->Roucouyene+ Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, V Rucuyen d. Oyana. Eth d. prev.
Aracaju+ Carl Friedr. Phil. von Martius, Glossaria Linguarum Brasiliensum 1863. R, L Arakajú, not in Eth.

-->Mapoyo Jarel Deaton (1-5, 10 only). R, L d. Mapoyo-Yavarana
Tamanaco+ (missing 7-9, but these are predictable). R, L = previous, not in Eth.
-->Yabarana Jarel Deaton (missing 6-9; two sources). R (in index, not on page!), V in Northern, L d. previous.

>Makiritare L, V Maquiritare, not in R, Eth MCH Maquiritari.
-->Ye'cuana Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, V Mayongong d. Maquiritare, Eth d. prev.
-->Wayumara Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, V, L Wajumará.

S Amazonian

Panare Jana Price, Estudios del Sistema de Sonidos del Idioma ~ 1984. R, L.
-->Palmela+ Lk (1955). R Palmella, L, Eth this and rest of subfa. missing.
>Pimenteira+ R, L
>Pareca+, Quaca+ R sis. Panare, not in V or L

Bakairi Michael Closs 1986. R, V Bacaïri, L Bakairí
-->Nahukwa Lk (1894). R, L d. Amonap, not in Eth.

. Arara+ Jarel Deaton (missing #9). R, L Arara-Parirí, Eth Pará Arára or alt. Júma.
-->Pariri+ Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, L see previous.
-->Apiaka+ Lk (1936). R, L Apiaká-Apingi, Eth API Apiaká.
>Yuma+ R, L Juma, Eth JUA Júma.
>Yaruma+ R, L Yarumi, Eth YRM.
>Txikão R Chicão, L, Et TXI.

SAME Macro-Otomákoan

Harákmbut - K 18
Amarakaeri Robert Tripp, Dicc ~-Castellano 1995. R, L Amaracaeri, Eth AMR.
-->Huachipaeri Jarel Deaton (1-2 only). R, L

Otomacoan - K 12
Otamaco+ Jarel Deaton. R, L. Fa not in Eth.
-->Taparita+ Lk (1936). L.

Trumai - K 106
Trumai Aurore Monod-Becquelin 1975. R in Equatorial, L iso. Not in Eth.

SAME Guamo-Chapacuran

Guamo - K 13
-->Guamo+ Lk (1928, 2 dd.). R, L iso, not in Eth.

Chapacuran - K 14
-->Tora Jarel Deaton (1-4 only). R, V, L Torá.
>Cujuna R, V, not in L. Eth mentioned no code.
>Mataua R, V, not in L. Eth mentioned no code.
>Urunamacan R, V, not in L. Eth mentioned no code.
>Herisobocono+ R, V, not in L nor Eth.
>Ocorono+ R, V, not in L nor Eth.
>San Ignacio+ R, V, not in L nor Eth.

Itene-->Wanyam Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, V Uanham, L Wanham. Eth mentioned no code.
-->Cumana Jarel Deaton (1-2 only). R, V. Eth mentioned no code.
>Cabishi R, V Cabichi. Eth KBD Kabixí.
-->Itene Jarel Deaton (old). R, V More.

Wari-->Quitemoca+ Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R, V. Eth mentioned no code.
-->Chapacura Jarel Deaton (missing #4 or #5). R, V. Eth mentioned no code.
-->Urupa Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, V, not in Eth.
Jaru+ Barbosa 1927, cf. Karipuna. Not in R; V lists with next three; Eth d. next.
>Pakaasnovos R, V Pacas Novas, L d. Orowari.
>Oro Win Eth ORW.

Tiniguan - K 11

Tinigua+ Jarel Deaton. R. Fa not in Eth.
Pamigua+ Jarel Deaton. R.

SAME Macro-Arawakan

>Shebayo+ R, L Shebaya. Not in Eth.

Guajiboan - K 15

Churuya+ Jarel Deaton (1-6 only). R, L. Not in Eth.
. Guahibo Jarel Deaton (#1-5, 10 only); Francisco Queixalós, Dic Sikuani-Esp 1978. R, L Guajibo.
-->Cuiba Huber & Reed 1992 (JD) (#1-4 only). R, L Cuiva.
-->Guayabero Huber & Reed 1992 (JD) (#1-5 only). R, L.
-->Macaguan Huber & Reed 1992 (JD) (#1-5, 10 only). R, maybe L & V's Macaguaje?.
-->Playero Huber & Reed 1992 (JD) (#1-5, 10 only). R, not in L or V.

Arauan - K 17

-->Arawa+ Lk (1869). R, L Arauan, Eth Arua.
-->Culina Jarel Deaton (old, incomplete-- also has another set, completely diff.!). And I have just 2 #'s (ojari, pama) from Kanaú & Ruth M.F. Monserrat, Dic ~-Pt 1984. R, L
-->Yamamadi Jarel Deaton (1-5, 10 only). R, L&Eth Jamamadí,
>Banawa R, L&Eth Banawá. Eth BNH
>Kanamantí L, not in R. Eth alt. Janamadí.
>Jarawara L, not in R, Eth JAP Jaruára.
-->Paumari Jarel Deaton (1-5, 10 only). R, L
>Yuberi, Pama+, Sewacu, Sipo+ R, not in L. Eth alt. or dd. Janamadí.
>Suruahá Eth SWX.

Maipurean - K 16


>Sae+ R/V somewhere in N Maipuran, not in L nor Eth.

Upper Amazon
-->Anauyá Lk (1928). L, not in Eth.
>Cabiyari R, L Caviyari, Eth CBB.
Resigaro From a SIL gram. R, L Resígaro
-->Waraicu+ Jarel Deaton (old, incomplete). R, L Waraikú, not in Eth
>Wirina+ R, L Wiriná, not in Eth.
R, L Yabaána, Eth YBN Yabaâna.

-->Wainuma+ Jarel Deaton (old). R, L Wainumá. Fa not in Eth.
-->Mariate+ Jarel Deaton (old, incomplete). R

-->Piapoco Jarel Deaton (2 sources, one old). R, L.
-->Achagua Jarel Deaton (from 2 of 3 sets he's sent!). R, L
>Amarizana+ L, V d. Achagua, not in Eth.
>Caquetio+ R and V sis. Achagua, not in V nor Eth.

-->Guarequena Probably JD (1-3 only). R, L.
>Mandahuaca L, Eth MHT

Río Negro
-->Cawishana+ Jarel Deaton (old). R, L. Fa not in Eth.
-->Yumana+ Carl Friedr. Phil. von Martius, Glossaria Linguarum Brasiliensum 1863. R, L Jumana
-->Passe+ Jarel Deaton (old, incomplete). R, L Pasé.

-->Yucuna Jarel Deaton (1-5, 10 only). R, L
>Matapi+ R, L Matapí d. Yucuna, Eth alt. prev.
-->Garú+ Lk (1947). L, not in Eth.

E Nawiki
-->Tariano+ Jarel Deaton (5-10 are old). R, L Tariana.
-->Curripaco Jarel Deaton (1-5, 10 only). R, L Ipeka-Kurripako
-->Izaneni Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R sis. previous, not in L, V fa, not in Eth.
-->Baniwa Jarel Deaton (1-4 only). R, L Karútiana-Baniwa.
-->Mapanai Lk (1932). R, L Katapolítani-Moriwene-Mapanai, not in Eth.
-->Moriwene Lk (1932). R, L d. prev.; not in Eth.
>Itayaine+ R sis. Tariano, not in L, V N. Maipuran, not in Eth.
>Cuati, Pacu (V Paioariene) R sis. Curripaco, not in L, V N Maipuran. Eth Pacu is PAJ Ipeka-Tapuia.

C Upper Amazon
>Maipure+ R, L, not in Eth.

Baré-->Marawa+ Jarel Deaton (old, incomplete). R, L Marawá
-->Bare Jarel Deaton (he has 2 v. diff. langs. called Bare!). R, L Baré.
-->Guinao+ Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, L, not in Eth.
-->Mawacua+ Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, L ?= Marawá, not in Eth..

YaviteroBaniva+ Jarel Deaton. R.
-->Yavitero Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R.

-->Manao+ Jarel Deaton (old, incomplete). R, L, fa not in Eth.
-->Kariaí+ Lk (1911). L

-->Aruán+ Lk (1935). L, V Araua, R Arua, not in Eth.
Wapishana Jarel Deaton (1-7, 10 only (8,9 predictable)). R, L Wapixana, Eth Aruma.

Proto-Arawakan+ Jennifer Runner. What level is this...?
-->Taino+ Jarel Deaton (#1-4 only). R, L.
Goajiro (Guajiro) R, L Guajiro, V, Eth Wayuu.
-->Paraujano Jarel Deaton (1-9 only). R, L, V.
-->Arawak Willem Jan Agricola Pet, Lokono Dian: The ~ Lg of Suriname 1987. R, L, V Lokono.
-->Island Carib+ Douglas Taylor, Lgs of the West Indies 1977 (1-5 only). R, L
Black Carib Ilah Fleming in Marvin K. Mayers, Lgs of Guatemala 1966, L&Eth Garífuna.
>Guanebucan+ R, not in L, V sis. Goajiro, not in Eth.
>Jaoi+ R and V sis. Island Carib, not in , not in Eth.

Palicur Jennifer Runner (5 = `one hand'; 10 = `end of hands'), from SIL. R, L Palikur, Eth Palikúr.
-->Marawán Lk (1921). L, not in Eth.
-->Karipurá+ Lk (1963). L, not in Eth.


-->Amuesha Jarel Deaton (old). R, L, Eth Yanesha'.
Chamicuro Stephen Parker, Vocabulario y Textos ~ 1987. R, L

Paressi 2-5: Orlando & Phyllis Rowan, Dic Parecis-Pt, SIL 1978; others: Cândido M.S. Rondon & João Barbosa de Feria, Esboço Gram, 1948 =Airit (Parici). R, L Paresí, Eth Parecís.
-->Saraveca+ Jarel Deaton (missing #6-9). R, L

-->Waura Lk (1951). R, L Waurá-Meinaku, Eth WAU.
-->Mehinaku Lk (1951). R, L Waurá-Meinaku, Eth MMH.
-->Yawalpití Lk (1951). R Yawalapiti, L, Eth YAW.
-->Custenau Jarel Deaton (#1-3 only). R, L

-->Terena Jarel Deaton (#1-3 only). R, L, Eth Terêna.
-->Guana Jarel Deaton (old, #1-5 only). R, L d. Terena
-->Chane Lk (1938). R, L d. Terena, Eth CAJ.

Ignaciano Willis Ott & Rebecca Burke de Ott, Dicc ~ y Castellano 1983. R, L
>Trinitario R, L
Baure Jarel Deaton. R
>Paunaca+ L, not in R
>Cashiniti, Chiquito, Cozarini R sis. above; V S. Maipuran, not in L nor Eth.

Piro Licenia Flew (a Piro native speaker); this is said to be the textbook spelling. I also have a phonetic transcription. R, L, Eth Yine.
>Maniteneri R, V, L d. Piro, Eth MPD Machinere.
Inapari+ Stephen G. Parker, Datos de la lg Iñapari 1995. L, R, V, Eth INA Iñapari.
-->Kanamaré+ Lk (1955). L, not in R, V Canamari, Eth KNM Kanamarí in Katukinan.
-->Apurina Jarel Deaton (1-5, 10 only). #5 has an over-ring, but u is close enough. R, L Apuriná, V Ipurina, Eth Apurinã.
-->Cushichineri Jarel Deaton (1-2 only). R, V Cujisenajeri, not in L but obviously related to Piro, not in Eth (nor are dd. below)
Purus Catiana+, Wainamari+,
Cuti Cutinana+, Cuniba+,

-->Asheninca Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, Eth Ashéninca Pichis.
-->Ashaninca David L. Payne, The Phonology & Morphology of Axininca Campa 1981 (1-2 only); #3 from Judith Payne, Lecciones para el Apprendizaje del Idioma Asheninca 1989. R.
-->Machiguenga Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R, L
Nomatsiguenga Harold Shaver, Dicc ~-Castellano Castellano-~ 1996. R, Eth NOT, not in L.
-->Caquinte Kenneth E. Swift, Morfología del ~ 1988 (#1 only). R, L d. previous, Eth COT
>Pucapacuri+, Puncuri, Sirimeri R/V Pre-Andine close to these (but also to Piro), not in L.

SAME Chipayan - K 49

-->Chipaya Jarel Deaton (1-4 only). R, L. Possible connection to Macro-Arawakan.
-->Uru Jarel Deaton (old). R, L

SAME Bora-Witotoan

Bora-Muinane - K 38

Bora Richard P. Aschmann 1993. R, V, L
. Miranya Huber & Reed 1992; 6-9 from Karl Friedrich von Martius, Beiträge zur Ethnographie und Sprachenkunde Amerikas, zumal Brasiliens 1867 (JD). R, V, L d. Bora, Eth d. Bora.
Faai Jarel Deaton. R, not in L nor Eth.
Muinane Richard P. Aschmann 1993. R, V Muenane, L.
-->Imihita Lk (1906). R, not in L nor Eth.
>Fitita R, not in L nor Eth.

Witoto-Ocaina - K 39

Ocaina Richard P. Aschmann 1993. R, V, L
Nipode Richard P. Aschmann 1993 =Nipode Huitoto. Not in R or V, L.
Meneca Richard P. Aschmann 1993 =Minica Huitoto. R, V Minica d. Witoto, L Minica.
Murui Shirley Burtch 1983 =Huitoto Murui. Also in Aschmann, v. sim. R, V d. Witoto, L.
-->Nonuya Jarel Deaton (1-6, 10 only; the -üy forms should be u as well!). R, L.
>Coeruna+, R, L, not in Eth.
>Orejone+ R, L Koihoma, not in Eth.

Andoque - K 40

Andoke Jarel Deaton. R, L possibly in Bora-Witotoan, Eth Andoque.

SAME Macro-Waikurúan

Matacoan - K 62

-->Chulupi Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R, V =Ashushlay, L&Eth Chulupí.
-->Chorote Jarel Deaton (#5-10 are from an old source). R, V Choroti. Eth Iyo'wujwa ~ CRQ or Iuojwa'ja ~ CRT.
>Ajlujlay (Nivaclé) L, not in R. V presumably = Ashushlay, Eth alt. Chulupi.
-->Maca Carl Masthay (1-5, 10 only). R, V, L Macá.
>Mataco (Huiche, Matahuayo) L, V lists ~ but also Mataguayo; fa in R including some of above but also the two below. Eth fa name only.
>Nocten R, V d. Mataco, not in L, Eth MTP Wichí Lhamtés ~.
. Vejoz Jarel Deaton. R, V d. Mataguayo, not in L, Eth Wichí Lhamtés ~..

Guaikuruan - K 63

. Kadiweu Glyn & Cynthia Griffiths, Aspectos da Língua Kadiwéu (#1-6 only). R, L Caduveo.
-->Guaicuru+ Jarel Deaton (#1-2 only). R, L Guaicurú d. or alternate name for previous, Eth alt. prev.


-->Pilaga Jarel Deaton (#1 only!). R, L.
Toba Michael Closs 1986. R, V, L.
-->Mocovi Jarel Deaton (#1-2 only). R, L&Eth Mocoví.
Abipon+ Jarel Deaton. R, L Abipón, not in Eth.


-->Guachi+ Jarel Deaton (old, #1-5 only). R, L Guachí, not in Eth.
>Payaguá L, not in Eth.

Charrúan - K 64

Charrua+ Jarel Deaton. R, L Charrúa. Fa not in Eth.
-->Chana+ Jarel Deaton (1-2 & 10 only; old). R, L Chaná.
-->Güenoa+ Jarel Deaton (1, 3 only; old). R, V, L =Charrúa.

Mascoyan - K 67

Guana Jarel Deaton. R, L Guaná.
-->N Lengua. Jarel Deaton (thinks or just hopes this is N!!; 1-5 only). R, L&Eth Lengua.
-->S Lengua Jarel Deaton (#1-5 only). R, Eth d. prev.
-->Emok Lk (1962). R, L Mascoy, Et EMO.
-->Sanapana Jarel Deaton (#1-5 only). R, L Sanapaná.
>Toba-Maskoy Not in R, Eth TMF.

SAME Lule-Vilelan

Lule - K 65

-->Lule+ Jarel Deaton (old). R, L. Eth fa mentioned but no code.

Vilela - K 66

-->Vilela Jarel Deaton (old). R, L.

SAME Macro-Panoan


Panoan - K 53

>Kasharari R, L Kaxararí, Eth KTX.
-->Kulino+ Lk (1867). L, not in Eth.
-->Sensi+ Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, L
-->Matses Jarel Deaton (1-4 only). R, L Mayoruna-Matsés, Eth Matsés.
>Shaninawa L, not in R nor Eth.
. Araua+ Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). Not in L nor Eth; R (he also has an Arawa).
>Morunahua, Pisabo+ R, L relationship obscure. Eth 2nd is PIG alt. Yaminahua.
>Shahuanahua, Camanahua, Capuibo+, Niarawa, Pichobo+, Mayubo, Rëmoxbo, R, not in L. Eth first two dd. KNT, others missing.

>Tushinawa+ R, L, Eth TUX Tuxináwa.
-->Atsahuaca+ Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R, L.
-->Parannawa Lk (1963). L, not in Eth.
-->Puinaua Lk (1948). R Poyanawa, L, Eth PYN Poyanáwa.
>Shipinawa+ R, L, Eth XIP Xipináwa.

-->Cashibo Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, L, Eth ~-Cacataibo.
-->Nocamán+ Lk (1930). L, Eth NOM

-->Pánobo Lk (1930). L, not in R, Eth PNO.
L, not in R, Eth PNO.

-->Shipibo Jarel Deaton (old). R, L.
-->Capanahua Eugene Emil Loos 1969 [1-4 only; rest prob. Quechua]. R, L.
-->Marubo Lk (1957). R, L, Eth MZR
-->Remo+ Lk (1931). R, L, Eth REM
>Waninnawa L, Eth alt. KNT Panoan Katukína.

-->Amahuaca Jarel Deaton (1-2 only). R, L Amawaka
-->Isconahua Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, L
Cashinahua Susan Montag 1981. R, L
-->Sharanahua Olive A. Shell, Estudios Pano III 1975 (JD; 1-2 only). R, L Sharanawa
>Parquenahua R, L =Sharanawa, Eth MTS Yora.
-->Yaminawa Lk (1903). R Yaminahua, L, Eth YAA Yaminahua.

-->Karipuna Lk (1949). R Caripuna, L, Eth KUR
Pacahuara Jarel Deaton. R, L.
-->Chacobo Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, L&Eth Chácobo.
>Sinabo+ R, L Shinabo d. Chákobo, Eth Shinabo SHN.
>Zurina+ R, not in L, not in Eth.

Tacanan - K 54

-->Sapiboca+ Jarel Deaton (old). R has in Chirigua, which L says may be in this fa. R also lists a sis. Chumana+. Eth fa missing.
-->Arasa+ Victor Girard, Proto-Takanan Phonology 1970 (1-2 only). R, not in L.
-->Guariza+ Jarel Deaton (#1, 3 only). R, not in L.
>Yamaluba R sis. previous, V possibly Tacanan, not in L.

Tacana Jarel Deaton. Also in Brinton 1892. #7-8 from Victor Girard 1970. R, L.
-->Reyesano Donald Van Wynen in Mary Ritchie Key Compar Tacanan Phonology 1968 (2-6 only). R, L, Eth REY.
. Maropa+ Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R, L d. Reyesano, not in Eth.
-->Araona Jarel Deaton (old; missing #6-9). R, L.
>Capachene, Mabenaro R sis. Araona, not in , not in Eth..

Cavineña Jarel Deaton. R, L.

Ese'ejja Jack & Nola Shoemaker in Esther Matteson, Bolivian Indian Grams, SIL 1967 =Eseejja. R.
Huarayo ??. R, L d. prev, Eth d. prev.
-->Toromono+ Jarel Deaton (#2 only). R, L Toromona.


Mosetén - K 55

-->Chimane Jarel Deaton (old). R, L.
-->Mosetén Lk (1928). L

Chon - K 56

Tehuelche Jarel Deaton. Also Brinton 1892 (old, incomplete). R, L.
Selknam+ Jarel Deaton. R, L.
-->Haush+ Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, L.
Teushen+ Jarel Deaton. R, L possible relationship.

SAME Jabutian - K 101

-->Yabuti Jarel Deaton (1,2,4 only). R, L Jabuti
-->Aricapu Jarel Deaton (1-4 only). R, L Arikapú
>Mashubí+ L, not in R, Eth alt. prev.

SAME Macro-Ge


Chiquitano - K 70

>Chiquitano R iso, L, Eth CAX.
-->Chiquito+ Jarel Deaton (Confirm there's just 1 #! & that this is right Chiquito). R has two, one Macro-Ge, one Maipuran. L equates with Chiquitano-- Eth too.

Bororoan - K 71

Bororo Michael Closs 1986. R; V fa, L Borôro.
-->Umotina Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R, L.
>Otuke R, L Otuké.
>Aravira+, Covare+, Coraveca+, Curucane+, Tapii+ R sis. Bororo, not in L. Eth mentions all but the first of these as extinct relatives.

Botocudoan - K 72

-->Botocudo C. Monteiro, Voc Pt-~ 1948 (1-3 only). R, L Krenak.
>Nakrehé+, Guêren+ L, not in R nor Eth.

Rikbaktsá - K 73

-->Rikbaktsa Lk (1963). R, L

Ge - K 74

>Aricobe+, Guegue+ R and V sis. Acroa, not in L. Fa not in Eth.
-->Amho+ Jarel Deaton (2-4 only). R, V Ivitorocai, not in L.
-->Ingain+ Jarel Deaton (1-4 only). Not in L; R, V Tain, both as sis. Amho.
>Gualachi+ R, V, both as sis. Amho; not in L.
>Chiqui+ R sis. Kaingang, V sis. Amho; not in L.


Canela (Krahô) Jack & Jo Popjes 1986; also have a set from Jarel, from which I get the formation of #4-5. R Canela, V Craho, L d. Timbira, Eth Krahô.
Apanhecra Jarel Deaton =Apanyecra (Aponegrican). V, not in R, L d. Timbira, Eth d. Canela.
-->Ramcocamecra Jarel Deaton =Ramcocamecra (Capiecran). V, not in R, L d. Timbir, Eth d. Canela.
Kencateye Jarel Deaton. Not in V or R or Eth.
Creye Jarel Deaton. V, not in R, L =? Krenjé d. Timbira, Eth Kreye.
-->Carahó Jarel Deaton =Caraho. V Carahó, not in R, L Krahó d. Timbira, Eth Krikati-Timbira.
>Kreen-Akarore R, L Ipewí, Eth KRE.
Apinaye Jarel Deaton =Caraho. V Apinage, R, L&Eth Apinayé.
N Cayapo Jarel Deaton =Cayapo del norte (Coroa). V, R Cayapo in NW fa, L&Eth Kayapó.
>Suya R, L, Eth SUY Suyá.
>Pará Gavião (Parakatêjê) Eth GAY


Xavante George Lachnitt, Dic Pt-~ 1989. R Chavante, V Chavante, L.
>Acroa+ R, L Akroá, Eth ACS Acroá.
Cherente Jarel Deaton. R, V, L&Eth Xerente.
Chacriaba+ Jarel Deaton =Shacriaba. R, not in V, L&Et Xakriabá.


-->Kaingang Ursula Wiesemann, Dic ~-Pt 1981 (1-4 only; #5 from JD). R, L, Eth Káingang.
-->Xokleng Jarel Deaton (1-5 only). R, L.
>Wayaná+ Not in R, L, V Oyana.
>Dorin+ R sis. Kaingang, V unclassified Ge, not in L, not in Eth.

Jeikó - K 75

>Jeikó+ L, not in R nor Eth.

Kamakanan - K 76

-->Kamakan+ Jarel Deaton (#1-5 only). R, L.
-->Kutasho+ Jarel Deaton (#1-5 only). R, L Kutaxó. This and rest not in Eth.
>Mangaló+ L, R Mongoyo.
>Masakará L, R Masacara
>Menien+ L, R

Maxakalían - K 77

-->Mashakali Jarel Deaton (old; incomplete). R, L&Eth Maxakalí
>Malalí+ L, not in R nor Eth.
>Pataxó+ L, not in R, Eth PTH ~-Hãhaãi

Purian - K 78

-->Coropo+ Jarel Deaton (old; incomplete). R, L, not in Eth.
-->Puri+ Jarel Deaton (old; 1-3 only). R, L.
-->Coroado+ Jarel Deaton (old; incomplete). R, L possibly here, Eth alt. Kaingang.

Fulnió - K 79

Fulnio Geraldo Lapenda, Estrutura da Lg Iatê 1968. (#9 formed by analogy; not sure of accent.) R, L, Eth FUN Fulniô.

Karajá - K 80

. Caraja Frei Luiz Palho, Ensaio de Gram e Voc da Lg Karajá 1942. Jarel Deaton (old). I have both in the list as they are so different. V lists Caraja as an alternative for N Cayapo too, but JD has that too and it's diff from both of these! R, V Carajá, L Karajá-Xambioá, Eth Karajá.
-->Javaé Lk (1921) = Javajé. L, not in R, Eth d. prev.

Ofaye - K 81

-->Opaye Jarel Deaton (#1-2), Carl Masthay (#3). R, L Ofayé.

Guato - K 82

-->Guato Jarel Deaton (old). R, L Guató.

SAME S. American isolates

Yurumanguí - K 1

>Yurumanguí+ L; known only from a 1768 wordlist; not in Eth.

Camsá - K 10

-->Camsá Huber & Reed 1992 (1-5, 10 only). R, L, Eth KBH.

Timucua - L 54

Timucua+ R, L iso.

Munichi - K 26

-->Muniche Jarel Deaton (1-7 only). R, L&Eth iso Munichi.

Cofán - K 29

Cofan M.B. Borman 1976. I've respelled it a bit. R, L Cofán, Eth in Chibchan.

Puquina - K 50

-->Puquina+ Lk (1890). L, Eth PUQ.

Callahuaya - K 51

-->Callahuaya Jarel Deaton (old). R, L.

Yuracare - K 52

-->Yuracare Jarel Deaton (old). R, L.

Gorgotoqui - K 69

>Gorgotoqui+ L iso, very little evidence, not in Eth.

Yagan - K 57

Yahgan (Yamana) Jess Tauber, from Thomas Bridges. V, R Yamana, L Yagan, not in Eth.

Kaweskar - K 58

Qawasqar (Alacaluf) Jarel Deaton. Also Brinton 1892 (no better). R, L Kaweskar, Eth ALC.
>Kakauhua Not in R or L; Eth lists as sis. prev.

Mapudungu - K 59

Mapudungu (Mapuche) Fray Félix José de Augusta 1990. Also Federico Barbará 1879 =Pampa!. R, Eth Mapudungun.
-->Huilliche Jarel Deaton (old). R, L d previous.

Otí - K 83

>Oti+ R, L, Eth OTI in Macro-Gê.

Baenan - K 84

>Baenan+ L, not in R nor Eth.

Kukurá - K 85

>Kukurá+ R Cucura, L, not in Eth.

Karirí - K 87

-->Kiriri+ Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, L Karirí, Eth KZW Kariri-Xocó.

Tuxá - K 88

>Tuxá+ R Tusha, L, Eth TUD.

Pankararú - K 89

>Pankararú+ R Pankararu, L, Eth PAZ.

Natú - K 90

>Natú+ R Natu, L, not in Eth.

Xukurú - K 91

>Xukurú+ R Shukuru, L, Eth alt. KZW above.

Gamela - K 92

>Gamela+ L, R Gamella, not in Eth.

Huamoé - K 93

>Huamoé+ L, R Uman, not in Eth.

Tarairiú - K 94

>Tarairiú+ L, not in R, not in Eth.

Xokó - K 95

>Xokó+ L, not in R, Et alt. KZW above.

Koayá - K 102

>Koayá+ L, R Koaia, not in Eth.

Aikaná - K 103

-->Huari Jarel Deaton (1-2 only). R, L Aikaná, Eth alt. Tubarão in N. Maipuran.
-->Masaca Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, L = Aikaná, Eth d. prev.

Irantxe - K 105

-->Iranshe Jarel Deaton (1-3 only). R, L Irantxe, Eth Irántxe.

Movima - K 107

Movima Robert & Judith Judy SIL 1967. R.

Cayuvava - K 108

Cayuvava Jarel Deaton =Cayuvada. V, R, L, Eth Cayubaba.

Jotí - K 118

>Jotí+ L, not in R; Eth alt. Yuwana below.

SAME Unclassified 377

New Guinea

>Warenbori Eth WSA Warembori in Lower Mamberano.
-->Yuri Dorothy Price in John M. Clifton, ed., Studies in Melanesian Orthographies 1987 (#10 only). Eth YUJ Karkar-Yuri.
>Porome Eth alt. PRM Kibiri.
>Massep Eth MVS in Dani-Kwerba.

South America

Unclassified by Ruhlen

>Carabayo Eth CBY.
>Guaviare Eth MBR Nukak Makú.
>Yari Eth YRI Yarí.
>Mutus Eth MUF Mutús.
-->Yuwana Jarel Deaton (1-4 only). R, not in L.
>Kohoroxitari Eth KOB.
>Arara Eth AXG Mato Grosso Arára.

Classified by Ruhlen, not in L or V

>Caranga+ (in Chipayan; not in Eth)
>Cashuena (in Carib; not in Eth)
>Pajonal (in Pre-Andine; Eth Ashénina Pajonal CJO in Arawakan)
>Wabui (in Carib; Eth alt. Hixkaryana!)

LAST Pidgins and creoles


Turku Jarel Deaton (Arabic creole in Chad). Not in R or V.
Nubi Not sure of location. Dalby. R.


-->Hiri Motu Jarel Deaton (1-3, 6, 8 only; others said to be from English. I've supplied them from Police Motu, the earlier form of the pidgin, also from Jarel.). R.


>Asian Swahili Eth CCL Cutchi-Swahili.


Fanagalo J.D. Bold 1990. R.


>Bazaar Malay Eth MSI Sabah Malay.


Naga Pidgin Jarel Deaton. R.



Gullah Rick Schellen (6 is from another book). R; Eth Sea Island.
Jamaican Rick Schellen. R W Caribbean Creole.
Virgin Islands Rick Schellen. R Lesser Antillean Creole.
Guyanese Jarel Deaton. R.
Sranantongo (Surinam) Erik Kim Tjong Sam. R; Eth Sranan.
Saramaccan Jarel Deaton. R.
Krio Rick Schellen. R.
West African Schneider 1965. (= R. Wescos?)
Djuka Jarel Deaton. R; Eth Aukan.
Nigerian Nicholas G. Faraclas 1989.
Pitcairn Rick Schellen. R.


Tok Pisin John W.M.Verhaar 1995. NB: I also have "Port Moresby Pidgin" from Terry D. & Sylvia O'Dell- Barhorst, on the web; it's the same but 4 = fo (foa is an alternative).
-->Roper River Creole RS (5 #'s); #3,9 from Sharpe, Pacific Lgs Series A-39 1975, via JD). R; Eth Kriol.
Torres Strait Pidgin Jarel Deaton. R.
Bislama Jarel Deaton. R.
Solomon Pijin Jarel Deaton. R.
>Micronesian Pidgin R; Eth NGM Ngatik.
Hawaiian Creole Rick Schellen. R.


Negerhollands (Virgin Is.) Robin Sabino (Assc. Prof. Ling., Auburn U.). R & Eth Dutch Creole.
Skepi+ (Guyana) Mikael Parkvall
Berbice Jarel Deaton.


Unserdeutsch Craig Alan Volker, An Intr to Rabaul Creole German 1982 (JD). R.


Papiamento (Curaçao) Antoine J.Maduro 1980
Berdiánu (Cabo Verde) Nicolas Quint-Abrial 1997. R; Eth Kabuverdianu.
Crioulo (Guiné-Bissau) W.A.A. Wilson 1962
São Tomé Valkhoff 1966
Príncipe Valkhoff 1966
Annobon Valkhoff 1966. R & Eth Fa d'Ambu.
Macau Rick Schellen. R & Eth Macanese.
Malacca Creole Jarel Deaton. R.
Palenquero Nina S. De Friedemann and Carlos Patiño Rosselli, Lengua y Sociedad en el ~ de San Basilio 1983 (JD). R.
Indo-Portuguese J. Clancy Clements, The Genesis of a Lg: The Formation and Development of Korlai 1996 (JD). R; Eth Korlai.
>Cafundo Creole
>Timor Pidgin 247,922,542 yr


Lingua Franca Roberto Rossetti.


Seychelles Creole Annegret Bollée 1977.
Réunion Daniel Baggioni [nu libes].
Maurice R; Eth Marisyen.
Haitian Creole Charmant Theodore, Hippocrene Compact Dict 1995.
Martinique Pierre Pinalie and Jean Bernabé, Gram du Créole Martiniquais 1999 (JD). R; Eth this and below are Lesser Antillean.
Guadeloupe Creole Mikael Parkvall.
St. Lucia Kwéyòl, via Chris Straughn.
Louisiana Creole Mikael Parkvall
French Guiana Creole Mikael Parkvall
Karipúna Alfred W Tobler, Dic Crioulo ~/Pt 1987. Rio Curipi, Amapá, Brazil. R; Eth Amapá.
South Vietnam Rick Schellen.
New Caledonia Jarel Deaton =St.-Louis (Tayo). R; Eth Tayo.
Michif Patline Laverdure & Ida Rose Allard 1983. R; Eth French Cree.


Russenorsk+ Ingvild Broch & Ernst Håkon Jahr 1984. R.

LAST Constructed languages

A priori

G. Dalgarno Ars Signorum 1661. PP
Philosophical Language B.J. Wilkins 1668. PP
Leibniz 1679. CL
Formosan G. Psalmanazar 1705. PP
Langue nouvelle M. Faiguet 1765, in the Encyclopédie. CL
Langue universelle Delormel 1795. CL
Lingua Universalis A. Réthy 1821. PP
Langue universelle C.-L.-A. Letellier 1852. CL
Langue universelle Bonifacio Sotos Ochando 1852.
Solresol J-F.Sudre 1866; source: Paul Lucas
Langue Internationale Étymologique Reimann 1877. CL
Langue universelle Séb. Verheggen 1886.
Langue universelle Charles Menct 1886. CL
Spelin Georg Bauer 1886. CL
Bopal St. de Max 1887. CL
La Langue naturelle Eugène Maldant 1887. CL
Weltsprache Eichhorn 1887. (but in general, a posteriori) CL
Balta Emile Dormoy 1893. CL
Prometej-Prosvetitelj [something-`enlightener'] E. Gurin 1898. PP
Spokil Ad. Nicolas 1900. CL
Zahlensprache Ferdinand Hilbe 1901. CL
Völkerverkehrssprache Carl Dietrich 1902 ("People's Trade Language"). CL
Pan-Arisch P. Lundström 1908. PP
Ro E.P. Foster 1908. PP


aUI W.J. Weilgart 1958. PP
Babm F. Okamoto 1962. PP
suma B. Russell 1966 (but invented 1943).
Loglan James Cook Brown; source: Alex Leith
Lojban Bob LeChevalier; source: Marnen Laibow-Koser
Tanerai J. Biarujia 1968. PP
Lusane Luis Saintz Lopez-Negrete 1974. PP
Láadan Suzette Haden Elgin 1985.
Eaiea Bruce Koestner. Musical lang à la Solresol but w letters = 12 tones.
Roctegedda Kim Sandrehav.
Liva Claudio Gnoli. Base 16.
Ibubo Andrew Nowicki.

A posteriori


19th century
Lingua Filosofica Universale M. Gigli 1818. PP
Bezeichnungskunst F.A. Gerber, The Art of Signs 1832. PP
Communicationssprache J. Schipfer 1839. CL
Pantos-Dimou-Glossa Lucien de Rudelle 1858. CL
Universal-Sprache Pirro 1868. CL
Volapük Johann Schleyer 1879. Deg is Arie De Jong's 1929 emendation Web.
Weltsprache A. Volk & R. Fuchs 1883. CL
Langue internationale néo-latine E. Courtonne 1885. CL
Pasilingua P. Steiner 1885. CL
Esperanto L.L. Zamenhof 1887. R
Mundolingue Julius Lott 1888. CL
Kosmos Eugen A. Lauda 1888. CL
Lingua George J. Henderson 1888. CL
Mundolinco J. Braakman 1888. PP
Anglo-Franca P. Hoinix 1889. CL
Myrana J. Stempfl 1889. CL
Langue catholique Alberto Liptay 1892. CL
Antivolapük Fred Mill 1893. CL
Dil Fieweger 1893. CL
Universala Eugen Heintzeler 1893. CL
Orba José Guardiola 1893. CL
Communia J. Stempfl 1894. CL
Novilatiin E. Beermann 1895. CL
Veltparl Wilhelm von Arnim 1896. CL
Nov Latin Daniele Rosa 1890. CL
Dilpok L'abbé Marchand 1898. CL
Langue bleue Léon Bollack 1899. CL

Idom Neutral W. Bonto van Bijlevelt 1903.
Panroman H. Molenaar 1903. PP
Mundelingva J. von Hummler 1904. PP
Perio M. Talundberg 1904. PP
Lingua Internacional A. Zakrzewksi 1905. PP
Pan-Kel M. Wald 1906. PP
Ulla F. Greenwood 1906. PP
Ido L. Couturat 1907 source: Tazio Carlevaro 1976 (relayer: Bertilo Wennergren)
Parla C. Spitzer 1907. PP
Romanal A. Michaux 1909. PP
Mezhdunarodno-Nauchnyj Jazyk A. Kovalev ("Internat'l Science Language") 1911. PP
Uropi W. Donisthorpe 1913. PP
Lips-Kith Scarisbrik 1919. via Ivan D.
Interlingue E. von de Wahl 1922. PP
Hom-Idyomo C. Cárdenas 1923.
Lingvo Kommona K.J.L. 1923. PP
Omo V.I. Vengerov 1926. PP
Una F. Buckel 1926. PP
Novial Otto Jesperson 1927. Web.
Panedo M.S. Pisarenko 1927. PP
Sintesal N. Rubinin 1930. PP
Mondyal G. Jurant 1932. PP
Interglossa Lancelot Hogben 1943.
Olingo R. Stewart Jaque 1944. Via Eric Korn.

Auxilia G. Morin 1947. PP
Pikto John E. Williams 1950. PP
Speedwords Reginald Dutton 1951. (Originally 1936; this is the final revision.)
Esperantuisho J. Zhelezny' 1951. PP
Mundion H. Weinreich 1951. PP
Frater Pham Xuan Thai, 1957, web.
Interlingua Alexander Gode 1951. R
Antro N.D. Andreev 1950. PP
Unolok H. Wilshire 1957. PP
Axiom-Variant D.G. Baev 1960. via Ivan D.
Ande A.W. Anderson 1960. PP
Stipfone A. Lallemand 1960. PP
Glosa W. Ashby & R. Clark 1981. Web.
Unilingua R.Self 1964. PP
Liberanto E. Kotar 1965. PP
Frendo A. Churruca 1965. PP
Zamalo F.A.C. Alting 1966. PP
Gloneo R.S. Jaque 1968. PP
Eurolengo L. Jones 1972. PP
Unitario M. Pleyer 1987. PP
Dunia ??. via Jeffrey Henning.
Eurolang Phil Hunt 1990s.
Sen:espera Jeffrey Henning.
Uni E. Wainscott 1974. PP
Etwu toyboy, web.
Eklektu Herman Miller.
Neo-Dalmatian Julius K. Liptak & Laszlo Kovacs.
Talossan R. Ben Madison.
Tundrian Gabor Sandi.


Nu Teutonish Elias Molee 1906.
Anglic R.E. Zachrisson 1930. PP
Euronord A.J. Pilgrim 1965. PP
Earth Minimal Ebtx, web.
Alannaic Oaritheias, 1990s.
Jameld James Campbell. PP
Paulic Paul Smith.
Breersh And Rosta. PP
Ceqli Rex F. May.
Adelic S. A. MacLagan.
Futurese Justin B. Rye. A just-for-grins prediction of English a thousand years from now. I've given the more interesting phonetic value rather than the orthography.


Uzajemni Slavjanski Jezik M. Majar 1865. PP
Novyj Razgovornyj Jazyk [`New Conversational Lg'] 1905. PP
Ladef M.N. Mikhajlov 1963. PP
New Prussian source: Uldis Balodis
Sevorian James Campbell. PP
Nashina Jan Havlis. PP
Slovio Mark Hucko.


Brithenig Andrew Smith.
Breathanach Geoff Eddy.
Wessisc Damon M. Lord. PP
Celltiecc Nathaniel Ament-Stone.


Degaspregos Tom Wier.

Non-IE or mixed

Palawa kani Theresa Sainty and Jenny Longey (based on the Tasmanian lgs) (PP).
Toki Pona Christian Richard


Proto-Eldarin J.R.R.Tolkien (via Ivan Derzhanski)
Qenya J.R.R.Tolkien (early form of Quenya) (via Ivan Derzhanski).
Quenya J.R.R.Tolkien; source: Marnen Laibow-Koser
Noldorin J.R.R.Tolkien (via Ivan)
Black Speech J.R.R.Tolkien (via Ivan)
Ammar-Iar David E. Bell
Klingon Marc Okrand 1985
Atlantean Marc Okrand
Vorlin Rick Harrison.
Tepa Dirk Elzinga.
Naqu Kevin Albrecht.
Elet Anta John Fisher, web.
Neelan buckley.
DiLingo Sumus Cacoonus, web.
Maktalu, Tha-Tizê, Southern, Classic Sital, Watakassí Nik Taylor (last via PP).
Arkian, Hibernian, Antapa Jan Havlis (Antapa via PP).
Üqoi Bruce Bracken.
MCL David Mann.
Nova Brad Coon.
Cispa Herman Miller.
Jarrda Herman Miller.
Doraya Adam Parrish.
Gladilatian Dennis Paul Himes.
Draseléq, Curco Pablo Flores.
Leturian, Arangothian Patrick Feaster.
Sulekhï David Dynes
Kankonian James E.F. Landau
D'ni Cyan, via Jeremy Newton
Danovën Joshua Shinavier, web. (Chile)
Minerven James O'Connell.
Mango Natalia Gruscha.
Otg Galivad Oltz, web.
Rokbeigalmki Steg Belsky. PP
Ciravesu Pablo Flores. PP
Rahha James Campbell (a base-7 lg). PP
Teonaht Sally Caves. PP
Melanian Thomas Nordengen.
Kélen Sylvia Sotomayor.
Eleviial Ian McClure. PP
Toono Ian McClure. Base 9, with subtractive etymologies for 5-8. PP
Xara Jim Taylor. PP
Mushroomese, Fu The Jade Emperor (4 more in e-mail). PP
Eloshtan, Qested Josh Roth (see e-mail for Swassaggi, similar to Qested). PP
Muila Tigger and Aszlan.
Ozee Tilp Daniel Foster.
Nepturian Gregg Kinkley.
Vamela Francisc Czobor.
Sile Xavier McShane.
Dráeng Pablo BC.
Dublex Jeffrey Henning.
Idhur Albert Fernández.
Hallon Paul Townsend.
Tev'Meckian (from Galaxy Quest) Author unknown; via Jeffery Henning.
I:lo:ãrtrascu: (High Elven) Andrew B.
Adinjo, Elressie Nathaniel Knight.
Jaueqaomys Qrac
Ziotaki Amelia Imperatrix
Conlang #4892 Justin B. Rye
Liotan lgs Geoff Eddy. (some via PP)
East Lemurian lgs Steve Oostrom (this is a selection of over 40 languages). PP
All Almean lgs Rosenfelder.

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