Virtual Verduria

Dhekhnami

© 2014 by Mark Rosenfelder · zompist.com

Introduction

PhonologyWriting system

MorphologyVerbsRankThe simple presentPastFutureNegativeIterativeAffixesImperatives
Nominal morphologyPluralTenseDerivational affixes
PronounsPersonal pronounsDeicticsInterrogativesQuantifiers
NumbersOctal systemDecimal systemArithmetic Prepositions

SyntaxSentence orderTopic and commentOther argumentsVerb modifiers NP orderAppositives AuxiliariesComparativesPassives
QuestionsYes-no questionsInterrogatives NegativesCoordination
SubordinationSentential objectsMini-clausesNominalizationRelative clauses Causatives
Adverbials Time expressionsPlace expressions
Semantic fields The dayCalendarPejorativesNames

ExamplesConversationLetter to MútkünLiturgy
Lexicon


Introduction

Dhekhnami (lokh Dhêçnam) is the official language of Dhekhnam, the contemporary ktuvok empire; it’s the direct descendant of Munkhâshi.

Demóshimor was occupied by the Caďinorians after the victory of Ervëa and Attafei; but Caďinas lost control of the area following the civil war of 1894-1910. The area was conquered by the Carhinnoi, nomadic followers of Jippirasti, around 2100. Finally it becamse independent in 2375. The two occupations each affected the Demoshi profoundly; it can be said that they learned the market economy from the Caďinorians, and a zealous monotheism from the Carhinnoi.

Dhekhnam was reconstituted in 2537, at first incorporating only Tyellakh; it didn’t reincorporate Demóshimor till 2712, and then on terms which promised a more symbiotic relationship between the ktuvoks and the Demoshi; the new ktuvok empire has certainly relied on their dynamism. It steadily expanded over the centuries until it occupies the entire area between the Ctelm Mountains and the Forbidden Sea.

There are really four distinct Eynleyni languages, each descendants of Munkhâshi or its sisters:

These are not the only languages spoken in Dhekhnam; there’s also Sarroc and Monkhayu, spoken in Sarnáe; Carhinnian; Irqarau spoken in the far east; and Kazule spoken in the southern Ctelm mountains.

The language described in this sketch is the standard language, used for administration and communication between ethnic groups, for education, technology, and other writing, as well as in proselytization of the Gelalhát religion outside the empire. In particular it’s the dialect of the capital, Ornakh.

Dhekhnami has been influenced— much more than Munkhâshi— by the languages of other human groups, especially Caďinor, Sarroc, and Carhinnian.

Dhekhnami is most easily understood if you start with a clear understanding of Munkhâshi. Therefore this sketch concentrates on the differences between the two languages; anything not mentioned can be assumed to work the same way.

Philological note: Dhêçnam means ‘pure land’; the representation Dhekhnam is based on Verdurian sources and predates our scholarly knowledge of the language. Anyway, it’s convenient to have a simple representation without diacritics or unusual characters.

Phonology

Consonants   vowels
labial dental palato
alveolar
velar
stops p t k i u
b d g e o
affricates tl (dl) ts dz (ê) (ô)
ch j     a    
fricatives f v s z sh zh kh gh
th dh (ç)
nasals m n (ŋ)
liquids l r
semivowels w y
Most of these are self-explanatory. tl is an unvoiced lateral fricative [ɬ]. Ch j sh are [tʃ dʒ ʃ] as in English; zh kh gh th dh are [ʒ x γ θ ð].

(Note that the place of articulation for ts dz ch j does not match that of t; it’s further back. You could say that Dhekhnami has English ch but French t.)

The sounds in parentheses are marginal as phonemes:

The only sound Dhekhnami has entirely lost is â, merged with a (and occasionally ê). Besides the mostly-allophones mentioned, it’s innovated s z gh y.

Double consonants should be pronounced doubly long.

Diphthongs can be formed with w or y (cf. shiçaydo ‘rocky’, shmaw ‘north’). Y doesn’t palatalize a preceding consonant— nyakh ‘hide’ is [njax], not [njax]. To Verdurians it sounds like the Dhekhnami are lingering on the y— they write nyyaḣ— but this may just reflex that <ny> is always [nj] in Verdurian.

Stress generally follows the same rule as Munkhâshi: it falls on the first syllable of the root, never on affixes or reduplicated syllables.

Quite a few initial clusters have been supplied with an unstressed epenthetic vowel, spelled e but pronounced with a lax [ə]: TmôtimorDemóshimor [də 'mo ʃi mɔr].

Writing system

The Eynleyni were introduced to writing by the Caďinorians in the 1700s. Only fitful attempts were made to write Munkhâshi; what writing was done by natives was mostly in Caďinor. However, the idea took root.

During their period of independence, the Demoshi worked out an alphabetic writing system (teshir); the consonants were largely based on Jippirasti letterforms, the vowels on Caďinor. The standard forms were worked out by the merchants of Ornakh in the 2500s.

The blue forms represent the original script. About a century later, however, the Demoshi started writing downward rather than rightward. (This was the traditional direction used for numeric tallies.) Instead of simply writing the letter symbols in a different direction, however, they rotated each sign 90° to the right. The red forms are the resulting letterforms as they’ve simplified under use.

Note that ç is written <kh>, and ŋ is written <ng>.

Words are separated with a small line -, largely but not entirely matching the use of spaces in this grammar. In particular zh is usually conjoined to the next word, and compounds are sometimes separated. Clauses are separated with a longer line —, which is doubled for the end of a sentence.

Not shown are a number of special forms used, somewhat in the Jippirasti manner, for writing clusters. These are optional and their use has declined over time.

Rather than use either Caďinorian or Jippirasti numerals, the Demoshi numbers were based on the tally marks used on the clay tablets used for the Munkhâshi accounting system. However, for writing decimal numbers the Caďinorian symbols are used.

Morphology

Verbs

Rank

The five-rank system was ruined by sound change. The fricativization of syllable-final stops merged ranks C and D. The change of #Cr to #Cy may have made rank A harder to distinguish; in any case it had disappeared by about 3000. (It persists in Tyellakhi, at least.)

Thus Dhekhnami was left with a three-rank system. Though the social hierarchy is not much different, its grammaticalization has changed.

This is within spitting distance of the European languages of a hundred years or so back— the inferior/respect distinction is similar to the T/V distinction, with the major exception that two people are never of the same rank.

As almost any conversation will have more than three personal referents involved, there is no longer any attempt to distribute the rank affixes to disambiguate references. Munkhâshi rank assignments could change whenever the rank situation in the room changed— e.g. if a commander came upon a conversation between soldiers, or again if a ktuvok joined in. Instead each speaker simply follows the above rules: the verbs use respect forms if the subject is higher in rank— submission forms if they’re much higher in rank.

A pronoun system has evolved for disambiguation. As a corollary, the Dhekhnami system, unlike Munkhâshi, allows conflicting status claims— i.e. two persons may each claim superiority by both using D forms. In a more urban civilization there are social situations where this is expected. (Both using E forms isn’t unheard of— e.g. two slaves, unknown to each other, meeting in a city.)

The introduction of writing means that one may be addressing unknown persons. The convention is for authors to take the respect form, using the inferior form for readers— after all, if you don’t know more than your readers, why are you writing a book? If you’re writing to a specific person, of course you use the forms appropriate to your relative ranks.

It’s worth noting that this system, with identical usage rules, has spread to Sarroc, Carhinnian, and Monkhayu.

The simple present

For compatibility with the Munkhâshi lexicon, the D form has been retained as the citation form. More precisely it’s the simple present tense.
‘be’ ‘want’ ‘come’ ‘think’ ‘be near’ ‘cry’ ‘be cold’
B.s khath khyith kthuth wôsh roth zhash thêsh
D.s kath khyith kshuth pôsh roth dzash têts
E.s gath ghyith gzhuth bôsh roth dzash dêts
 
B.p khatha khyithi kthuthu wôsho rotho zhasha thêshe
D.p kada khyidi kshudu pôjo rodo dzaja têtse
E.p gada ghyidi gzhudu bôjo rodo dzaja dêtse
The Munkhâshi dual forms have been lost.

The basic rules are these:

If a transformation can’t be applied, skip it; note from the table that the three forms don’t always vary.

The past

The past is formed by infixing -wa for B, -ba for D/E, before the final consonant:
‘be’ ‘want’ ‘come’ ‘think’ ‘be near’ ‘cry’ ‘be cold’
B.s khawath khyiwath kthuwath wôwash rowath zhawash thêwash
D.s kabath khyibath kshubath pôbash robath dzabash têbats
E.s gabath ghyibath gzhubath bôbash robath dzabash dêbats

The future

The future is similarly formed by infixing -thô for B, - for D/E:
‘be’ ‘want’ ‘come’ ‘think’ ‘be near’ ‘cry’ ‘be cold’
B.s khathôth khyithôth kthuthôth wôthôsh rothôth zhathôsh thêthôsh
D.s kath khyidôth kshudôth pôdôsh rodôth dzadôsh têdôts
E.s gath ghyidôth gzhudôth bôdôsh rodôth dzadôsh dêdôts

The negative

The negative affix is an invariable -ru; it can follow the past or future infix.
‘be’ ‘want’ ‘come’ ‘think’ ‘be near’ ‘cry’ ‘be cold’
B.s kharuth khyiruth kthuruth wôrush roruth zharush thêrush
D.s karuth khyiruth kshuruth pôrush roruth dzarush têruts
E.s garuth ghyiruth gzhuruth bôrush roruth dzarush dêruts
B.s khawaruth khyiwaruth kruthuwaruth wôwarush rowaruth zhawarush thêwarush
D.s kabaruth khyibaruth kshubaruth pôbarush robaruth dzabarush têbaruts
E.s gabaruth ghyibaruth gzhubaruth bôbarush robaruth dzabarush dêbaruts
B.s khathôruth khyithôruth kthuruthôth wôthôrush rothôruth zhathôrush thêthôrush
D.s kadôruth khyidôruth kshudôruth pôdôrush rodôruth dzadôrush têdôruts
E.s gadôruth ghyidôruth gzhudôruth bôdôrush rodôruth dzadôrush dêdôruts
The Munkhâshi dubitative has been lost. To some extent the future has taken over, as in conditionals or statements of doubt.

The iterative

The iterative has been lost as part of the inflectional morphology, but some instances have been retained as new lexical roots— for instance dzajash ‘bawl, cry intensely’.

Affixes

The following affixes may be applied to most verbs (including adjectives):
diminutive wi- widzash cry a little
augmentative she- shedzash cry a lot
inceptive me- medzash begin to cry
terminative me- -ru- medzarush stop crying
active participle -iw dzazhiw crying
passive participle -ogh khyidhogh wanted
causative ôs- ôzdzash make someone cry
Dhekhnami verb roots are largely a closed class, so derivations are often used where we’d use a separate verb:

toth ‘go’ → ôstoth ‘send away’, medoth ‘leave’, widoth ‘visit’, zontoth ‘return’, bodoth ‘enter’...
shikh ‘be thin’ → sheshikh ‘be gaunt’, wishikh ‘be lean’, ôsshikh ‘thin down’...
The terminative is just the inceptive plus the negative. (I.e., by convention medzarush is taken as ‘began to not-cry’ rather than ‘didn’t begin to cry’.)

Causative ôs- assimilates in voicing to the following consonant.

The prefixes wi- shê- me- voice the following consonant(s). Note that this merges the D and E forms, and changes the B form:

‘be’ ‘want’ ‘come’ ‘think’ ‘be near’ ‘cry’ ‘be cold’
B.s wighath wighyith wigdhuth wiwôsh wiroth wizhash widhêsh
D.s wigath wighyith wigzhuth wibôsh wiroth widzash widêts
E.s wigath wighyith wigzhuth wibôsh wiroth widzash widêts
The participles voice the final consonants: kat ‘be’ → kadiw, mets ‘be good’ → medziw.

The other Munkhâshi prefixes are often found lexically— e.g. shôntoth ‘trespass’ from shuntot ‘go where it is forbidden’, wôytsin ‘sneak’ from wortsin ‘walk carefully’— but can’t really be called inflectional.

Imperatives

There are four kinds of imperative.

Nominal morphology

Plural

Dhekhnami has lost the dual as a morphological category, though it’s retained for things that come in pairs— e.g. dzêtsêth ‘a pair of shoes’.
‘estate’ ‘lake’ ‘skirt’ ‘human’ ‘bone’ ‘girl’
singular chyem dhmeçi bedha dzoshiw sakh iwniso
plural techyem dhedhmeçi bebedha dzojoshiw satsakh niwniso
Often an epenthetic vowel has been inserted into a Munkhâshi cluster, e.g. pnakil benaçiw ‘pitchfork’. In the plural, the epenthetic e is replaced by the main vowel (e.g. banaçiw).

Tense

The suffixes -ba and - (after unvoiced consonants, -pa and -) can be applied to nouns, indicating that the description applied in the past or future but not the present. Note that these are now suffixes, not infixes.
pêkso wife
pêksoba ex-wife
pêkso fiancée
rish home
rishpa former home
rish future home

Derivational affixes

Some of these, especially those beginning with a consonant, have been made irregular by sound change.
-shiw place gwejiw market
-no male pêçno husband
-so female pêkso wife
-agh diminutive pêksogh wifey
-dzu augmentative klawdzu big lion
-la object, substance nêgla bridge
-wo process, instance mônwo strength
çir- -iw prone to çirgemighiw irritable

Pronouns

Personal pronouns

As the rank system simplified, the deictics, already in use to identify participants in a conversation, solidifed into personal pronouns. The ‘this’ forms became first person, the proximal forms became second person, and the distal forms became third person.
singular plural
respect inferior respect inferior
1 wigo bigo wiwigo khuba
2 shidhe dzide shishidhe kebá
3m shono zono shoshono zodzono
3f shozho zozho shoshozho zodzozho>
3 zozh zodzozh
Plurals were formed by the normal Dhekhnami pluralizing process; however, the inferior forms of ‘we’ and ‘you’ were borrowed from Carhinnian.

Unlike Munkhâshi, Dhekhnami allows the -no forms to be used for groups of mixed gender.

The use of respect and inferior forms works the same as the verb forms, except that there are no superior forms. There is no diffidence about using (wi)wigo; if you’re speaking to inferiors it’s mandatory.

Pronouns are usually supplied, but they’re not quite as necessary as in English, especially in the third person. E.g. Toth ‘he goes’ is perfectly fine if there’s no doubt who ‘he’ is.

Possessives are formed with dzan ‘of’: dzan zono ‘his’. There are three suppletive abbreviations:

nan = dzan wigo my (resp.)
din = dzan shideh your (resp.)
wen = dzan dzide your (inf.)
These are more useful than they may seem, in that common possessions notionally belong to the superior. To put it another way, ‘our’ can often be expressed as ‘my’ or ‘your’.

In addition, don’t supply a possessive if it’s obvious, e.g. one’s own body part. E.g. ôzbwen ŋaŋŋa ‘he’s washing his hands’ needs no explicit possessive.

Deictics

As the old deictics were co-opted as pronouns, new ones were innovated for persons and things, based on the deictic adjectives.
adjective male female thing place time
this mim mivno minso mimla bigoshiw eraw
that near nom novno nonso nomla dzideshiw mêgle
that far chor tsôyno tsôyso tsôyla zojiw pôkwe
Dhekhnami is looser about using -no for mixed male and female groups, especially if males predominate. For a very mixed group it’s still better to conjoin (e.g. mivno zh minso ‘these men and women’.)

Pôkwe refers to an earlier time, mêgle to a later time. In the past this is the same as the Munkhâshi rule (pâkwe is farther from the present), but in the future it’s opposite.

Interrogatives

The interrogatives are:
adj person thing place time
which who what when where
interrogative tlajiw tlashno tlash ruju zhan

Quantifiers

adj male female thing place time
any, one at zhêthno zhêthso zhêdla zhejiw aneleth
two êgath dhakhno dhôkso dhôgla
some tlôr tlôyno tlôyso tlôyla tlôyshiw chadza
many bwath bwathno bwathso bwadla bwajiw bwaneleth
all, every she sheno sheso shela sheshiw nashye
none pwashi pwashino pwashiso pwashila pwashiw ôkhpa

Munkhâshi’s god/ktuvok forms have been lost.

Numbers

Dhekhnami has retained base eight while also adopting base ten for international trade and science.

Octal system

x 8+x 8x xth 1/x 8x
0   shwêm tath
1 tath nêbwi bazh tath bazh
2 dhakh dêç bajath wôkh rêm dleç
3 kash zhgash kabazh kashkath genôksha sev
4 inçi zhinçi impazh inçigath dzôghye gzhaghne
5 khyi zhgi khyibazh khyigath ôshkhyi najêth
6 plêç zhlêç plebazh plêkath ôshweç siklo
7 benath zhnath bembazh benathkath ôshnath chôth
8 bazh bazhgath ôshbazh ôyjo

Numbers above 208 are formed with the formula <8x><8+x>, thus:
bazh zhgash 8 + 3 = 11
bazh zhinçi 8 + 4 = 12
bazh zhlêç 8 + 6 = 14
bajath zhinçi 16 + 4 = 20
khyibazh zhgi 40+ 5 = 45
bembazh nêbwi 56+ 1 = 57
Nêbwi and dêç were taken from Caďinor; note that in compounds they have the meanings “plus one” and “plus two”.

Higher numbers follow the Munkhâshi model, omitting the zh; e.g.

kash-dleç 3*64 = 192
kash-dleç kash 3*64 + 3 = 195
kash-dleç bajath zhgash 3*64 + 16 + 3 = 211

Decimal system

The Caďinorian administration imposed the decimal system, but this was discarded when the Carhinnians took over. But in recent centuries trade with Eretald and Xengimen, and reading their books on science and technology, have made it necessary to become familiar with the decimal system. Naturally this is an educational achievement; most Dhekhnami speakers don’t know the decimals.

Rather than using the same numbers in two ways, Dhekhnami simply borrowed the base 10 numbers from Sarroc. (Note that this created doublets for 9 and 10.)

x 10x 10x
1   aw dêth dêth
2 dhu dudêth syekakh
3 di didêth myol
4 pawor pawordêth
5 panthu panthudêth
6 syêç syêçdêth peron
7 khêp khêpdêth
8 yosi yosidêth
9 nyêbri nyêbridêth
10 dêth

Two-digit numbers follow the formula <10x> zh <x>, e.g. syekhdêth zh pawor 64.

Numbers with one significant digit are , thus panthu syekakh 500, khêp myol 7000, yosi peron ‘8 million’. But anything else is usually named just by naming the digits; e.g. 3480 is di-pawor-yosi-shwêm.

The Sarroc ordinals were not borrowed. For numbers up to 10, the octal ordinals can be used; after that you use the preposition dzan— e.g. neleth dzan dudêth zh yosi ‘the 28th day’.

Arithmetic

The basic arithmetic operations:
plêç zh dhakh ‘and’ 6 + 2
plêç pêwkho dhakh ‘without’ 6 - 2
plêç rush dhakh ‘against’ 6 x 2
plêç lith dhakh ‘for’ 6 / 2
These can be used with either octal or decimal numbers.

Prepositions

denor between
nêç across
go outside
bo in
çin away from
çir toward, to
zon back to
shne in front of, next to
uççi in back of, behind
gway above, on top of
pôsh below, on the bottom of
tlath with (accompanying)
zhidhiw with (having)
penath using
pêwkho without
jath around, surrounding
dhi containing, including
dzan of, belonging to
lith for, for the purpose of
rush against
shêv by order of, according to
oma through
shmaw north of
lim east of
dakh west of
chyow south of
nêsh like, as
There aren’t separate prepositions for something touching an object on one side, and just being near it (cf. English ‘on’ vs. ‘above’).

Time moves towards us, so çin is ‘before, until’, çir is ‘after, since’. If something occurs within a time period use bo. As with the place prepositions, there’s no distinction between “at some point after X” and “ever since X”.

English likes to use parentheticals giving the speaker’s attitude, in the form of clauses. In Dhekhnami these are normally prepositional phrases with shêv:

Dzawa gogobethno muchyero shêv bigo go beginla.
exist.E-pl pl-envoy Verduria-adj according.to I.inf outside door
The Verdurian ambassadors are, I believe, at the door.
For using clauses as objects of a preposition, see Sentential objects.

Syntax

Sentence order

The basic sentence order is VSO:
Pekiban shujyoshno khyibosh.
open.D.past court-man manuscript
The lawyer opened the manuscript.

Topic and comment

Mere movement is no longer enough for topicalization; instead you use the invariable kshêç ‘mention’:
Kshêç shujyoshno, pekiban khyibosh.
mention.D court-man / open.D.past manuscript
As for the lawyer, he opened the manuscript.
At ‘any, one’ is often used to introduce new referents, much as our article ‘a/an’. Note that it can be used with the plural.
Çimpaban shujyoshno wawaja at.
discard.D court-man pl-paper any
The lawyer tossed out some papers.

Other arguments

Some arguments are marked by prepositions, notably datives; these come after the direct object:
Gwêbath gemano mim otedit çir bigo bo rigla dzan tlôkwo.
sell.past.D grandfather this watch to me in bed of death
My grandfather, on his deathbed, sold me this watch.

Verb modifiers

An adverb or participle directly modifying the verb appears right after it:
Dhef shedhiw dzide.
eat.E too.much you.inf
You eat too much.

Zombeth tsoriw liçchaniw.
respond.E slow-act.part barbarian
The barbarian responded slowly.

As shown above, the active participle corresponds to our -ly adverbs; but as we’ll see it also can modify nouns.

NP order

General NP order is
deictic quantifier noun quantifier/numeral adjectives PrepP relative-clause
dzadh the dog
dzadh at a dog, any dog
mim dzadh this dog
dzajadh khyi five dogs
dzadh wen my dog
mim dzadh khyi those five dogs
dzadh khyi wen my five dogs
dzajadh bwath many dogs
bwath dzadh many of fhe dogs
tlôr dzadh khyi some of the five dogs
dzadh deneçiw the blue dog
dzadh bo kodo dzan denôyla the dog in the middle of the road
dzadh kijozh giniw the dog who hunts
mim dzadh tsoth kijozh giniw this little dog who hunts
If the quantifier precedes the noun, the focus in on the quantity— as the glosses suggest, it’s the same as the distinction between “some dogs” and “some of the dogs”. Only the fronted quantifier can co-occur with a numeral, and the noun isn’t pluralized with it.

Appositives

Nouns giving a name, title, or direction can be simply added to the NP:
erêth Orom the river Orum
bênên Dagêsh the Dagêsh mountains
Demóshimor dakh west Demóshimor
ôtlar Uvno Mayor Umno
lokh Munkhâsh the speech of Munkhâsh
A limited number of attributes of a geographical area can be named by compounding the noun with the name of the area:
lokh Dhêçnam the Dhekhnami language
nakh Shkónoro the mouth of the Shkónoro
lashna Shaynow the people of Sarnáe
chaynappa Erinant the capital of Érenat
But a prepositional phrase would always be appropriate: nakh dzan Shkónoro, chaynappa dzan Erinant, etc.

The above about exhausts the possibiliites for noun modifiers— everything else should be expressed using prepositions. That includes both examples that would sound fine in English (river town, army unit) as well as appositives of composition or origin which were acceptatble in Munkhâshi (wood house, Tyellakh peasant).

Auxiliaries

There is a wide range of auxiliaries, larger than in Munkhâshi.
do pow
want to khyith
fear to klosh
know how to, can çish
is allowed to pits
must shêftoth
should demêth
may, might gepukh
be expected to kshor
intend to toth
consider doing posh
keep doing sash
do intensely pon
do sloppily têts
more than shêth
less than pwakh
passive gwôth
topicalizer; about kshêç
As in Munkhâshi, the auxiliary follows the main verb, and both verbs are conjugated.
Nyin khyith wigo.
dance.D want.D I.resp
I want to dance.

Ghimbaban gebubakh techêdhnadzu.
escape.E.past may.E.past pl-icëlan
The icëlan may have escaped.

Ghyakh demêruth dzide.
complain.E should.E.not you.s.inf
You shouldn’t complain.

If they fit together logically, multiple auxiliaries are possible:
Sivi sazhi shêftodhi wiwigo.
sing.D-pl keep.D-pl must.D-pl we.resp
We must keep singing.
For first-person declarations about the future, it’s more common to use the intent auxiliary (Gemath toth wigo ‘I intend to win’) rather than the future tense (Gemathôth wigo ‘I’ll win’), but this doesn’t extend to the other persons.

Usually the negative is applied to both verbs: Nyirun khyiruth wigo ‘I don’t want to dance’. One can make fussy distinctions though: Nyin klorush wigo ‘I’m not afraid of dancing’, Nyirun klosh wigo ‘I’m afraid of not dancing’.

Comparatives

Comparatives use the auxiliaries shêth ‘exceed’ and pwakh ‘be less than’:
Ghith zhêth khuvna awthak.
cunning.E exceed.E snake fox
The snake is more cunning than the fox.

Têngath bwakh êtwegash ôznarno.
water-be.E less.than.E wetland-great drunk-man
The Great Wetlands is less wet than the drunkard.

Without an object, the implication is that the subject exceeds everyone— that is, the sentence becomes a superlative: Ghith zhêth khuvna, the snake is the most cunning.

A comparative can be used as an adverbial or modifier— Bebath çidhiw shêdhiw ‘he spoke more cunningly’; gêglêdlagh çidhiw shêdhiw ‘more cunning words’. No object can be supplied; if you need one, use a relative clause instead.

Expressions of the form The more X the more Y can be translated Exceeds (fut.) X, therefore Y— more loosely “If it’s exceedingly X, then it’s Y.”

Ghidôth zhêdôth tlôv, shin wigo.
cunning.E.fut exceed.E.fut enemy / happy.D I.resp
The cleverer the enemy, the happier I will be.

Passives

The passive is technically an auxiliary (using gwôth ‘hit’), but the auxiliary and promoted object are fronted:
Gwêbath denifno sôthoghno.
sell.D.past merchant prisoner
The merchant sold the captive.

Gwôbath sôthoghno gwêbath denifno.
hit.E.past prisoner sell.D.past merchant
The captive was sold by the merchant.

The original verb agrees with the original subject if it’s expressed; but if not, it appears in E form:
Gwôbath sôthoghno bebath.
hit.E.past prisoner speak.to.E.past
The captive was spoken to.
(As a corollary, avoid such expressions when referring to superiors.)

Questions

Yes-no questions

Questions use the question particle bo (which derives from Munkhâshi pol ‘do’). It appears before the verb(s):
Bo kada shushujyoshno mêmêtloro?
Q be.E.pl pl-court-man pl-scale.thing
Are lawyers reptiles?

Bo bwêç çish dzide?
Q read.E know.E you.s.inf
Can you read?

Bo dzabaruw char bo lim?
Q exist.E.past.not city in east
Wasn’t the city in the east?

You answer shetsu ‘yes’ or poruw ‘no’.

In the case of a negative question, shetsu agrees with the negative (“Right, it wasn’t in the east”), while to deny it you say Gepurukh (“No, it is in the east”), similar to French si or German doch.

The interrogatives are fronted (except for tlajiw which precedes its NP):
Tlashno shnedemabaf shêvdobath sôthoghno?
who watch.E.past must.E.past prisoner
Who had to watch the prisoner?

Gabath zono bo tlajiw zôdla?
be.E.past he.inf in which cage
Which cell was he in?

Tlash mwabath zono?
what steal.E.past he.inf
What did he steal?

Ruju dobath zono?
where go.E.past he.inf
Where did he go?

Zhan meribakh dzide?
when incep-sleep.E.past you.s.inf
When did you fall asleep?

Tlashno always takes E forms, unless it’s specifically associated with a high-status group—e.g. tlashno dzan shishidhe ‘who among you (superiors)’.

A question <interrogative> V NP is technically ambigious between SVO and OVS. Generally context will make it clear— e.g. it’s unlikely we’re asking who the prisoner had to watch, and semantically ‘steal’ takes an animate subject so tlash in the third sentence must be the object. If there could be confusion, use a deictic like mivno ‘this one’ in the OVS case:

Tlashno demabaf dzide?
who see.E.past you.s.inf
Who did you see?

Tlashno demabaf mivno dzide?
who see.E.past this.one you.s.inf
Who saw you?

Other interrogatives can be formed from prepositions, e.g. lith tlash ‘what for, why’; penath tlash ‘with what, how’; dzan tlashno ‘of what, whose’.

Negatives

As in Munkhâshi, negative sentences are formed by negating the verb(s):
Gwaygemobarur çibarush wigo ibwo wen!
put.D.past.neg I.sup can.D.past.neg book your
I could not put your book down!
If negative pronouns are used, the verb is negated if the action didn’t happen, and E forms are used if the subject does’t exist:
Po zombeth ghyiruth pwashino?
Q answer.E want.E.neg nobody
Nobody wants to answer?

Theruf ôkhpa wigo rôrôghne.
eat.D.neg I.resp pl-turnip
I never eat turnips.

Coordination

These conjunctions are allowed for constituents within a sentence:
and zh
or wa
but not pêwkho
yeshthil zh dayno
pen and paper

ôznarno bwozhiw zh çenighiw
a farting and snoring drunkard

Demabaf pêwkho pshobarun wigo.
see.D.past without listen.D.past.neg I.resp
I was watching but not listening.

Zh assimilates to sh before an unvoiced consonant, as in the last two examples; it’s not written differently however. (Dhekhnami write zh and wa as part of the following word, but I’ve avoided this as leading to confusion.)

Note that pêwkho requires negating a following verb.

Entire clauses have their own set of conjunctions:

and zhmin
or wamin
however ôwmin
despite, although ruzhmin
moreover, plus gwaymin
therefore razh
because denish
then, next çirga
before çiŋga
likewise chôchwin
if/then (fut.) / razh
in order that lithmin
For instance:
Yebawsh dzide razh medludôkh rôkso
fail.E.past you.inf therefore die.E.fut maiden
You have failed, so the girl will die.
Conditional statements are marked by the future, no matter what the tense of the narrative.
Medludôkh zono razh bo nzhith bits bigo zhakh dzan zono?
die.E.fut he.inf therefore Q own.E may.E I.inf sword of he.inf
If he dies, can I have his sword?

Subordination

Sentential objects

A sentential subject or object is represented by the pronoun nikla, and actually placed either before or after the sentence:
Posh wigo nikla, ghibaç gonavno dzide.
think.D I.resp this.idea / outsmart.E.past foreigner you.inf
I think the foreigner has outsmarted you.

Ghibaç gonavno dzide, posh wigo nikla.
outsmart.E.past foreigner you.inf / think.D I.resp this.idea
The foreigner has outsmarted you, I think.

Pôshtson nikla wigo, khyêf dzide she mwoja nan.
disappoint.D this.idea I.resp / drink.E.past you.inf all beer my.resp
It disappoints me that you drank all of my beer.

Same for sentential subjects, which always take E forms:
Jyin nikla, ghish gonavno lokh Dhêçnam.
weird.E this.idea / know.E foreigner speech Dhekhnam
It’s weird that the foreigner knows Dhekhnami.

Ghish gonavno lokh Dhêçnam, jyin nikla.
know.E foreigner speech Dhekhnam / weird.E this.idea
That the foreigner knows Dhekhnami, that’s weird.

Nikla may be supplemented with nomnikla ‘that idea’ if more than one concept is in play.

The same mechanism may be used to make an entire clause the object of a preposition:

Geniç wigo dzôthno bo Çiylimla lith dhman nikla, shnedemaf wigo tlôkwo dzan zono.
kill.D.past I.resp man in Çiylimla for only this.idea / watch I.resp death of he.inf
In Çiylimla I killed a man, just to watch him die.

Çimbaban shono penath nikla, seban ziw nêth lithdêçno.
escape.D.past he.resp using this.idea / use.D.past clothes like priest
He escaped by dressing as a priest.

Mini-clauses

An entire clause may be topicalized with kshêç. This may be used to set the scene:
Kshêç dhmebaw, dzôban joro.
mention.D.past rain.E / dark.E.past sky
It was raining, and the sky was gray.
Often the subject is the same as the main sentence (and thus omitted); these mini-clauses are similar to our use of an introductory or final participial clause.
Kshêç bzhoban geglêdlagh mim, gzhabaf dzoshiw.
mention.D hear.E.past pl-word this / shudder.E.past human
Hearing these words, the human shuddered.
A different subject may be used, but the sentence shouldn’t be too long. Such clauses are an alternative to using zhmin ‘and’, but feel more closely tied to the main clause. And in the spirit of topicalization, they shouldn’t be used to introduce important information— as in the above sentences, they refer to previous events or add minor details.

Nominalization

A sentence may be nominalized with the subject stated with dzan and the object with rush:
Chawash gogodat wiwigo.
educate.B.past-pl pl-ktuvok we.resp
The ktuvoks educated us.

→ dlachwo dzan gogodat rush wiwigo.
education of pl-ktuvok to we.resp
The ktuvoks’ education of us

An alternative is a where-clause:
→ eraw kath chawash gogodat wiwigo.
here being educate.B.past-pl pl-ktuvok we.resp
where the ktuvoks educated us

Relative clauses

Relative clauses can be formed in two ways. One is to use the participles -iw and -ogh, much as in Munkhâshi:
Thewaf godat shujyoshno.
eat.B ktuvok court-man
The ktuvok ate the lawyer.

→ godat thewadiw (shujyoshno)
ktuvok eat.B.past-pres.part court-man
The ktuvok who ate (the lawyer)

→ shujyoshno thebavogh (godat)
court.man eat-D.past.-past.part (ktuvok)
the lawyer who was eaten (by the ktuvok)

The choice of participle tells you the case role of the head noun— e.g. thewatogh in the last sentence tells you that the lawyer was eaten, not eating.

The participle can be marked for tense, negated, or affixed as usual. It’s not marked for rank, except in the choice of tense infix— and that agrees with the head noun, not its subject. Note the difference between thewadiw and thebavogh above, agreeing with the ktuvok and the lawyer respectively, though the eating was done by the ktuvok in both cases.

Though -iw/-ogh can be compared to our present/past participles, the distinction is really active vs. passive, as each can take tense infixes.

The other method is an appositive phrase

kath (sentence with 3rd person referring to head)
which may be rendered “being the one who...”
Gwêbath pêkso dzan shujyoshno khôkshe dzan zono.
sell.D.past wife of lawyer boat of 3s.resp
The lawyer’s wife sold his boat.

→ khôkshe kath gwêbath pêkso zozh
boat being sell.D.past wife it
the boat which the wife sold.

→ pêkso kath gwêbath shozho khôkshe
wife being sell.D.past she.resp boat
The wife who sold the boat

In this usage kath is not declined.

The kath method is more colloquial, and more suited to complex sentences. The participle method sounds more formal and concise, but sounds awkward if the clause is very complex (e.g. it has multiple constituents, or subclauses of its own).

Causatives

The causative ôs- (ôz- before a voiced consonant) changes the argument structure of a verb:
C causes [V S O] → ôsV C S rush O
Globam zhghôno shiŋgera.
drop.E.past sailor anchor
The sailor dropped the anchor.

Osklobam okhôkshe zhghôno rush shiŋgera.
cause-drop.D.past captain sailor against anchor
The captain made the sailor drop the anchor.

The verb of course agrees in rank and number with the new subject.

The rush clause can be omitted if the original object is obvious (i.e. where we’d use ‘it’).

Adverbials

Time expressions

Single-word time expressions go after the verb:
Bôtladôruda ôkhpa wiwigo. Bôtladôda mêgneleth wiwigo.
invade.D.future.not-pl never we.resp / invade.D.future-pl tomorrow we.resp
We will never invade. We will invade tomorrow.
while prepositional phrases go after the subject and direct object:
Podôwo gepukh wiwigo bo lachwath mêglero.
do.D.future-pl may.D we.resp in early.summer later
We may do it next summer.
A bare NP can’t be a time expression; a preposition must be supplied, like bo in the example. Compare çin lachwath ‘before/until summer’, çir lachwath ‘after/since summer’.

A time clause is a kath relative clause. This is most easily seen when it modifies a time noun:

Dhmebaw bo neleth kath zôkh dzide.
rain.E.past in day being be.born.E.past you.inf
It rained on the day you were born.
If there’s no noun, use one of the time deictics and move it to the end of the sentence:
Jabach miso wen mêgle kath zôkh dzide.
cry.D.past mother your.inf that.time being be.born.E.past you.inf
Your mother cried when you were born.

Place expressions

Place expressions work the same way: single words after the verb; prepositions and kath clauses at the end of the sentence.
Pebaga bigoshiw wiwigo.
mate.D.past-pl here we.resp
We had sex here.

Pebaga wiwigo gway myedet.
mate.D.past-pl we.resp on table
We had sex on the table.

Pebaga wiwigo zojiw kath ribaç dzide.
mate.D.past-pl we.resp there.distal being sleep.E.past you.inf
We had sex over there where you were sleeping.

Meçirush wigo rêgh kath sôbakh.
incep-know.D.past.neg I.resp house being be.born.D.past
I’ve forgotten the house where I was born.

Semantic fields

The day

The day (neleth) is divided into 32 hours (khora). The day runs from sunrise to sunset, which are always hours 0 and 16— that is, the length of the hours varies over the year, and daytime hours are different length than nighttime. The earliest clocks (shernu) were Kebreni imports with fixed hours, but now variable-hour clocks are made.

Thus, at the equinoxes only, the khora is 3/4 of a Verdurian hour or 9 meguî, about 46 of our minutes.

hour time gloss Verdurian
0 ragla sunrise 0h
0 - 8 gzhôgle morning
8 gwaykosh noon 6h
8 - 16 tôkli afternoon
16 denagla sunset 12h
16 - 24 çirnagla evening
24 kodojama midnight 18h
24 - 32 tsama night
For precise work the hour is divided into 64 dlêpwogh or ‘movements’ of about 43 seconds each, and these can be subdivided again into 64 ôshdleç about 2/3 second each.

For scientific work it’s common to use the 24 hours of Eretald, using terms borrowed from Kebreni (mur ‘hour’, graymnu ‘megua, 1/12 hour’) with the decimal numbers.

Calendar

The calendar is essentially the Munkhâshi one, but leap days have been regularized. (Due to the time this was done, the year starts a few days after the vernal equinox.) The preference is to add two days every ten years, so the calendar is still apt to be a day off from the Verdurian one.
name season Verdurian
1   dzupwo spring 6 olašu to 15 cuéndimar
2 lachwath early summer 16 cuéndimar to 24 calo
3 iycho late summer 25 calo to 6 želea
4 zhgatwo fall 7 želea to 15 šoru
5 zhmath winter 16 šoru to 21 bešana
The year (jan) is divided into five ‘months’ (dleç, 64-day periods) and 41 eightdays (nelêdzu). The last of these doesn’t belong to any month and is called a nelêdzu seruriw ‘loose week’; the leap days if any are teneleth seruriw ‘loose days’.

Years are numbered from the medhêkwo (‘repurification’), the incorporation of Demóshimor into the empire in 2712. Thus the current year is 768 = 14008 = sev inçi-dleç.

Pejoratives

Though all of the pejorative resources of Munkhâshi are available, some are less used, and some new ones have developed. The most productive current methods: Saying words backwards as in Munkhâshi is no longer used colloquially, though a number of slang words derive from the process.

These can be combined, in the order shown (e.g. bêksoblawthgên) but the effect is more humorous than angry.

Names

In Demóshimor there’s a relatively small stock of personal names— generally you only need enough to disinguish the hundred-odd people who live in a village. Names tend to be simple and traditional, and clearly indicate the sex. Some examples:
Male Female
Aŋgithno bold one Awthak fox Badla snow Bligra dream
Çidhiw cunning Dheghiw pure Denagla sunset Dharash silver
Dlôkwo honor Dwinwo luck Dhmeçi lake Dhmew rain
Çighiw outsmarter Dzotsu viper Dwajakh stream Dwibla cloud
Dzônwo gray Gemadhiw winner Dwidha wing Êtwe wetlands
Genir gold Gomiw noisy Gedha raven Gemodhiw laugher
Gwatwo victory Gzhôgle morning Êrêth river Glizmu calm
Iycho late summer Khashno rich man Klapso pine girl Klaw lion
Khuvna snake Kinno hunter Klisso quiet girl Kshama waterfall
Kor spider Kwadhiw fiery Lajwar lapis lazuli Medziw good
Madhe oak Mêtlo scale Môŋge woods Nadeghogh given
Morno homelander Mwôdhiw fattie Ôstêghiw enricher Ôthyotso attractive
Ôkwe falcon Pshighogh esteemed Pidziw flier Plachyu wood
Pwoghiw finder Rishno home man Sable jewel Sansogh little beauty
Rodhiw near one Seghiw fighter Sibla bird Siviw singer
Shiçar stone Shidziw sharp Taji deer Tlêfna snail
Tlôkhno pleasant Tsama night Tleso sea girl Tsegeth rapids
Tsigaro sandy Tsimno spear man Tsônso dark girl Uda star
Uvno iron Wôkhno second Zhêgwe rabbit Zhgatwo autumn
Zhakhno swordsman Zontodhiw returner Zhmath winter Zogat little Sogat
There’s also a stock of ancient names of unknown meaning, such as these:
Male Female
Awka Khajaw Benaja Pibwa
Manshu Thôgwa Shatla Tleja
Almost everyone will have a nickname as well, despective or punning, used by their superiors.

If more specification is needed, add the name of the dhlêç or clan, in the plural: Shiçar Kokor, Shiçar of the Spiders, Tsegeth Gegedha Tsegeth of the Ravens.

Ktuvok names tend to have two elements, eg. Dzotsunariw ‘red viper’. As they give their names to the trêm, these can be used to give someone’s origin: Shiçar dzan Dzotsunariw, Shiçar of the Dzotsunariw trêm.

In cities, where there are many more people, it’s common to give children two names— e.g. Genir Mêtlo. The second can then be reduced to a single syllable: Genir-mê. Curiously, the second name often belongs to the other sex, though with -no/-so ‘corrected’; e.g. Morno Klino.

City dwellers can also be identified by their clan or trêm. If they move to another city, however, they’re likely to be known by their origin: Morno-kli çin Baykhan, Morno Klino from Baykhan.

As noted above, titles precede the name: ôtlar Genir, mayor Genir. Such a person is never addressed by the name alone, except by far superiors. For direct address, the title alone is also rare: you call the judge oshujyosh Madhe, not just oshujyosh.

Examples

See also the set of sample sentences set by ZBB members as a translation challenge.

Conversation

If you’ve carefully read and absorbed this grammatical sketch and then visit Ornakh, a typical encounter with a resident might go like this.
Demothno: Dzaw bigoshiw dzide.
Demoshi-man / exist.E. here you.inf
Demoshi: Hello. (Lit., You are here.)

Dzide: Shetsu dzaw bigo.
you.inf / indeed exist.E I.inf
To be polite, you accept the inferior (E) role. The Demoshi does not demur.
You: Hello. (Lit., Yes I am.)

Ruju dzaw dhnêsh wen?
where exist.E tattoo your.inf
D: Where is your tattoo?

Tlash klêth shidhe?
what say.D you.resp
You: What?

Dhnêsh wen. Nzhith tlajiw chyem dzide?
tattoo your.inf / own.E which trêm you.inf
D: Your tattoo. What trêm do you belong to?

Uy, gwôruth wigo nzhith chyem pwashi, denish gzhuth çin Oykumene kath udadzu tlim.
oh / hit.E.not I.inf own.E.not trêm no / because come.E away Oikumene being planet another
Note the passive in the first sentence.
‘Oikumene’ is a nonce word you borrow from Verdurian.
You: Oh! I don’t have a trêm, I’m from Oikumene. Another planet.

Ne, gath dzide gonavno. Bo bwakh dzide nam nan?
ah / be.E you.inf foreigner / Q enjoy.E you.inf country my.resp
D: Ah. You’re a foreigner. How do you like our country?

Megzhuth bigoshiw bigo. Giruch eraw bigo.
begin-come.E here I.inf / know.E.not now I.inf
You: I just arrived here. I don’t know yet.

Kath tsaruliw, tsôyla kath glêthe mumuchyeno nikla. Zhin zh ghash nam.
true.E.not-pl that.far.thing being say.E.pl pl-Verdurian that.idea / peaceful.E and rich.E country
D: It is nothing like what the Verdurians say. It’s peaceful and prosperous.

Bo shawa bigoshiw gogodat? Demaf ghyith godat at.
Q exist.B-pl here pl-ktuvok / see.E want.E ktuvok one
You: Are there ktuvoks here? I want to see a ktuvok.

Porush wigo. Nadha bo êdêtwegash sheno.
believe.D.not I.resp / live.A-pl in pl-wetlands-great everyone
D: I don’t think so. They all live in the Great Wetlands.

Bo dzaw widotwo chutogh?
Q exist.E visit help-pass.part
You: Is there a tour?

Poruw.
no
D: No.

Tlash dzaw kath demaf shêfdoth bo Ornakh?
what exist.E being see.E must.E in Ornakh
You: What is there to see in Ornakh?

Gwejiw zh Tsenatkash zh Dlôgla lith bebeŋgenighogh dzan shushuzhno zh Chajiw dzan shômmapwo.
market and temple-great and monument for pl-murder-past.part of pl-iliu and college of espionage
D: The market, the Great Temple, the monument to the victims of the iliu, the Spy College.

Ne, mets shidhe.
ah good.D you.resp
You: Ah, thank you. (Lit., you are good)

Glêth medziw dzide lokh Dhêçnam.
speak.E good-act.part you.inf language Dhekhnam
D: You speak Dhekhnami well.

Mets shidhe.
good.D you.resp
You: Thank you.

Toth wigo. Po-bwakh gochwo wen.
go.D I.resp / imp-enjoy stay your.inf
D: Goodbye (lit., I go). Enjoy your stay.

Mets shidhe, doth bigo.
good.D you.resp / go.E I.resp
You: Thank you, goodbye.

Letter to Mútkün

This is a diplomatic letter from the Rêghkash lith Gogonavno, the Mansion for Foreigners— the diplomatic headquarters of Dhekhnam in Ornakh— to the nashtori of Mútkün, the Dhekhnami client state on the Eärdur, in 3462. It was intercepted by the Verdurian Palace Guard on a dark night in an inn in the town of Asciu, in the Western Wild. Spies prefer to land at Cama to minimize their transit through Verdurian territory, but as there is no effective authority in the Western Wild there’s also no obstacle to the activities of the Guard.

By Almean standards it was a surgical operation. The carrier was quietly killed; the letter was taken to Verduria to be translated. It was determined that the contents were not worth a show of force that would make the Guard’s interception obvious; the letter was given to a shady agent who gave it to another, who was simply told to deliver it to the nashtori. No reply was found, but this was not unusual; it was exceptional to intercept such a letter.

The letter refers to raids conducted along the Nämbo/Nao river, always a point of interest for Verduria because there is a tiny swath of Verdurian-speaking territory just north of the border, the town of Fsernáe, lost in Utu’s reign. Tomao erected the castle of Venceo (‘victory’) at the border; Mútkün calls it Naokalen ‘Nao castle’. The local place names are nonce imports from Barakhinei, excepf for Eradwor which is Sarroc.

The Verdurians considered the political advice in the letter to be cynical or propagandistic— the Dhekhnami were hardly beneficient overlords in Sarnáe, were they? But to the Dhekhnami, Sarnáe was under misrule— i.e. under human rule— and had to be reduced before it was remade as a prosperous ktuvok empire. Mere oppression was no goal of the ktuvoks; they pointed to human tyrants and warlords are evidence that humans left to their own devices would do evil to their own.

The verbs are a good illustration of the relative nature of the rank hierarchy: the nashtori is a king, but as he’s subservient to Dhekhnam he gets the inferior (E) forms.

Shêv gogodat zh Gelat moniw kath ghodho shoshono dhakhno, çir pwithno dzan Mutkhin.
by.order.of pl-ktuvok and Gelalh strong-act.part being rule.B-pl they.resp both / to ruler of Mútkún
Typical opening line of a letter.
Pwith is to govern in accordance with ktuvok rule— i.e. legitimately—so pwithno is a title for allied leaders; non-allied kings are referred to with the borrowed dawlo. Compare goth also seen here, which is to rule as gods and ktuvoks do.
In the name of the Masters and of Gelálh who rules us both.

Ôzzhin nikla wiwigo, rushgêbaç dzide bo tabwi Naw.
please.E this.idea we.resp / provoke.E.past you.inf in valley Nämbo
We are pleased with your provocations along the Nämbo valley.

Ôzmwidôç nikla awksim dzan mumuchyeno.
make-busy.E.fut this.idea army of pl-Verdurian
Verdurians are ‘coyotes’, from the use of the coyote as a standard by Estdorot; the coyote is admired by Verdurians, despised by Dhekhnami.
They will keep the Verdurian army busy.

Gath nomnikla nyoja aw; bodôrush nikla, mebwidôth dzide char Nawkalen.
be.E that.idea goal one / think-E.fut.not this.idea / conquer.fut.E you.inf city Venceo
This is the sole purpose; do not think that you will conquer Venceo.

Wisedôç dzide dzadh razh benudôkh; nzhithi ghyidi shêç mumuchyeno tabwi Eradwor.
tease.fut.E you.inf dog therefore bite.fut.E / own.E-pl want.E-pl much pl-Verdurian valley Eärdur
Future + razh is the sign of a conditional, which makes it clear that this isn’t an order to tease.
If you tease a dog he will bite; the Verdurians would love to control the Eärdur.

Zhwôtho pepenatwo wen rush ayayfar.
solid-E-pl pl-method your.inf against pl-baron
Your methods with the barons are sound.

Ôwmin çindemadôruf dzide gatwo dzan katsukh.
however ignore-fut.E.not you.inf status of rabble
However, do not neglect the condition of the rabble.

Garuth gnêmwo dzan Gelat nikla, gath dzide ruchino.
be.E.not command of Gelálh this.idea / be.E you.inf bandit
It is not the way of Gelálh to be a bandit.

Bwith dzide zh nzhith dzide shela kath nzhidi zodzono; razh lith tlash mwadôth çin zodzono?
rule.E you.inf and own.E you.inf everything being own.E-pl they.inf / therefore for what steal.E.fut away.from they.inf
You are a ruler and all they own, you own; why then steal from them?

Ôzbodôth ruzhnikla dzide zodzono rush ayayfar, lithmin dzakha katsukh dzide klêthe dwêçno.
protect.fut.E instead you.inf they.inf against pl-baron / in.order.to name.E.fut-pl rabble you.inf say.E-pl save-man
Instead, protect them from the barons, so that they see you as a deliverer.

Mebwêdôruç shêftodôth dzide tsenat bo Khavuy.
begin-build.E.fut.not must.E.fut you.inf temple in Kgavuy
The formidable first word is just the imperative terminative of ‘build’. You must also finish the temple in Kgavuy.

Rushjêbe zhêruthe ayayfar, ôwmin zhêthe Endawo.
oppose.E-pl exceed.E.not-pl pl-baron / however exceed.E Enäron
The barons are not your worst enemy; Enäron is.

Demadôf penath dhnala roromat bigo.
see.B.fut-pl using mercy pl-god I.inf
A direct quote from the liturgy (see next example) and a common letter closing. May Gelálh look kindly on us.

Liturgy

This is the same text as used in the Munkhâshi grammar, presented for comparison. It’s not entirely a fair comparison, as the syntax and word choices are rather archaic— indeed, such texts are some of our evidence for Munkhâshi lexicon and syntax.

Modern Gelalhát is largely monotheistic, due to the influence of Jippirasti; references to the Six Gods are taken as aspects of Gelálh... or simply ignored. Note that in the modern passage above, only Gelálh is mentioned.

Kshudu bigoshiw lithmin dzôdôtho bigo roromat plêç.
come.D-pl here in.order.to worship.D.fut-pl I.inf pl-god six
Modern usage would require khuba ‘we’, but this is closer to the Munkhâshi use of pure deictics.
The Munkhâshi bin- construction was no longer understood; the modern lithmin was substituted for it.
We come here to worship the Six Gods.

Nadhewaçe gogodat dzojôgla dzan shono, zhmin shukhu lith dzojoshiw.
give.B.past-pl pl-ktuvok pl-name of he.resp and intercede.B-pl for pl-human
Tsukh now means ‘care for (medically)’ except in liturgy.
The Masters taught us their names and constantly intercede for humans.

Katha gogodat roromat nan, chôchwin katha roromat plêç roromat dzan gogodat.
be.B-pl pl-ktuvok pl-god my.resp / likewise be.B-pl pl-god six pl-god of pl-ktuvok
The Masters are our gods; the Six Gods likewise are gods to the Masters.

Shaw gway shela Gelat moniw; demadôf dzoshiw shono razh tzajadôruw.
exist.B above everything Gelálh strong-act.part / see.E.dubit human he.resp therefore live.E.fut.not
In modern usage the locative should appear after Gelat moniw.
Above all is Gelálh the mighty; a human who sees him will not live.

Shne shono shaw Sogat ôsshôwagiw pôsh the roromat tlim.
next.to he.resp exist.B Tsôkálh bear.B.past-act.part below sea pl-god other
At his side is Tsôkálh who bore the other gods under the sea.

Khath Ogash romat dzan gzhimu zh zômwo, zhmin ôsshaw çidhiw Koykash.
be.B Ulgâsh lord of war and destruction / and create.B be.cunning-act.part Korkâsh
Due to semantic change, Korkâsh now sounds decidedly underhanded.
Ulgâsh is the lord of war and destruction, Korkâsh the crafty creator.

Nzhith Khuvnakh rafne ôthefiw zh nzhith Tsakhwashi Tlegash demôshiw.
own.B Kumnatnâk soil make-eat-act.part / own.B Chakprashi sea ancient-act.part
To modern ears this sounds like the ocean is being called Demoshi rather than primeval.
The fertile soil belongs to Kumnatnâk, the primeval sea to Chakprashi.

Ôzzhinin lilithdêkwo shidhe; ôzzhinin dzojôkwo dzan gogodat shithe.
make-favorable.E-request pl-sacrifice you.resp / make-favorable.E-request pl-intercession of pl-ktuvok you.resp
As the deictics became pronouns, this has moved from 3rd to 2nd person.
Dzôkwo is now usually ‘medicine’.
May our sacrifices please you; may the prayers of the Masters please you.

Ôswothin bigo zh sôrumin; ôzdzothin gwikwo dzan shide.
protect.B-request I.inf and destroy.B.not-request / abate.E-request anger of you.resp
May you protect us and not destroy us; may your anger abate.

Bobwotho bigo kath kakatsukh gwôzhiw.
iter-stray.D-pl I.inf being pl-hair weak-act.part
The iterative survived in very early texts such as this one.
We are prone to sin, being weak animals.

Oydzôtho bigo gogodat lithmin demadôf penath dhnala roromat bigo.
order-worship.D-pl I.resp pl-ktuvok in.order.to see.B.fut-pl using mercy pl-god I.inf
Another rare survival: the imperative oy- from Munkhâshi or-.
May we be fitting servants of the Masters so the gods look kindly on us.

Lexicon

To save space, only the D form of verbs is indexed. If you’re looking up a verb beginning with a fricative or voiced consonant, remember the consonant mutations.

Blue italics in the etymology indicate Munkhâshi forms; black italics refer to Dhekhnami forms unless another language is cited.

The second column gives irregular or unexpected forms.

Word count: 1140

addhmanno n monotheist, strong believer in Jippirasti-inspired reformation of Gelalhát
addhmanwo n monotheism, revivalism [at dhman ‘only one’]
af ab- n horde, mass [ap]
ançêm n belly, guts (desp. slang)
aneleth adv at any time [‘any day’]
aŋgêth aŋkh/ v bother, infuriate, get on one’s nerves [ngêt]
aŋgith 0 v be brave, bold [ngit]
aŋgitwo ŋ- n bravery, courage, valor; boldness [ngitmu]
aŋŋa n- n hand [ankna]
at # a, an, one [alh]
aw # 1 [Sarroc au]
Awka n male name [Alka]
awksim p- n army [apktsem]
Awndor n Andor, the crypto-Gelálhist god of the 1800s [Sarroc Aondor]
awthak p- n fox [althak]
ayfar ay- n baron, foreign feudal lord [Sarroc aifar]
badhno n father [badno]
badhnomu n parenthood, fatherhood [badnomu]
badla n snow [bâtla]
bajath # sixteen [bajat]
barkh n ford [barkh]
bath v snow [bât]
Baykhan n a city on a tributary of the Tmekh [Barkhran]
bazh # eight [baj]
beçar n goat [bekhar]
bedha n skirt [bêdha]
Bedhódnam n Qaraumia [pdhótnonam]
bedhoth 0 v be shamed or shameful; be naked [pdhot]
bedhôthno bo/ n Qarau [pdhotno‘naked man’]
bedhôtwo bo/ n shame; nakedness, nudity [bdhotmu]
beginla bi/ n door [bkenla]
beje n skin [bêche]
bembazh # 56 [pnapaj]
bemêgla be/ n platform, stage [bmêkla]
bemêkwo n flatness [bmêkmu]
bemêç 0 v be flat [pmêk]
bemôth 0 v solve, fix [pmôt]
benakh 0 v extend, thrust into [pnak]
benaçiw be/ n pitchfork [pnakil]
Benaja n female name [Pnacha]
benath # seven [pnat]
bendemaf 0 v see falsely, be deluded (into seeing) [‘see falsely’]
bendemapwo n illusion, delusion
benên be/ n mountain [pnân]
benichwo n smell, odor [bnichmu]
benim 0 v stink [bnim]
benimo n stink, stench
benish v smell [pnich]
benith 0 v buy [pnit ‘acquire’]
benitwo n purchase [bnitmu ‘acquisition’]
benôgla be/ n cape (of land); extrusion, point [bnakla]
benôkh 0 v follow
benôghash v be zealous (esp. religiously)
benôghashwo n zeal, ardor
benôghashno n zealot, patriot, one especially devoted to the ktuvoks and/or Gelálh (with some connotation of excess)
benorath bu/ n immature ktuvok [pnurat]
benukh 0 v bite; chew [pnuk]
benuth v serve, work for [pnut]
benuthno n servant, employee [pnutno]
benutwo n service, employment [bnutmu]
beŋgeniç v murder [pneknik ‘kill falsely’]
beŋgenighogh n murder victim, martyr
bigo pron I (inf.) [biko ‘this one’]
bigoshiw pron here [bikoshil]
biŋgwêshmo n privilege, right [bingwêchmu]
biŋgwêshmo shêv bonavno right (as a citizen)
bitle n louse [bilhe]
bitsmo n flight; permission [bitsmu]
blawejiw n shithole; shitty neighborhood [blawechil ‘dung heap’]
blawth n shit [blawet]
blêchwo n condescension [blêchmu ‘graciousness’]
bligra n dream [blhikla]
bludla n mill, any very large mechanical installation [blutla]
bludlagh n device, machine [‘little machine’]
blutwo n milling; assimilation (of conquered peoples) [blutmu]
bo pt question particle [pol ‘do’]
bo prep in, inside []
bodêchwo n fullness
bodhêkwo n conscience [‘inner morality’]
bodojiw n entrance [bôtochil]
bodoth v enter [bôtot]
bogemor 0 v insert, put inside [‘put in’]
boghnêth v be empty [‘inside-white’]
boghnêtwo n emptiness
bokshuth bokth- v come inside, enter
bômwon 0 v penetrate [bômron]
Bômwôndo n a city on the Orum [Bômrondo]
bonamiw a domestic, national [‘inside country’]
bonavno n citizen
bônwo n heat [bunmu]
bopliç v dream [intens. of plhik]
boshela adv entirely, completely [‘in everything’]
botêç v be full (contents take penath) [‘in-black’]
bôtlath 0 v invade [bôtlhat]
botlôv n traitor [‘inner enemy’]
bôtwo n safety [botmu]
Brakhún n Barakhún [Barakhinei]
brêtwo n connection; implication, deduction [bdêtmu]
bwadla pa- pron many things [pwatla]
bwajiw pa- pron many places [pwachil]
bwakh v enjoy, have fun [pwâk]
bwaneleth adv at most times, mostly [‘most days’]
bwath q many [pwat]
bwathno pron many men [pwatno]
bwêç v read [Caď. ivrec]
bwêçna n face; attitude, spirit [brêkna]
bwêkwo n architecture, construction [brêkmu]
bwen 0 v be clean [pwên[
bwenwo n cleanliness [bwênmu]
bwitwo n human government, rule [britmu]
bwôkwo n enjoyment, fun [bwâkmu]
bwosh 0 v fart [pwuch]
bwoth v sin, commit a crime [pwot ‘wander, sin’]
bwôtwo n sin, vice [bwotmu ‘wandering, sin’]
chadza ta- pron sometimes [tlatsa]
chaf v be standing; be situated or located [tlap]
chajiw ta- n school [tlachil]
char ta- n city, town [tlar]
chash v raise (crops or children), grow, educate [tlach]
chashno ta- n teacher [tlachno]
chath v bow; submit [tlat]
chaynappa ta- n capital [tlarnampa]
chêdhna te- n mole [tledna]
chêdhnadzu te- n icëlan [tlednadzu ‘big mole’]
chêf v move, act; behave; (objects) work, function [tlêp]
cheje te- n ktuvok’s head frill; (metaphorically) reach, glory [tleche]
chejero a frilled; glorious [tlechedo]
chêkwi te- n cavalry [tlekmi ‘horse’]
chêkwino te- n horseman, rider [tlekmino]
chêkwiso te- n horsewoman, female rider [tlekmisho]
chino n barley beer [tleno]
chith v cut [tlit]
chor pron that (distal) [tlor]
chorush v be different [neg. of chosh]
chosh v be the same [tloch]
chôchwin cj likewise, in the same way [tlochmen]
chôth # x8 = 2,097,152 [shtôt]
chukh v remove [tluk]
Chyelagh n Tyellakh (the Almeological spelling is the local pronunciation) [Trêlag ‘little south’]
chyelaghno te- n Tyellakhi [trêlagno]
chêkhyith n magnet [trêlkrit]
chyêsh v ally [trêch]
chyin 0 v be weird, strange [trin]
chyem te- n the estate or territory of a single ktuvok [trêm]
chyôsh n need, lack [trôch]
chyow te- n south [trêl]
Çemath n a river in Demóshimor [Khmâth]
çêçke n savanna, scrubland [khekke]
çeniç 0 v snore [khnik]
çeth n farm [khet]
çiç 0 v outsmart, outdo [thkik]
çima shi- n pig; (slang) farmer [shkhima]
çimpan v toss out, discard, abandon, throw away [throw away’]
çimpits n escape [‘fly away’]
çin prep away from; before, until (in time) [khin]
çinchêf v move away, back off
çindemaf 0 v ignore, fail to pay attention [‘away-observe’]
çindenif 0 v count backwards, count down
çindo a far
çinnadeç çinnadh- v give away
çinshemo n distinctness, particularity, eccentricity [‘away from all-ness’]
çinshero a distinct, particular, eccentric; egregious
çinsin v walk away
çintaf v grab, snatch [‘away-take’]
çintoth v go away, leave
çiŋga cj before [‘before’ + Mun. time subordinator]
çiŋkath v be far away [kinkath]
çir prep to, toward; after, since (in time) [kir]
çir- + prone to, tending to
çirnagla n evening [‘after sunset’]
çirga cj then, subsequently [‘after’ + Mun. time subordinator]
çish 0 v know, know how; can, able to [kich]
çith 0 v be cunning, underhanded [shkit]
Çiylimla n a city on the eastern Demoshi coast [Kirlimla]
Dagêsh n mountains west of Demóshimor [Dakêsh]
dakh n west [dak]
dapwo n seizure [dapmu]
darath n island [darat]
dawlo n foreign non-allied (thus not really legitimate) king [Sarroc daolo]
dawlonam n kingdom
dayno n paper [Sarroc daino]
demaf 0 v see [tmap]
demapwo n vision, sight
Demêç n the Tmekh river in central Dhekhnam [Tmêkh]
demêth 0 v should [tmêt ‘must’]
demitlo di/ n plateau [tmilho]
Demóshimor do/ n a region of Dhekhnam [Tmôtimor ‘Demoshi-home’]
Demôshiw do/ a a city in Demoshimor [tmôtil]
demôth 0 v be first or ancient; an ethnonym (be Demoshi) [tmôt]
demôthno do/ n a male Demoshi [tmôtno]
demotso do/ n a female Demoshi [tmôtsho]
denagla da/ n setting (of an astronomical body); sunset [dnakla]
denakh 0 v be old [tnâk]
denakwo da/ n oldness, age [dnakmu]
denath 0 v be heavy, weigh; be a duty [tnat]
denatwo da/ n heaviness, weight; duty
deneç 0 v be blue [tnek]
denetha n moon [tnetna]
Denêthnom n Iliažë, the brightest moon [Tnetnanum]
Denêtlor n Iliacáš, the second-brightest moon [Tnetnatlor]
denif 0 v count [tnip]
denifno n trader, merchant [tnipno ‘accountant’]
denish cj because [tnish]
denor prep between [tnur]
denôyla du/ n road [tnurla]
dêç # ten, plus-two (in octal system) [Caď. dect]
dêth # 10 [Sarroc]
dhada da- n dust [ddhata]
dhakh # two [dhak]
dhakhno pron a couple, a pair (men) [dhakno]
dharash n silver [dharach]
dheç v be pure; be moral [dhek]
Dhêçnam n Dhekhnam [Dheknam ‘pure land’]
dhegat n chief priest [dhekalh]
dhêkwo n purity; morality, goodness [dhekmu]
dhêpwo n eating [dhepmu]
dhi prep containing, including [tdhi]
dhlêç n clan, work unit (Munkhâshi kukla); flock, herd [dhlêk]
dhman adv only, merely [dhman]
dhmeçi n lake [dhmeki]
dhmew 0 v rain [dhmel]
dhmêwla n rain [dhmella]
dhnala n mercy, compassion, forbearance [dhnala]
dhnêsh n pattern; tattoo [dhnêsh]
dhôgla pron a pair of things [dhakla]
dhôkso pron a couple, a pair (women) [dhaksho]
dhnora n mold (for making things), model [dhnuda]
dhnoradzu n archetype, template [‘big model’]
dhôsh n robe, wrapped upper garment [dhôch]
dhu # 2 [Sarroc ďu]
dhwosh n flax [dhewush]
di # 3 [Sarroc]
din pron your (resp.) [-din D possessive]
dlachwo n education [dlachmu]
dlatwo n bow; submission
dleç # 82 = 64 [dlhek]
dlêpwo n movement, action [dlêpmu]
dlêpwogh n instant, moment; 1/64 of a khora [‘little movement’]
dlôchwo n sameness [dlochmu]
dlôkwo n honor, prestige [dlhukmu]
dlôgla n monument [‘honor thing’]
dwajakh n stream, brook [twachak]
dwasha n tip, end, butt; (slang) spear [twasha]
dwêç v save, rescue, liberate [twêk]
dwêçno n liberator, rescuer
dwêkwo n saving, rescue, liberation [twêkmu]
dweron v be unlucky, be unfortunate [twerun]
dwibla ti- n cloud [twipla]
dwidha n wing [dwidha]
dwin v be lucky, be fortunate [twen]
dwinwo di- n luck [twenmu]
dzadh dzaj- n dog [jadh]
dzajash v bawl, cry intensely
dzan prep of, belonging to [jan]
dzash v cry [jach]
dzawmu n life, existence [jalmu]
dzêts dzej- n shoe, boot [jêts]
dzêtsno n member of the elite [‘shoe-man’]
dzibla dzij- n projectile [jipla]
dzide pron you (s. inf.) [jite ‘that one’]
dzideshiw pron there (proximal) [jiteshil]
dzinkwe dzij- n neck [jinkwe]
dzits v be crazy, mad [jits]
dziymo n lightness; clarity [jirmu]
dzôghye # 1/4 [jôkre]
dzôgla dzoj- n name [jakla]
dzôkwo dzoj- n medicine [jukmu]
dzômwo n leg [jômro]
dzônwo n darkness; grayness [jônmu]
dzoshiw dzoj- n human [jôtil]
dzosho n human female, woman
dzôth v worship [jôt]
dzôthno n human male, man
dzotsu dzoj- n viper [jotsu]
dzôtwo n worship [jôtmu]
dzupwo n sowing; spring [jupmu]
dzutwo n help, assistance; guidance, arrangement [jutmu]
êgath êd- n pair, couple [etgat]
êgath pron both, a couple, a pair (male and female) [etgat]
Endawo n Enäron; (by metonym) Caď. paganism [Sarroc]
enle en- n remote relative (farther than first cousin) [ênle]
enleno en- n Eynleyni (i.e. a people related to the Demoshi) [ênleno]
eraw pron now [eral]
erêth r- n river [êrêt]
Eradwor n Eärdur river [Sarroc]
Erinant n Erenát [Caď. Erenantos]
êtwe êd- n wetlands, swamp [etme]
êtwegash êd- n ktuvok habitat [etmekâsh]
Êtwegashdakh the western ktuvok habitat [Etmekâshdak]
Êtwegashlim the eastern ktuvok habitat [Etmekâshlim]
gaga n cliff [gâka]
gaŋkhyi n heart [gankri]
gatwo n status, situation, case [‘beingness’]
bo gagatwo she in all cases, universally
gedha n raven [gedha]
gêgh v fuck [gêg]
geghiw n fucker, bastard [gêgil]
Gelat n the chief god of Munkhâshi paganism [Gelalh]
gemaf 0 v learn, study [kmap]
gemafno n student [kmapno]
gemano ga/ n grandfather [kmano]
gemaso ga/ n grandmother [kmasho]
gemath 0 v defeat, beat, win [kmât]
gemeba n smoke [kmêba]
gemêç 0 v break; destroy by accident, torture to death [kmêk]
gemêsh 0 v outrank, be superior to [kmêch]
gemêshno n superior, someone higher in rank [kmêchno]
gemiç 0 v be angry, mad [kmik]
gemits 0 v scratch [kmits]
gemor 0 v put, set, place [kmur]
gemoth 0 v laugh; mock [kmot]
gên + pejorative suffix [gân]
genakh 0 v be foolish or stupid [knâk]
genakhno n fool, idiot [knâkno]
genath 0 v be fast, quick [knât]
genem 0 v order, command [knêm]
genêsh 0 (sh) v be bad or evil [knêsh]
geniç 0 v kill, execute [knik]
genir n gold [knir]
genokh n be big, large ][knok
genôksha # 1/3 [knuksha]
gepughiw adv perhaps, maybe
gepukh gew- v may, might [gpuk ‘can’]
gepurukh pt on the contrary (denying a negative question [‘can’t (be)’]
gew v be holy, numinous, frightening [gel]
ghine n horse [Carhinnian Ginə]
ghyêbla n drink, beverage [krêpla]
glaja n spring (of water) [glaja]
glêdla n sentence [glhêtla ‘word’]
glêdlagh n word [dim. of glêdla]
gleshu n ankle, wrist [glêtu]
glibla n air, breath [glipla]
glizmu n quiet, calm [glishmu]
glôchwo n fear [glochmu]
glôpwo n feeling, emotion [glopmu]
gnatwo n quickness, speed [gnâtmu]
gnejiw n wilderness, wasteland [gnêchil]
gnêmwo n order, command [gnêmmu]
gnêshmu n badness, evil [gnêshmu]
gnêth 0 v be white; good-for-nothing, nasty [gnêt]
gnikwo n killing [gnikmu]
gnôkwo n size [gnokmu]
go prep outside [go]
goban v send out, launch (e.g. an invasion) [gopan]
Gobando n Govanro, a city at the mouth of the Shkónoro [Gopando]
gobeth v send as an envoy [‘out-speak’]
gobethno n envoy, ambassador, delegate
gochwo n stay, rest, sojourn [gochmu]
godat n ktuvok [gotalh]
godojiw n exit [gotochil]
godoth v exit [gotot]
gom v be noisy [gshum]
gonamiw a foreign [gonamil]
gonavno n foreigner [gonamno]
gopshon 0 v overhear [‘hear outside’]
goshiwno n (human male) master [gotilno]
goshiwso n (human female) mistress [gotilsho]
goth v rule, dominate, master (used of gods or ktuvoks) [got]
gôtwo n divine rule, mastery [gotmu]
Gshomagh n a tributary of the Shkónoro [Gshumag]
gwatwo n victory [gmâtmu]
gway prep above, on top of [kwar]
gwaygemor 0 v set down, put down [‘put-top’]
gwaykosh n noon [kwarkoch]
gwaykshêç v touch [‘above-touch’]
gwaymin cj moreover, plus, on top of that [‘above’ + -min]
gwaytoth v climb, rise [kwartot]
gwejiw n market [kwêchil ‘quay’]
gwêshmu n rank, hierarchy [gmêchmu]
gwêth v sell [kwêt ‘deliver’]
gwêthno n merchant, vendor
gwëtwi n sale [gwêtmu’delivery’]
gwikwo n anger [gmikmu]
gwôsh v be weak, wimpy [gwôch]
gwôshno n wimp [gwôchno]
gwôth v hit; passive marker [kwôt]
gzhaghne # 84 = 4096 [kdhagne]
gzhapwo n shudder, shiver, tremble [bzhapmu]
gzhimu n war [gdirmu]
gzhitwo n desire [gditmu]
gzhôgle n morning [kdhakle]
gzhugla n vomit
ibwo n book [Caď. ibro]
Idhanash n Idanieȟa, capital of Sarnáe [Caď. Ilďaneas]
impazh # 32 [empaj]
iŋgew ŋ- n Englishman [Engel]
inçi # four [enki]
ishto n feather [ichto]
iwni n- n child [inwi]
iwnigath v be childish [inwikat]
iwnino n- n boy [inwino]
iwniso n- n girl [inwisho]
iycho n late summer (third dlhek of the year) [ircho]
izgeche n footnote, comment [Ver. izgečë]
jan da- n year [dshan]
janshe a yearly, annual [dshanshê]
japwo n placement, environment; context [‘standing’]
jath prep around, surrounding [tezhat]
je ge- n fire [gshê]
jôgwa du- n seagull [dshugwa]
Jôgwashiw n an island off the coast of Visecra [Dshugwashil ‘seagull place’]
joro n sky [dshodo]
jyabwa da- n horseradish [drabma]
jyêchwo de- n alliance, coalition [drêchmu]
jyêthda de- n hat, headgear [dretda]
jyinwo di- n strangeness, weirdness
jyôchwo do- n need, lack [drôchmu]
jyon adv back, in revenge or opposition [drun]
kabazh # 24 [kapaj]
kadhin a Caďinorian (after the conquest) [kadhin]
Kadhinash n Caďinas (after the conquest) [Kadhinash]
kakha n eye [kakha]
kash # three [kach]
kash (sh) v be great or proud [kâsh]
kashno n great man, hero [kâshno]
kath v be (predicative) [kat]
cj being, the one who (subordinator)
katsugiw n mammal (must have fur, thus does not include ktuvoks, iliu); insulting term for humans [katsukil]
katsukh n hair, fur; rabble, lower class [katsuk]
katsukhdo a furry, hairy; (metaphorically) ragged, poorly done [katsukdo ]
kebá pr we (inferior) [Carh. əqba]
kêchya n village [kêttra]
Khajaw n male name [Khachal]
khash (sh) v be rich, prosperous [khâsh]
khashk v (slang) be a stiff, be dead as nails
khêp # 7 [Sarroc ȟaip]
khôgla n group, squad, team [kukla]
khokoy n Caďinorian prophet or dissident [Sarroc ȟoacoi]
khôkshe n boat [khakshe]
khol n lingo, slang
khono n magician, sorceror [khulno]
khora n hour [Caď. ȟora]
khoso n female magician, sorceress [khulsho]
khsowor kth- v be unexpected; ambush [kturur]
khuba pr we (inferior) [Carh. Ruba]
khukh v work, labor [kuk]
khukhno n worker, team member; private (non-officer) [kukno]
khukwo n job; career [‘work-ness’]
khuvna n snake [kumna]
Khuvnakh n name of a god associated with the earth [Kumnatnâk]
Khuvnagh n a city on the Shkónoro [Kumnag ‘little snake’]
khuw n magic, arcane power [khul]
khyagash v berate, rail against [augm. of ‘complain’]
khyakh v complain [krak ‘grate’]
khyêf v drink [krêp]
khyi # five [kri]
khyibazh # forty [kribaj]
khyibosh n manuscript, scroll [Caď. crivos ‘scroll’]
khyith 0 v want, desire [krit]
khyiv v write [Caď. crivan]
khyokh 0 v forage, pillage [krok ]
khyoçiw ko- n the Monkhayu [krokil]
kijozh pr who [katil ‘being’ + dzoj ‘that one’]
kimbe n ear [kembe]
kin v hunt [ken]
kinno n hunter [kenno]
Kinshiw n a city along the Tmêkh [Kenshil ‘hunting place’]
klav n pine [klhab]
klaw n lion [klal]
klêth v say, state (object is speech act) [klhêt]
klêth khyith mean, intend
klif v breathe, blow [klip]
klis 0 (sh) v be quiet [klish]
klof v feel [klop]
klolash v shout, yell (things) [klolash intensive of ‘shout’]]
klom 0 v fall [klum]
klosh 0 v fear [kloch]
kluga n grass[klukâ ]
kôchiw n camp [kochshil]
kodo n center, middle [koto]
kodojama n midnight [kotochama]
Kodoro a central; name of a Demoshi city [kótodo]
kor n spider (a favored animal) [kor]
kosh v rest, stay, camp [koch]
Koykash n a god; a city on the Shkónoro [Korkâsh ‘proud spider’]
krawkha n reason, argument [Sarroc curaoȟa]
krawkharo a reasoning
kshaf v shudder, shiver, tremble [pshap]
kshakh v be dead [pshak]
Kshalogh n Naunai, the smallest moon [Kthalogh]
kshama n waterfall [kshama]
kshêç v mention, talk about, consider[pshêk ‘touch’]
prep about; topic marker
kshesh v be dry [ktech]
kshim v piss, urinate [pshim]
kshimla n piss [pshimla]
kshinshil n urethra opening; (slang) vagina [‘piss-place’]
kshir v go to war [ktir ‘fight’]
kshor v be expected, normal [ktur]
kshoth v stop, halt, end [pshot ]
kshukh v vomit [pshuk]
kshuth kth- v come [ktut]
kwath v burn, be on fire; be enraged [kpat]
kthe n mouth; (slang) person [kthe ‘hole’]
lachwath n early summer [lâchmât]
lajwar n lapis lazuli [lajwar]
lakhte n back [lakte]
rush lakhte (carrying) on the back
lashna n people, population [lachna]
latwe n hill [latwe]
lavne n type, kind, class [labne]
lêthni n fruit [letni]
lim n east [lim]
liçcha n saddle [likcha]
liçchaniw a barbarian [likchanil]
liçchano n barbarian, nomad (non-Jippirasti) [likchano ‘saddleman’]
lith prep for, for the purpose of [lit]
lithdêkwo n sacrifice [litndekmu]
lithdeç 0 v sacrifice [litndek]
lithdêçno n priest [litndekno]
lithgemor v organize, arrange [‘for-put’]
lithgemormo n organization, structure
lithmin cj in order that [‘for’ + -min]
litwo n purpose, meaning [‘for-ness’]
lokh n tongue; speech, language [lok]
lônka n wall [lonka]
madhe n oak [madhe]
Manshu n male name [Mantu]
marin n corn (maize) [marin]
math v swim [mat]
mebath mew- v push; haze, pick on inferiors [mbat]
mebatwo n pushing; hazing [mbatmu]
mebitla n dirt, dirtiness [mbitsla]
mebits v be dirty [mbits]
mebwith 0 v conquer [‘begin to rule’]
meça n branch; legion, corps [mekha]
meçirush v forget [negative inceptive of ‘know’]
mêçna n belly, stomach [mekna]
medhêç v reform; reintegrate [incep. of ‘pure’]
medhêkwo n reform, reintegration; incorporation of Demóshimor into Dhekhnam
medzir v become clear, sink in [incep. of ‘clear’]
mêgle adv at that time, later [megle]
mêglero a next, later
mêggath v be later, be late
mêgneleth adv tomorrow [‘later day’]
mejaf v stand up
mejaw v appear; come to be, come into existence [mechal]
mejaruw v disappear, vanish, go away
mepwêf v lie down, recline [‘start to lie’]
mepworukh v lose (something) [‘start to be not-found’]
meshwath v sit down
meshwôth v set, firm up [‘start to be solid’]
mêth v be important [mêt]
mêtwo n importance [mêtmu]
mêtlo n scale [melho]
mêtloro n any scaly animal: reptiles, amphibians, ktuvoks [melhodo]
a scaly; bare, hairless; (metaphorically) elegant, smooth, well done ]
metlukh v die [‘begin to be dead’]
mets v be good [mets]
Mets shidhe. Thank you (lit., you are good)
mêtswo n goodness [metsmu]
mewêç n root [mewek]
mezen v put on (clothing), get dressed [incep. of ‘wear’]
mim pron this [mim]
mimla pr this thing
Minedh n a river in eastern Dhekhnam [Minedh]
Minedhiw n a city on the Minedh [Minedhil]
minso pr this female
miso n mother [misho]
mivno pr this male
môkwa n shell [makma]
mon v be strong [mun]
mônwo n strength [munmu]
môŋge n forest, woods [mônge]
Mônkhash n Munkhâsh [Munkhâsh‘strong-rich’]
mor n home; homeland [mor]
mots v be green
Môyinwe n river passing through the Sarcainor marshes [Morrinwe ‘home-source’]
muchye n coyote; (insulting) Verdurian [mutre]
muchyero a Verdurian
muchyeno n Verdurian [after some Prežeon flags featuring coyotes, a despised beast in Dhekhnam]
Múchyenam n Verduria
Mutkhin n Mútkün [from Barakhinei]
Mwádhonam n name of NW Demóshimor [Mrátnonam‘thief-land’]
mwaf v stab, pierce [mrap]
mwash v be at high tide [mrach]
mwachwo n tide [mrachmu]
mwath 0 v steal [mrat]
mwathno n thief [mratno]
mwatwo n theft [mratmu]
mweth 0 v start, begin [mret]
mwiç 0 v be busy, swarm [mrik ‘buzz’]
mwikwo n business; swarm of bees [mrikmu]
mwima n field [mrima]
mwivno n peasant [mrimno]
mwôkh 0 v lose, be defeated [mrôk]
mwoja n maize beer [mruja]
mwon 0 v grow; reach [mron]
mwosh 0 v wriggle, wiggle [mruch]
mwoshla n maggot [‘wriggler’]
mwôth 0 v be fat, thick [mrôt]
myedet n table [Sarroc miedet]
myol # 1000 [Sarroc miol]
nadêkwo ne/ n gift, offer [ndekmu]
nadeç nadh- v give, offer [ndek]
nadh n trousers [nadh]
najêth # 85 = 32768 [najêt]
nakh n delta; orifice [nâk ‘mouth’]
nam n land, country [nam]
namshe n Almea, the world [‘every land’]
namshekash n the world of the gods; universe, cosmos [‘great world’]
nan pron my (resp.) [-nan C possessive]
nappa n head [nampa]
nappashim n someone from Xengiman [nampapshim‘piss-head’, i.e. blond]
nappat n the ktuvok who owns a chyem [nampálh]
nar v be red [nar]
nashye pron always [nashrê]
nath v live, reside, inhabit [nat]
natwo n place of residence [natmu]
ne interj ah, OK (expresses agreement or understanding)
nêbwi # nine, plus-one (in octal system) [Caď. nebri]
nêç prep across [nêk]
nedabla na/ n container [ndapla]
nedaf v hold, contain [ndap]
nêghzêpwe a intense, extreme [‘across the border’]
nêgla n bridge [nêkla]
nelêdzu te- n eightday (‘week’) [tneledzu]
nelêdzu seruriw end-of-year monthless week
neleje a daily; during the daytime [tnelechê]
neleth te- n day [tnelet]
teneleth seruriw leap day
nêsh prep like, as
nêynêç n sheep [nernêk]
nikla pron this (refers to clauses only) [niko + -la]
nom pron that (proximal) [num]
nomla pr this near thing
nomnikla pron that (refers to clauses only) [nom + nikla]
nonso pr that near female
novno pr that near male
nyakh v hide [nrak]
nyagla n hiding place; lair, den [nrakla]
nyêbri # 9 [Sarroc niebri]
nyif v toss [nrip]
nyin 0 v dance [nrin]
nyinwo n dance [nrinmu]
nyoja n pumpkin, gourd; target, goal [nrocha]
nyukhta n slime; snot, semen [nrukta]
nzhith n own, have, possess [ndit]
nzhitwo 0 v ownership, possession [nditmu]
-ŋêth + pejorative suffix [from gnêth ‘nasty’]
ŋêthno n good-for-nothing, scoundrel [gnêtno ‘wretch’]
ochyêm ul- n governor, leader of a chyem [ultrêm]
ogash ul- n name of a god, associated with war [ulgâsh]
okêchya ul- n village chief [ulkêttra]
okhôkshe ul- n ship or boat captain [ulkhakshe]
ôkhpa pron never [ôkpa]
okukh ul- n sergeant (lowest-level officer) [ulkuk]
ôkwe ôk- n falcon, hawk [akme]
oma prep through [oma]
omala m- n pipe, tube [omala]
omeça ul- n commander of a meça (corps or legion) [ulmekha]
onçêp n hubby (desp. slang)
ondhab n dad (desp. slang)
onifno ul- n treasurer [ultnipno ‘chief accountant’]
onkhath n boss (desp. slang)
onshach n teach, prof (desp. slang)
Ornakh n the capital of Dhekhnam [Orumnâk‘Orum mouth’]
Orom n the major river in Demoshimor [Orum]
ôs- + causative [ôth-]
ôschêf v operate (a machine); make someone work
ôsh- + fraction [ôsh-]
ôshbazh n 1/8 [ôshbaj]
ôshdleç n 1/64; a unit of time, about 2/3 second
ôshkêf v tear [ôthshkêp]
ôshkhyi n 1/5 [ôshkri]
ôshnath n 1/7 [ôshpnat]
oshujyosh n judge [‘lord of court’]
ôshweç n 1/6 [ôshplhek]
ôskhash v enrich [‘make rich’]
ôskhyêf v irrigate; set out water (for animals) [‘make drink’]
osim n ma, Mom (desp. slang)
oskêp n wifey (desp. slang)
ôsklis 0 (sh) v quiet down, shut someone up [‘make quiet’]
ôsklom v drop [‘make fall’]
ôsklosh v terrify [‘make fear’]
ôskshesh v dry, dry out
ôskshoth v finish, make something stop
ôskwath v burn, set on fire; inspire, exhort [‘make burn’]
ôspek v marry off, find a mate for [‘make marry’]
ôspon v heat [‘make hot’]
ôspôsh v prove, demonstrate [ôthpôch ‘convince’]
ôspoth v protect, guard [ôthpot]
ôspwêf v lay down; seduce [‘make lie down’]
ôspwen v clean, wash [pwên]
ôsshin v please, make happy [othshtin ‘assuage’]
ôstêç v blacken; enrich
ôstoth v send away [‘make go’]
ôstsaw v make, create [ôthchal]
ôstsir v lighten; clarify
ôstsôk v bear, give birth [ôthtsôk]
ôstsoth v lessen, reduce, abate [ôthchot]
ôthef v feed [ôththep]
ôthyoth 0 v bring near, attract [ôthrot]
ôtlar n mayor [ultlar]
ôwmin cj however [ôlmen]
ôydemaf adv behold, look [archaic imperative of ‘see’]
ôzbedhoth v shame; strip [‘make naked’]
ôzboghnêth v empty, empty out
ôzbôshwo n proof, demonstration
ôzbotêç v fill, fill up (contents take penath)
ôzbotwo n protection
ôzbwen 0 v clean, wash [‘make clean’]
ôzdêkwo n fulfillment, enrichment
ôzdhêç 0 v purify [‘make pure’]
ôzdzawmu n creation, crafting [othjalmu]
ôzgemiç v anger, madden [‘make angry’]
ôzgwôsh v weaken [‘make weak’]
ôzmon 0 v strengthen; fortify, build up [ôthmun]
ôzmônla th- n fort, castle [ôthmunla]
ôzmwiç 0 v make or keep busy, occupy [‘make busy’]
ôzmwôth 0 v fatten
ôznar 0 v redden; get drunk [‘make red’]
ôznarno n drunkard
oznas n hottie, ho (desp. slang)
ôzrakh v be initiated as an adult, come of age [ôthrak]
ôzrakwo n initiation [ôthrakmu]
ôzroth v bring near, bring together
ôyjo # 88 = 16,777,216 [urjô]
pâdhe n barrier; the Ctelm mountains [pakdhe]
pan v throw, launch [pan]
panthu # 5 [Sarroc panṫ]
pawor # 4 [Sarroc]
peç v marry, mate, have sex [pek]
pêçno n husband [pekno]
pekin pekh- v open [pken]
pêkso n wife [peksho]
peja n blood [pecha]
penath prep using [prênat]
penatwo n method, means; (in pl.) strategy [‘usingness’]
peron # million [Verdurian perun]
pet n tree [pelh]
peth v talk to, speak to [pet]
pêwkho prep without [pelkho]
pêwkhola n absence; hole [‘without-ness’]
Pibwa n female name [Pipra]
piviso n calculus [Ver. piyaviso]
pigo pron this one [piko]
pits v fly; (aux) be allowed to, have permission to [pits]
plachyu n wood [plâtru]
plakhne n bark (of tree); hide (of animals) [plakne]
plebazh # 48 [plhepaj]
plêç # six [plhek]
plêsh 0 v be condescending [plêch ‘be gracious’]
pliç v be bitter [plik]
plondo n coin [Sarroc plaondo}
pluth 0 v mill, grind; assimilate (conquered peoples) [plut]
pluw n worm [plhul]
po- + peer imperative [pol ‘do’]
pôgneleth n yesterday [‘previous day’]
pôkkath v be earlier, sooner
pôkwe pron then, earlier [pakwe]
pôkwero a previous; earlier
pon v be hot; (aux) do intensely [pun]
poragh n pigeon, dove [pudag]
Poraghnam n Eretald [Pudagnam]
poraghno a from Eretald [pudagil]
poraghno n someone from Eretald [pudagno]
porôkso n woman from Eretald [pudagsho]
poruw pt no, not at all [porul neg. of ‘do’]
posh v think, believe; (aux) consider doing, think about doing [poch]
pôsh prep below [pôch]
pôshla n vagina, vulva [‘below-thing’]
pôshno n inferior, someone lower in rank [pôchno]
pôshtoth v lower, go down, climb down [pôchtot]
pôshtson v disappoint [‘pull down’]
poth v be safe [pot]
pow v do [pol]
pshêth 0 v lead to, connect; imply, mean [ptêt]
pshiç v esteem, value [ptit]
pshon 0 v listen, hear [ptun]
pwakh v be nothing, be less than
pwashi q none [prashi]
pwashila pron nothing [prashila]
pwashino pron no man, no one [prashino]
pwashiw pron nowhere [prashil]
pwêgla n building [prêkla]
pwêç 0 v build, construct, erect [prêk]
pwêf v be prone, be lying down [prêp]
pwith v rule, govern (as humans but under ktuvoks) [prit]
pwithno n human male master or ruler; king of an allied state [pritno]
pwicho n human female mistress or ruler; queen of an allied state [pritsho]
pwokh 0 v find [pruk]
rafne n ground, soil, earth [rapne]
ragla n rising (of an astronomical body); sunrise, dawn [rakla]
rakh v be new or young [rak]
rakhno n young man [rakno]
ran n cow, bull, ox [ran]
razh cj therefore [râj]
rêdhna n foot; (insulting) guy, bloke [redna]
rêgh n house [rêg]
rêghkash n mansion, office [‘great house’]
rêgla n family [from ‘house’]
rêglano n male relative
rêglaso n female relative
rêkshe n fog [rêkshe]
rêm # 1/2 [rêm]
riç v sleep [rik]
rikwo n sleep, rest
rigla n bed [rikla]
rinegh n lucre, scratch, moolah (slang)
rinwe n source [rinwe]
rish n home [rish]
rôchwo n dullness, bluntness [rochmu]
rogam n breast [rogam]
rôghne n turnip [rôgne]
rojam n cotton [rojam]
rôkhni n guts, intestines; base nature, id; the self
rôkhniro n following one’s base instincts; selfish
rôkso n young woman, maiden [raksho]
rôkwo n newness, youth [rakmu]
romat n god [rumalh]
rosh v be dull, blunt [roch]
roth v be near [rot]
rôtwo n nearness [rotmu]
ruchino n bandit, gangster [ruchsheno]
ruju pron where [ruju]
rush prep against; marker of original object in causatives [ruch]
rushchêf v oppose, counter [‘move against’]
rushchêpwo n opposition
rushkêç v challenge, provoke [‘against’ + ktêk]
rushkêkwo n challenge, provocation
rushim 0 v wrestle [‘against’ + shtim]
rushimwo n wrestling
ruzhmin cj despite, although [‘against’ + -min]
ruzhnikla adv instead, rather [‘against that’]
sable sats- n jewel, gem [tsaple]
sakh sats- n bone; (slang) penis; sword [tsak]
san v be beautiful [tsan]
sanno sats- n handsome man [tsanno]
sanso sats- n beautiful woman [tsansho]
sash v persevere, continue; (aux) keep doing [tsach ‘march’]
sath v block, obstruct [tsat]
seda sets- n egg [tsêta]
seç v fight [tsek]
sên v use; (clothes) wear [tsên]
ser v be tight; (slang) be angry [tser]
serur v be loose [‘not tight’]
sev # 83 = 512 [tseb]
sêzh v mine [tsêj]
shakh v tie, fasten, knot [shak]
Shatla n female name [Shalha]
Shaynow n Sarnáe [Sharnôl]
shaynôwno n Sarnáean [Sharnôlno]
she q all, every [shê]
she- + augmentative
shebenôkh v stalk, haunt [augm. of ‘follow’]
shebotêç v be packed [augm. of ‘full’]
shêç adv very, much, a lot [shêk ‘too much’]
shedhiw adv too much [‘exceeding’]
shedweron v be miserable, be awful [augm. of ‘unlucky’]
shedzits v be stark raving mad, be bonkers [augm. of ‘crazy’]
sheghith 0 v deceive, trick [augm. of ‘be cunning’]
sheghyakh v fume, seethe [augm. of ‘complain’]
sheglêth v chatter, prattle [augm. of ‘say’]
shêftoth v must; be necessary [‘order’ + ‘go’]
sheglof v be in pain [augm. of ‘feel’]
sheglosh v be terrified [augm. of ‘fear’]
shegosh v stay as refugees or exiles [augm. of ‘stay’]
shejath v kowtow, prostrate oneself [augm. of ‘bow’]
shêksha n tail; penis [shêgtha]
shela pron everything [shêla]
shemwosh v thrash, twist [augm. of ‘wiggle’]
shemwôth 0 v be obese, bloated [augm. of ‘fat’]
sheno pron every man, everyone [shêno]
shêsh n peak, summit [shech]
sheshikh v be skinny, gaunt, emaciated [augm. of ‘thin’]
sheshiw pron everywhere [shêshil]
shêth v exceed, be more than [‘be too much’]
shetôsh v obsess about, over-focus on [augm. of ‘perceive’]
shetsu adv yes, of course [shêtsu ‘entirely’]
shêv prep by order of, according to [shêb]
shiçar n rock, stone [shikhar]
shiçaydo n rocky [shikhardo]
shide pron you (s. resp.) [shit(h)e ‘that one’]
shikh v be thin [tik]
shikhno n thin man; (slang) mate, pal
shim v march; travel for work (e.g. trading) [tim]
shin n be content, happy; peaceful [shtin ‘favorable’]
shiŋgera n anchor [Caď. tindigeda]
shir n pad, home (desp. slang)
shish v leaf [shich]
shishidhe pr you (pl. resp.)
shits v be sharp [tits]
shivno n companion, mate [timno]
shivnodzu n age cohort within a kukla [augm. of shivno]
shivnomu n companionship, brotherhood
shkath v harvest, reap [shkat]
shkêf v be torn, ragged; dilapidated, worn [shkêp]
shkhôn v row [tkun]
shkono n earth magic [shkono]
Shkónoro n the main river of Sarnáe [Shkónodo ‘magical’]
shmats v smear; insult [shmats]
shmaw n north [shmal]
shmeth n poncho, tunic [shmet]
shne prep in front of, next to [shne]
shnedemaf 0 v watch, monitor observe; tend (flocks) [‘next.to-see’]
shnejaw 0 v accompany, suit, fit [shnechal]
shnegemor v place next to; add
shnegzhuth 0 v approach, come closer [shnektut]
shôkla n desert [shaklha]
shôklaniw a Tžuro [shaklhanil]
shôklano n a Tžuro or Lenani shaklhano]
shômmaf 0 v peek at, peep at, spy [‘observe below’]
shômmafno n spy
shômmapwo n espionage
shômpeç v rape [‘forbidden-mate’]
shono pr he (resp.)
shôntoth v trespass, go outside the boundaries [‘forbidden-go’]
shôŋklêth 0 v blaspheme, speak treacherously [‘forbidden-speak’]
shora n wheat [shora]
shoshono pr they (m. resp.)
shoshozh pr they (resp.)
shoshozho pr they (f. resp)
shozho pr she (resp.)
shrenu n clock [Keb. śerenu]
shtêç v be enough, sufficient
shtêruç v not be enough, be insufficient
shtêth v change, vary [shtêt]
shujyosh n court [Caď. sudros]
shujyoshno n lawyer, court official
shuzh v paddle, splash around [tuj]
shuzhno n iliu [tujno]
shuzho n ilisea, iliu female [tujsho]
shwath n be sitting [shpât]
shwêm # zero [shpêm]
shwôth v be solid, be firm [shpôt]
sibla sits- n bird [tsipla]
siblaghine n barbarian (despective term) [‘horse-bird’]
sif v sing [dzip]
sifno n male singer
siklo # 86 = 262144 [tsiklho]
sin v walk [tsin]
sipso n female singer
sith v be variegated in pattern, like a snake’s skin [tsit]
Sogat n a goddess, wife of Gelálh [Tsôkálh]
sôkh v be born [tsôk]
sôm v destroy, ruin [tsôm]
som v be loud [tsum]
sor sots- n harness [tsor]
sôth v capture; imprison [tsot]
sôthoghno n prisoner, captive
sukh v know (persons), be acquainted with [tsuk]
sush v rot, spoil [tsuch]
syekath # 100 [Sarroc siecaȟ]
syêç # 6 [Sarroc sieȟ]
tabwi n valley [tabmi]
tadha n bay, gulf [tatha]
taf n seize, take [tap]
tadaf n loot, pillage [intensive of tap]
tadapwo n loot, pillaging
taji n deer [tachi]
takh v lead (a team), manage, boss [tâk]
takhno n (male) boss [tâkno]
tath # one [tat]
têç v be black; be full or rich (in flavor etc.) [tek]
tedit n pocket watch [Keb. otedit]
tên n water [tân]
têndo n watery [tândo]
tênka n ice [tênka]
tênkano n elcar [tênkano]
tênkath v be wet, liquid
teshir n alphabet [Tžuro tettir]
têts v be cold; (aux) do sloppily or unenthusiastically [têts]
têwgha n nose [telgra]
thef v eat [thep]
Thôgwa n male name [Thagma]
thôm prep to the right of [thom]
tlajiw pr which
tlash pr what [lhach]
tlashno pr who [lhach + -no]
tlath prep with (accompanying) [lhât]
tlathpeth v consult with [‘speak with’]
tlath v attack [tlhat]
tle n sea, ocean [tlhe]
Tleçer n a tributary of the Shkónoro (V. Lëbo) [Lhekher]
tlêçta n reed [lhekta]
tlêfna n snail [llepna]
Tlegash n the Mišicama ocean [Tlhekâsh‘great sea’]
Tleja n female name [Lheja]
tlêkath v be rude, impertinent, uncivilized [lhektakath]
tliçna n animal [lhikna]
tlim a other, another [lhim]
tlim she one another
tlôkh v be easy; comfortable, pleasant [lhôk]
tlôkhmo n ease; comfort, pleasantness
tlôkwo n death [lhukmu]
tlôr q some [lhôr]
tloruth adv not even that [‘not at least’]
tloth v be yellow [lhot]
tlôth adv at least [lhôt]
tlôv n enemy [lhôb]
tlôyla pron some things [lhôrla]
tlôyno pron some men [lhôrno]
tlôyshiw pron some places [lhôrshil]
tluba n path, trail, way [lhuba]
tluchyêm n collar [lhutrêm]
tlukh v be dead [lhuk ‘die’]
tôkli n afternoon [taklhi]
tôkso n (male) boss [tâkno]
tono n paragraph [Sarroc touno]
tôsh v perceive, notice; learn about [tôch]
toth v go; (aux) intend to, be taking care of [tot]
Toth wigo. Goodbye (sup.)
Doth bigo. Goodbye (inf.)
tôtwo n departure [totmu]
tsajaw 0 v live, be alive [chachal ‘keep existing’]
tsakh v name, call [chak]
tsakh A B klêth C A names B ‘C’
Tsakhwashi n a goddess, associated with the sea [Chakprashi]
tsaliw a true, real [chalil]
tsaruliw a false, unreal [charulil]
tsama tsaj- n night [chama]
tsamashe a nightly; nocturnal [chamashê]
tsatwe tsaj- n ashes [chatme]
tsaw v be (existential), exist; there is/are [chal]
Dzaw bigoshiw dzide. Hello (to inf.)
Tsaw bigoshiw shide. Hello (to sup.)
tsaydesh tsaj- n compass [Tžuro čardeše]
tsegeth tsej- n rapids [cheket]
tsêkso tsej- n sister [cheksho]
tsêm tsej- n ass, buttocks; (insulting) slut, piece of tail [châm]
tsen tsej- n place, location [chên]
tsenat tsej- n temple [chênalh]
tsêçno tsej- n brother [chekno]
tsidha n tooth [chidha]
tsif v shoot or fire (projectiles) [chip]
tsiga tsij- n sand [chika]
tsigaro n sandy
tsim tsij- n spear [ktsem]
tsir v light; clear, understandable [chir]
tsôm v fondle, handle [chôm ‘hug’]
tson v pull, tug [chun]
tsôn v be dark; be gray [chôn]
tsor v be slow [chur]
tsoth v be small, little [chot]
tsothash v be tiny [intensive of ‘small’]
tsôthno tsoj- n shorty [chotno]
tsôyla pr that near thing
tsôyno pr that far male
tsôyso pr that far female
tsuf v sow [tsup]
tsukh v care for (medically) [chuk]
tsukhno tsuj- n physician [chukno]
tsuth v help, assist; guide [chut]
tsuthno n helper, guide; mentor
tuyza n crap, poop [Sarroc tuiza ‘shit’]
uççi prep in back of, behind [ukki]
uççigêgh v fuck in the ass
uda n star [uta]
udadzu n planet [utadzu]
uvno m- n iron [umno]
Uvnorinwe n a river in western Demóshimor [Umnorinwe ‘iron source’]
uw ul- + lord [ul]
uy interj oh (indicates recognition or surprise or marks dispreferreds)
vawtlaka n claim, boast [Sarroc vaotlaca]
wa cj or [wa]
waja n clay; paper (informal for document) [wacha]
wamin cj or (for clauses) [wamen]
wêdla n lizard [wetla]
wen pron your (inf.) [-wên E possessive]
wêtla n stake, pole [welha]
wêyga n bread; meal, food [werga]
wi- + diminutive (weakens meanings of verbs) [wi-]
wibedoth v be embarrassed, be embarrassing [dim. of ‘shame’]
wibenakh 0 v poke, push [dim. of ‘thrust’]
wibon v be warm [dim. of ‘hot’]
wibwoth v stray, be naughty or wayward [dim. of ‘sin’]
wiçish v doubt, be unsure [dim. of ‘know’]
widêç v be dark; be comfortable
widênkath v be moist, humid [dim. of ‘wet’]
widêts v be cool; do sketchily or breezily
widoth 0 v visit [dim. of ‘go’]
widotwo n visit
widzits v be wacky, whimsical [dim. of ‘crazy’]
wigemoth v smile at, find amusing [dim. of ‘mock’]
wighindemaf v neglect, barely attend to [dim. of ‘ignore’]
wighyith v hope [dim. of ‘want’]
wighyitwo n hope
wiglom v stumble [dim. of ‘fall’]
wignêth v be pale; be of little use [dim. of ‘white’]
wigo pron I (s. resp.) [wiko ‘this one’]
wighzowor wikdh- v surprise, be somewhat odd [dim. of ‘unexpected’]
wijosh v be similar [witloch]
wijimla n request [dim. + jimla]
wimets v be nice, be all right [dim. of ‘good’]
wimwôkh v fall back, retreat [dim. of ‘lose’]
wimwôth v be portly, stout [dim. of ‘fat’]
winyif v flick, snap [dim. of ‘toss’]
wiriç v nap, rest [dim. of ‘sleep’]
wiseç v tease [dim. of ‘fight’]
Wíshegôr n Visecra [Wishekôr]
wishikh v be lean [dim. of ‘thin’]
wishim v wander, roam [dim. + ‘march’]
witsim v ask for, request [dim. + chim]
wiwigo pr we (resp.)
wôkh v be second [wôk]
wôm- + extreme pejorative prefix [wum-]
woçiw a second [wôkil]
wôychêf v respect, defer to [‘act carefully’]
wôyjêpwo n respect, deference; dignity
wôytsin v sneak; tread carefully [wortsin ‘walk carefully’]
yeshthil n pen [Sarroc yesṫil]
yewsh v fail, lose [Sarroc ieswir]
yosi # 8 [Sarroc yoisi]
zankho zadz- n throat [dzankho]
zêjiw zedz- n mine [dzêjshil]
zekwo n fight, fighting
zênwo n usage [dzênmu]
zêpwe n edge, border [dzêpwe]
zeragh zedz- n shirt, blouse [dzerag]
zh cj and [zh]
zhakh n sword [kzhak]
zhakhno n swordsman, soldier [kzhakno]
zhan pron when [zhan]
zhdêtwu n change, variation [zhdêtmu]
zhdosh adv also, as well [zh chosh ‘and the same’ = likewise]
zhêdla pron anything, something [zhêtla]
zhêgwe n rabbit [zhêkwe]
zhejiw pron anywhere, somewhere [zhêchil]
zhêthno pron anyone, someone (m.) [zhêtno ]
zhêthno at a person, an individual
zhetsu adv well, uh huh, sure (extends turn, fills gaps in speech, exrpesses mild agreement) [‘and yes’]
zhidhiw prep with, having [nzhidhiw ‘owning’]
zhgatwo n harvest; fall, autumn [zhgatmu]
zhghôno n sailor [dgunno ‘rower’]
zhghônla n oar [dgunla]
zhiçne n arrow [zhikne]
zhithna n seed [ditna]
zhmath n winter [zhmat]
zhmin cj and, moreover (for clauses) [zhmen]
zhôgla n rope [zhakmla]
zhôkwo n knot, tie, fastening [zhakmu]
zipwo n song, singing [dzipmu]
ziw zidz- n clothes, clothing; outfit [dzil]
zôdla n cage, cell [‘capture-thing’]
zodzono pr they (m. inf.)
zodzozh pr they (inf.)
zodzozho pr they (f. inf)
zôfto zodz- n fish; also includes iliu and šipomi [dzôpto]
zojiw pron there (distal) [dzojil]
zôkwo n birth [dzôkmu]
zombeth 0 v respond, answer [dzunpet]
zombetwo n response, answer [dzunbetmu]
zômwo n destruction, ruin [dzômmu]
zon prep back to [dzun]
zonchêf v respond (to an action), take counter-measures [‘back-move’]
zontoth v move back to, return to
zono pr he (inf.)
zoŋgemor v replace, put back
zoŋkshuth v come back, return
zôtwo n capture; imprisonment [dzotmu]
zozh pron it [dzoj ‘that one’]
zozho pr she (inf.)
zuchwo n rottenness, spoilage [dzuchmu]


Virtual Verduria